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annually given to the States thickly populated with negroes, for their industrial education, may be looked to to supply men capable of conducting an industrial business. It has been through the avenues of trade that an inferior people rise to a higher condition. Trade brings wealth, wealth leisure, and leisure the opportunity, if not the desire, for culture.
As taught in the schools for the colored race about the year 1893, the industrial instruction had the following forms, to wit: The manual training or education by work idea; trade teaching of the mechanic trades; agriculture; printing; and, for girls, housework, including sewing and nurse training.
At Tougaloo University, in accordance with the general plan of the Slater fund, a change was recently made in the form of the industrial work, especial attention being given to manual training with a view to the general culture of mind and hand. This change consisted in the establishment of a two-years course of woodwork of an hour to an hour and a half a day for the seventh and eighth grades, covering the processes and principles of working in wood and with woodworking tools. The exercises are graded, running from the simple to the more difficult, the aim being to adapt them to the mental capacity of the student as well as to his dexterity, and to make them a helpful part of his school work. Each student has a blue print of his work before him. A course in woodwork adapted to the fifth and sixth grades, and a course in ironwork for the ninth grade, is to follow it, while for the tenth and eleventh grades a course of mechanical drawing is to be provided. Straight University also has felt the Slater impetus toward a more concentrated method of manual instruction, and has likewise established a two-years course in woodwork for the seventh and eighth grades, with the same features of the course at Tougaloo University. In fact, the course as explained by Tougaloo and worked out in the following programme may be considered as the Slater course of manual training:
Seventh grade (limited to square work).-Planing to a true surface; laying out work (including measuring with the rule and marking with knife and gauge); sawing to the line; boring; gluing; driving nails and screws; sandpapering; making box joint, dado, mortise, tenon, and groove.
Eighth grade (especially bended or curved work).-Making miter joint (square, octagon, and hexagon); regular and irregular bevels (using steel square); scarf joint, dovetail; laying out curved work; planing and chiseling curved surfaces; sawing curved lines; bending by sawing and steaming; making round forms.
At Fisk University, after the manual training course of two years has been completed the "principles" inculcated are applied during a third year in building and cabinetmaking, while during both the second and third years the nature and use of paints, varnishes, stains, and polishes are taught. In addition to the aid from the Slater fund aid was also received from the Daniel Hand fund in establishing this "new line" of work. It will be seen that the remunerative or practical feature has not been disregarded at this university. At several institutions supported in part by the proceeds from the sale of public lands belonging to the United States and at the comparatively well endowed Atlanta University quite ambitious efforts are being made to inaugurate a system of practical technological instruction much above the average for colored schools. Indeed, at Central Tennessee College there is a course of study in mechanical engineering of four years, though no one has availed himself of it.
But the form of manual training that has been in vogue in the independent or isolated schools for the negro in the past has been of quite another form. The institutions giving this instruction drew their aid from the revenues provided by generous persons interested in the welfare of the negro, and as their attendance increased quite frequently their classes in carpentry and in bricklaying, and in agriculture were utilized in building new and in enlarging or repairing old structures, or in working the fields for garden produce. Sometimes the blacksmithing and wheel
wrighting of the neighborhood was done; but in general it may be said that the work of the trade classes had a double object in view-instruction of the pupils, and the enlargement or repair of the institution or the cultivation of its grounds. Not that the object of the institution was at all mercenary, but because that was about the only way in which any remuneration could be gotten by the institution out of the labor of its students; if not in this way, then failure.
This species of manual instruction is of varied nature: Carpentry, bricklaying and brickmaking, blacksmithing, painting, and printing for men; cooking, dressmaking, and in general housewifery for women. It is doubtful if a better illustration of this object, and methods of the institution giving this character of instruction, can be found than the following announcement:
The industrial work is carried on in connection with a four years' course of academic work designed to give a thorough English education. With these objects are kept in view, viz:
(1) To teach the dignity of labor.
(2) To teach the students how to work, giving them a trade when thought best.
(3) To enable students to pay a portion of their expenses in labor.
At present the most developed of the industries are:
Agriculture. This department controls two farms of 680 and 800 acres, respectively. The funds at command will not allow much outlay in new experimental farming. The special effort, therefore, is to give the students lessons in common, practical farming. The farms not only furnish an object lesson and valuable employment to students, but supply largely the demands of the school.
Brickmaking.-On the farm have been found extensive beds of clay suitable for making bricks. From these beds the school has been able to make bricks enough to build five substantial buildings for school uses, and to sell many to neighbors. The bricks are made and laid by students, thus reducing the cash outlay for buildings to the minimum.
Carpentry. The students are taught to do all kinds of work, such as building cottages, fences, repairing buildings, making and repairing furniture, etc. Of the many buildings on the grounds, most of the work has been done by boys of this department.
Fainting. Painting of buggies and graining are emphasized. House painting is regularly done. Many buggies and carts for the town and country are brought in and painted.
