Imágenes de páginas

time, have ceased to be.



For every dollar given by the Slater fund not only another dollar has come to help it but more than a dollar."

The large farms usually attached to the institutions for the colored race, the industrial habitudes of that race, and the terms of the act of August 30, 1890, have invited or compelled attention to agricultural operations. The difficulties attending the introduction of this study in schools for the whites were greater than in the case of the schools for the colored; indeed the training given by the agricultural courses of the schools for colored persons has been much more adapted to making laborers than scientific agriculturists.

For colored girls the usual manual training given to white girls is quite appropri ate. Cooking and dressmaking are particularly well adapted as studies to those who very frequently make their living as servants or seamstresses. Quite an effort is being made to introduce nurse training and in several institutions courses have been established, as at Central Tennessee College where arrangements have been made for a course consisting of two parts, one, nonprofessional, of two years, and one, professional, running through a third year.


The biographies of the teachers in the institutions for the education of the colored race would be a detailed history of the struggle for the instruction of that race. It has never happened in the history of education that so many difficulties had to be overcome as in the case of carrying the war for education into Africa, and it was natural, perhaps necessary, that enthusiasm should ripen into devotion, and even fortify itself in fanaticism. But the personal trials and victories of the past and present can not be recounted here; they must be looked for in Dr. Barnard's report on education in the District of Columbia, in General Armstrong's Twenty Years of Work at Hampton, and in other works of a similar nature.

After the lapse of a quarter of a century, it is natural to suppose that much of the teaching done in schools for the colored race should be by persons from among themselves. The figures from 76 institutions justify such an expectation, for they show that of the 1,010 teachers in them one-third (373) are colored men and women. Still confining attention to the institutions for the education of the colored race, it appears that, though the white men teachers (225) are equal in number to the colored men teachers (221), the white women teachers (412) are very nearly as many as both white and colored men teachers, while for every colored woman teacher there are 3 white women teachers. Comparison with the relative proportion of each sex in the public schools can not be made, as the statistics are not obtainable, but it may be stated as a fact that in cities the colored schools are almost always taught by women, and in the open country by men.

1 Amount and distribution of the sums disbursed from the Slater fund from 1883 to 1892, inclusive.

1883. 1884. 1885. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892.

$2,100 $2, 450 $5,000 $3,800 $1,400 $4,600 $3,600 $3,600 $4,900 $4,700

[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]

North Carolina.

1,000 2, 600 2,000 2,000

4, 100

3, 160



[blocks in formation]


[blocks in formation]

600 600
2,000 3,000
1,000 1,000

4,400 3,600
3,500 2,700

[blocks in formation]



6,500 6,800 6,800 7,400


[blocks in formation]


4, 190

4, 190

1,360 1,360 1,500
3, 150 3, 150 3,150 3,150


[blocks in formation]




[blocks in formation]
[blocks in formation]


16, 250 17, 107 36, 764 30,000 40,000 45,000 44, 31042, 910 49, 65045, 217

The education of these teachers has been accomplished in the various normal schools, academies, colleges, and universities spoken of some pages back. The country schools are incapable of giving an education that will at all qualify the pupil for the position of a teacher of even a colored school, and unless there be a high school in the city having a quasi system of schools for their colored population the urban public school is also incapable of accomplishing the same fact. The strenuous efforts now being made to improve the character of the white teaching corps by uniform examinations will probably result in securing a higher grade of teachers for the schools for the rural districts, in which the negro population is mostly situated, and better supervision will result in more thorough teaching and more businesslike management.