Printing. In this office are printed the catalogues, "Southern Letter," "Student," and much job work for the school and the surrounding country.
Blacksmithing and wheelwrighting.-These departments do all the work for the school and farm, and much for the town and country.
Tinsmithing, shoemaking, and harness making.-Harness work for the neighborhood, as well as for the school farm, is done. The students' shoes are repaired and all the roofing of the institution is done.
Sawmill.-One of the most useful of the industrial occupations is that in connection with the sawmill. A large part of the farm is covered with pine forest.
Wages. The rate of wages is according to the age of the student and the real value of his work. The arrangements are such that students lose nothing in their classes by working out a part of their expenses. At the end of each month a bill is given to every student showing what he may owe the school or what the school may owe him.
A very favorable statement of the condition of trade teaching is given by Howard University. There the industrial department occupies an entire building, 40 by 75 feet, of two stories and basement, and the students in the preparatory and normal departments practice in the methods of certain trades at specified hours. The work in each department is done under the personal direction of a skilled workman, and with the advantage of first-class tools.
Before leaving the subject of trade teaching in the isolated schools for the colored race it is necessary that certain remarks of Dr. Haygood, in his last report (1891) to the trustees of the Slater fund, should be reproduced. They are as follows:
"If there had been no Slater fund, much by this time would have been done in industrial education in these schools; but every informed person knows that the help and encouragement of this great benevolence has furnished the inspiration and driving force of this vital movement. But for the friendship won to some of these schools through the industries fostered by the Slater money they would, by this
time, have ceased to be.
For every dollar given by the Slater fund not
The large farms usually attached to the institutions for the colored race, the industrial habitudes of that race, and the terms of the act of August 30, 1890, have invited or compelled attention to agricultural operations. The difficulties attending the introduction of this study in schools for the whites were greater than in the case of the schools for the colored; indeed the training given by the agricultural courses of the schools for colored persons has been much more adapted to making laborers than scientific agriculturists.
For colored girls the usual manual training given to white girls is quite appropriate. Cooking and dressmaking are particularly well adapted as studies to those who very frequently make their living as servants or seamstresses. Quite an effort is being made to introduce nurse training and in several institutions courses have been established, as at Central Tennessee College where arrangements have been made for a course consisting of two parts, one, nonprofessional, of two years, and one, professional, running through a third year.
THE TEACHING FORCE.
The biographies of the teachers in the institutions for the education of the colored race would be a detailed history of the struggle for the instruction of that race. It has never happened in the history of education that so many difficulties had to be overcome as in the case of carrying the war for education into Africa, and it was natural, perhaps necessary, that enthusiasm should ripen into devotion, and even fortify itself in fanaticism. But the personal trials and victories of the past and present can not be recounted here; they must be looked for in Dr. Barnard's report on education in the District of Columbia, in General Armstrong's Twenty Years of Work at Hampton, and in other works of a similar nature.
After the lapse of a quarter of a century, it is natural to suppose that much of the teaching done in schools for the colored race should be by persons from among themselves. The figures from 76 institutions justify such an expectation, for they show that of the 1,010 teachers in them one-third (373) are colored men and women. Still confining attention to the institutions for the education of the colored race, it appears that, though the white men teachers (225) are equal in number to the colored men teachers (221), the white women teachers (412) are very nearly as many as both white and colored men teachers, while for every colored woman teacher there are 3 white women teachers. Comparison with the relative proportion of each sex in the public schools can not be made, as the statistics are not obtainable, but it may be stated as a fact that in cities the colored schools are almost always taught by women, and in the open country by men.
1Amount and distribution of the sums disbursed from the Slater fund from 1883 to 1892, inclusive.
1883. 1884. 1883. 1886. 1887. 1888. 1889. 1890. 1891. 1892.
$2,100 $2, 450 $5,000 $3,800 $1,400 $1,600 $3,600 $3,600 $4,900 $4,700
800 800 9,700
2, 600 2,000
3, 150 3, 150
District of Columbia.
10, 250 17, 107 36, 764 30,000 40,000 45,000 44, 310 42, 910 49, 650 45, 217
The education of these teachers has been accomplished in the various normal schools, academies, colleges, and universities spoken of some pages back. The country schools are incapable of giving an education that will at all qualify the pupil for the position of a teacher of even a colored school, and unless there be a high school in the city having a quasi system of schools for their colored population the urban public school is also incapable of accomplishing the same fact. The strenuous efforts now being made to improve the character of the white teaching corps by uniform examinations will probably result in securing a higher grade of teachers for the schools for the rural districts, in which the negro population is mostly situated, and better supervision will result in more thorough teaching and more businesslike management.