There are three great funds, aggregating $4,000,000, the interest of which may be used in promoting the education of persons to fill positions as public-school teachers in the Southern States. Two of these funds are specifically for the colored race and the other is for the people of the whole South. In addition to these, there is the fund arising from the sale of lands given by Congress in 1862, which generally reaches the normal schools for colored pupils in the form of a State appropriation, and finally there is the quota, fixed by Federal law, drawn from the $25,000 annually appropriated to each State by the act of Congress of August 30, 1890, which has so far gone to help the resources of the State normal schools for colored children which are thus compelled to add an industrial feature to their establishment. But most important of all, since it is extensible and therefore may be made commensurate with the necessities of the situation, is an appropriation from the State treasury, a resource which has been very effectively used in the North and West, and is by no means unknown in the South.


The dignity and the presumptive emoluments of the professions of law and medicine and the sacredness and the social influence of the minister's calling have naturally excited a desire in many colored persons to engage in a course of study leading to one of the so-called learned professions. The difficulty experienced in America by the schools for instruction in the learned professions is intensified in the case of those for the colored citizen, for very few of their students are scholastically prepared to follow the study they have chosen. This subject, however, is so well worn in the case of the schools for the whites that it would be intolerable to have its intricacies unfolded in connection with a few schools for training the men who are to deal with the life, the property, and the morals of an inferior race that has been forced rather than self-evolved to a plane of theoretic highest civil standing.

In the late slaveholding States there are five schools for the medical education of persons of color. At one of these-that at Washington--some white persons attend, while at the Northern schools for the Caucasian race a number of colored persons are enrolled.

Three institutions are very prominent in the training of physicians for the colored people. These are the Meharry medical department of Central Tennessee College, Howard University medical department, and the Leonard medical department of Shaw University. The Meharry medical department was organized in 1876–1879, through the generosity of the Messrs. Meharry, of Indiana. At that time there was no institution south of the Ohio and the Potomac accessible to the colored race. The Leonard Medical School was established in 1881-82 upon a site given by the State of North Carolina. Both of these Southern institutions have received very substantial aid from the John F. Slater fund. The medical department of Howard University was the first medical school for colored students. It is supported partly by the funds of the university and partly by tuition fees, which are increased by the attendance of white persons who are attracted by the low annual charge for tuition and the excellent instruction and facilities for instruction provided. At Fisk University "it is

hoped that the time is very near at hand when departments of law and medicine can be added to the present lines of educational work of the university."

The course of the schools attached to Howard and New Orleans universities and Central Tennessee College are graded, and are of four years. At Shaw University an annual course of lectures is given. The first three institutions named require proficiency in an English education, all having examinations for admission Central Tennessee College and New Orleans University require the student to study Latin during the junior year. The curriculum of the graded courses comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynecology, pædiatrics, practice, hygiene, medical jurisprudence, ophthalmology, otology, and bacteriology, the difference in the distribution of the studies through the four years being that at the New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the student's attention is confined to anatomy, chemistry, and physiology, while at Howard University physiology, materia medica, therapeutics, microscopy, and histology are introduced. A further difference is also apparent in the placing of the practice of medicine and surgery, which are third-year studies at Howard and fourth-year at the other two institutions. Howard University has upon its own grounds a well-filled hospital. The students of the Central Tennessee College department may attend the Nashville City Hospital. All the schools have clinics. The requirements for graduation are completion of the twenty-first year, of the course of the school, and the payment of fees in full. The fees are $30 or $60 a year. At New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the entire course of four years costs the student $173; at Howard University $223, including all incidental expenses connected with instruction.

Connected with several of these schools are departments of dentistry or pharmacy. The course of the dental departments of Howard University and Central Tennessee College is of three years. The curriculum comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, surgery, operative and prosthetic dentistry, hygiene, and medical jurisprudence, to which Central Tennessee adds metallurgy, dissecting, and materia medica. The expenses are $30 or $60 a year and incidentals.

Three institutions have courses in pharmacy. That of Howard University comprises botany, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, and pharmacy, with a recommendation to study microscopy, which Central Tennessee includes as necessary. To graduate, the student must have attended two years, but to obtain the degree of graduate in pharmacy he must have had two other years of practical experience in compounding and dispensing drugs and medicines in a regular established pharmacy. The charge at Central Tennessee College and Shaw University is $30 annually, not including incidentals; at Howard University, $60.