There are three great funds, aggregating $4,000,000, the interest of which may be used in promoting the education of persons to fill positions as public-school teachers in the Southern States. Two of these funds are specifically for the colored race and the other is for the people of the whole South. In addition to these, there is the fund arising from the sale of lands given by Congress in 1862, which generally reaches the normal schools for colored pupils in the form of a State appropriation, and finally there is the quota, fixed by Federal law, drawn from the $25,000 annually appropriated to each State by the act of Congress of August 30, 1890, which has so far gone to help the resources of the State normal schools for colored children which are thus compelled to add an industrial feature to their establishment. But most important of all, since it is extensible and therefore may be made commensurate with the necessities of the situation, is an appropriation from the State treasury, a resource which has been very effectively used in the North and West, and is by no means unknown in the South.
The dignity and the presumptive emoluments of the professions of law and medicine and the sacredness and the social influence of the minister's calling have naturally excited a desire in many colored persons to engage in a course of study leading to one of the so-called learned professions. The difficulty experienced in America by the schools for instruction in the learned professions is intensified in the case of those for the colored citizen, for very few of their students are scholastically prepared to follow the study they have chosen. This subject, however, is so well worn in the case of the schools for the whites that it would be intolerable to have its intricacies unfolded in connection with a few schools for training the men who are to deal with the life, the property, and the morals of an inferior race that has been forced rather than self-evolved to a plane of theoretic highest civil standing.
In the late slaveholding States there are five schools for the medical education of persons of color. At one of these-that at Washington--some white persons attend, while at the Northern schools for the Caucasian race a number of colored persons are enrolled.
Three institutions are very prominent in the training of physicians for the colored people. These are the Meharry medical department of Central Tennessee College, Howard University medical department, and the Leonard medical department of Shaw University. The Meharry medical department was organized in 1876-1879, through the generosity of the Messrs. Meharry, of Indiana. At that time there was no institution south of the Ohio and the Potomac accessible to the colored race. The Leonard Medical School was established in 1881-82 upon a site given by the State of North Carolina. Both of these Southern institutions have received very substantial aid from the John F. Slater fund. The medical department of Howard University was the first medical school for colored students. It is supported partly by the funds of the university and partly by tuition fees, which are increased by the attendance of white persons who are attracted by the low annual charge for tuition and the excellent instruction and facilities for instruction provided. At Fisk University "it is
hoped that the time is very near at hand when departments of law and medicine can be added to the present lines of educational work of the university."
The course of the schools attached to Howard and New Orleans universities and Central Tennessee College are graded, and are of four years. At Shaw University an annual course of lectures is given. The first three institutions named require proficiency in an English education, all having examinations for admission Central Tennessee College and New Orleans University require the student to study Latin during the junior year. The curriculum of the graded courses comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, therapeutics, obstetrics, gynecology, pædiatrics, practice, hygiene, medical jurisprudence, ophthalmology, otology, and bacteriology, the difference in the distribution of the studies through the four years being that at the New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the student's attention is confined to anatomy, chemistry, and physiology, while at Howard University physiology, materia medica, therapeutics, microscopy, and histology are introduced. A further difference is also apparent in the placing of the practice of medicine and surgery, which are third-year studies at Howard and fourth-year at the other two institutions. Howard University has upon its own grounds a well-filled hospital. The students of the Central Tennessee College department may attend the Nashville City Hospital. All the schools have clinics.
The requirements for graduation are completion of the twenty-first year, of the course of the school, and the payment of fees in full. The fees are $30 or $60 a year. At New Orleans University and Central Tennessee College the entire course of four years costs the student $173; at Howard University $223, including all incidental expenses connected with instruction.
Connected with several of these schools are departments of dentistry or pharmacy. The course of the dental departments of Howard University and Central Tennessee College is of three years. The curriculum comprises anatomy, physiology, microscopy, histology, chemistry, materia medica, therapeutics, surgery, operative and prosthetic dentistry, hygiene, and medical jurisprudence, to which Central Tennessee adds metallurgy, dissecting, and materia medica. The expenses are $30 or $60 a year and incidentals.
Three institutions have courses in pharmacy. That of Howard University comprises botany, chemistry, toxicology, materia medica, and pharmacy, with a recommendation to study microscopy, which Central Tennessee includes as necessary. To graduate, the student must have attended two years, but to obtain the degree of graduate in pharmacy he must have had two other years of practical experience in compounding and dispensing drugs and medicines in a regular established pharmacy. The charge at Central Tennessee College and Shaw University is $30 annually, not including incidentals; at Howard University, $60.
Among the colored people the study of law has not such a numerous following as the study of medicine. The same phenomenon is present among the Caucasian race of European and American countries, for the impetus given to the public mind by successful biological research and the ills attending a high-pressure system of life have rendered medical assistance advisable as an experiment and even necessary for continued existence.
There are five schools of law especially for colored people. These schools are all connected with a college or university. By far the largest enrollment is in the law department of Howard University, which, holding its sessions at night, gives opportunity to colored clerks and messengers of the public bureaus and to commercial clerks to undertake a course in law. The three schools of the national capital for the whites offer the same advantages to persons of that color whose necessities and ambition oblige them to work and study by day and recite or listen to lectures at night.
The law department of Howard University has been fortunate. It has recently been supplied with a remodeled building opposite the city court-house, through the