Among the colored people the study of law has not such a numerous following as the study of medicine. The same phenomenon is present among the Caucasian race of European and American countries, for the impetus given to the public mind by successful biological research and the ills attending a high-pressure system of life have rendered medical assistance advisable as an experiment and even necessary for continued existence.

There are five schools of law especially for colored people. These schools are all connected with a college or university. By far the largest enrollment is in the law department of Howard University, which, holding its sessions at night, gives opportunity to colored clerks and messengers of the public bureaus and to commercial clerks to undertake a course in law. The three schools of the national capital for the whites offer the same advantages to persons of that color whose necessities and ambition oblige them to work and study by day and recite or listen to lectures at night.

The law department of Howard University has been fortunate. It has recently been supplied with a remodeled building opposite the city court-house, through the

generosity of certain members of the New York bar and of C. P. Huntington and J. W. Ambrose, both of New York, and has been named Evarts Hall in recognition of the exertions of the Hon. William M. Evarts in procuring funds for the reconstruction of the old building. It is also fortunate in having Congress, which legislates for the District of Columbia, provide in part for the salaries of four professors— in all, $3,200.

The course of study of this school is not of an advanced character. It is taken for granted that the applicant for admission "has had a good English education and some mental training." But though no preliminary examination is held, that fact "is not to be construed as in any manner lowering the standard of attainments required for graduation," as preliminary examinations are frequently found to work injustice and are unsatisfactory. The course is of two years plus the post-graduate course tacked on to all the law-school courses established in Washington. The first year is spent on Blackstone, real and personal property, contracts, commercial paper, criminal law, and domestic relations; the second on pleading, practice, equity, evidence, and torts. During the third year constitutional limitations on the States, mercantile law, and corporations are taken up. Moot courts are held. The instruction is by the usual assigned reading and quiz method, interspersed with lectures. The faculty is composed of six lecturers.

The law department of Central Tennessee College has a course of two years. To gain admission to its course the candidate must pass a satisfactory examination on all the common English studies, and is advised to take a more extensive course of general study before beginning that of law. The course differs from that of Howard University in that the study of the fundamental divisions of the substantive law share during the first year the time with the law of procedure, and international law (Vattel) is introduced, while during the second year Federal procedure, constitutional limitations, and corporations are taken up and procedure law continued. The faculty is composed of three persons and a dean.

The law department of Allen University has a course of two years, whose sessions, like the schools at Washington, D. C., are held in the afternoon and evening, in order to suit the convenience of students otherwise employed during the earlier portion of the day. The first year is, with the exception of evidence, devoted to substantive law (Blackstone, Kent, contracts, and bills), and to constitutional law. The second year is, with the exception of criminal law and the statutory law of South Carolina, devoted to procedure, considering equity as falling in that category. The faculty appears to be the president of the university. Moot courts are held. During the six years of its existence five classes have been sent out, "a majority of the members meeting with a great degree of success in life."

The law school of Shaw University was established in 1888. Its course is not known. A scholarship of $50 a year will be granted to worthy students who need assistance.

Wilberforce University has a law course of two years, but no students.

"If you were in a Southern village watching the passers-by, you would perhaps sce among them a colored man, strong in body, marked in countenance, an umbrella in one hand and a gripsack in the other. He is always well, always possessed of marvelous powers of endurance, always ready to speak. He is the negro preacher. Examine him and you will find he has never been taught. Is he doing

much preaching? He is preaching a good deal. He has been at it twenty-five years. Multitudes are swayed by his eloquence. Men's, women's, and children's lives and careers are subject to him. He is often the only colored man among them who can read. He is the one man who is looked up to as a leader. His influence extends to the utmost limit of the colored people's life. Here, then, is the colored minister, with many admirable qualities, but with certain deficiencies. Here he is. What ought he to do? He ought to be educated. He ought to undergo a grand work in the three R's, he ought to understand English, the English Bible, English

literature, English history, English doctrine, to speak and to write English, and to explain the Bible in English."1

In August, 1892, the presidents of the schools supported by the Baptist Home Mission Society adopted the following scheme: All students studying for a degree to study at Richmond Theological Seminary, and each school of the society to have a "minister's course":

This course is designed only for those who, from lack of literary training, are unable to take a more extended course, and who, at the same time, are unable, by reason of age and other insurmount able conditions, to secure a thorough literary training. Many ministers engaged in active pastoral work who feel the need of further training will find this course specially adapted to their case. It may, ordinarily, be completed in a year. No person will be allowed to pursue this course in the Richmond Theological Seminary except residents of the State of Virginia. Certificates will be given to such as complete the course in a satisfactory manner. The instruction to be given is to be included under the following heads:


The work done under this head is to be strictly Biblical. No time is to be spent upon speculations about the Bible. The study of Divine truth itself and the best methods of communicating this truth to the minds and hearts of others are to occupy the entire attention. The inductive method of instruction is to be pursued, and the special aim of the work is to accomplish the following ends: (a) To permeate the minds and hearts of the students with the spirit and power of Divine truth. (b) To give to the students a general but comprehensive knowledge of the Bible as a whole.

(c) To impart to the students a correct method of studying the Scriptures, and practical and effective methods of conveying Bible truth to the minds and hearts of other persons varying in age, capacity, and mental training.

In seeking to accomplish these three ends in the most successful manner, the following order of study and of imparting instruction is to be pursued:

(1) The study and application of (a) Bible stories, (b) Bible characters, (c) consecutive Bible narrative or history.

(2) The study of principles and methods of giving Bible instruction. This exercise includes (a) the study of subjects specially selected, (b) parables, (c) miracles, etc.

(3) The study of the life of Christ, making the gospel of Luke the basis of instruction.

(4) The study and analysis of selected topics and selected books of the Bible.

(5) The systematic study of Bible doctrines as explicitly taught in the Bible itself.


Under this head the teachings of the Bible in reference to the family are to be carefully studied and enforced in a practical way. The following order is pursued:

(1) The teachings of the New Testament upon marriage.

(2) The Scripture teachings regarding the reciprocal duties and responsibilities of husband and wife.

(3) The Scripture teachings in reference to the relation of parents and children. (a) The father's position in the family and his special responsibilities; (b) the mother's position and her responsibili ties; (c) home surroundings, what they should be, and how to make them such; (d) The children in the home, and their duties and responsibilities to their parents and to each other.

(4) Rights, duties, and responsibilities of employers and employees as taught in the Word of God.


In this department instruction is to be given on everything that pertains to a well-organized working church.

Special attention will be given to the peculiar needs of small country churches and mission stations. The instruction is to be of the most practical nature. It is to be accompanied also by such church work upon the part of the students as will fix it firmly in their minds. The following presents the order of study and instruction:

(1) The nature of church organization as taught in the New Testament: (a) The elder, bishop, presbyter, minister, or pastor-his office, his qualification, and his duties and responsibilities, both private and public; (b) the deacons, their office, qualifications, and duties; (c) deaconesses, their place and work in the church; (d) church members, their relations to the minister or pastor, also to each other, and their special work and responsibilities; (e) church order and discipline.

(2) Church helps as a part of church organization: (a) All helps are to be regarded as subordinate to the church itself; (b) societies, Christian association, young people's union, Christian endeavor society, literary society, home and foreign missionary society, mission circle, mission band and tem perance society, etc.

1 Rev. A. L. Phillips, secretary for colored evangelization for the Southern General Assembly, Presbyterian Church, in Second Mohonk Conference, pp. 33-35.

« AnteriorContinuar »