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5. It shall be the duty of the president, secretary, and treasurer of the association, to appoint annually some competent person to examine the securities of the permanent fund held by the board of trustees, and his certificate showing the condition of the said fund shall be attached to the report of

the board of trustees.

The following amendment to Article III of the constitution has been considered by a committee, and recommended for adoption by the association:

Amend Article III by adding as follows: Section 4. Any association may secure a perpetual membership by the payment of thirty dollars, and shall be entitled to one representative each year for every thirty dollars so paid.

NATIONAL COUNCIL OF EDUCATION.

CONSTITUTION.

PREAMBLE.

The National Council of Education shall have for its object the consideration and discussion of educational questions of general interest and public importance, and the presentation through printed reports of the substance of the discussions and the conclusions formulated. It shall be its object to reach and disseminate correct thinking on educational questions, and for this purpose it shall be the aim of the council in conducting its discussions to define and state with accuracy the different views and theories on the subject under consideration, and, secondly, to discover and represent fairly the grounds and reasons for each theory or view, so far as to show as completely as possible the genesis of opinion on the subject. It shall be the duty of the council in pursuance of this object to encourage from all its members the most careful statement of differences in opinion, together with the com. pletest statement of grounds for the same. It shall further require from the chairmen of its committees the careful preservation and presentation of the individual differences of opinion whenever grounds have been furnished for the same by members of their committees. It shall invite the freest discussion of the reports of its committees, and whenever said reports are not so amended as to embody the new suggestions developed by such discussion, any member making such suggestion or objection may put in writing his view and the grounds therefor, and furnish the same to the secretary for the records of the council. It shall prepare through its president, with the aid of the chairmen of the several committees, an annual report to the National Association, setting forth the questions considered by the conncil during the previous year and placing before the association in succinct form the work accomplished. It shall embody in this report a survey of those educational topics which seem to call for any action on the part of the association. The council shall appoint out of its own number committees representing the several departments of education, and thereby facilitate the exchange of opinion among its members on such special topics as demand the attention of the profession or of the public.

ARTICLE I.—Membership.

1. The National Council of Education shall consist of sixty members, selected out of the membership of the National Educational Association. Any member of the association identified with edu cational work is eligible to membership in the council, and after the first election such membership shall continue for six years, except as hereinafter provided.

2. In the year 1885 the board of directors shall elect eight members-four members for six years, two for four years, and two for two years; and the council shall elect eight members-five members for six years, two for four years, and one for two years; and annually thereafter the board of directors shall elect five members and the council five members, each member, with the exception hereinafter provided for (section 5), to serve six years, or until his successor is elected.

3. The annual election of members of the council shall be held in connection with the annual meetings of the association. If the board of directors shall fail, for any reason, to fill its quota of members annually, the vacancy or vacancies shall be filled by the council.

4. The term of service of the several members of the council, chosen at the first election, shall be arranged by the executive committee of the council.

5. The absence of a member from two consecutive annual meetings of the council shall be considered equivalent to resignation of membership, and the council shall fill vacancies caused by absence from the council as herein defined, as well as vacancies caused by death or resignation, for the unexpired term. All persons who have belonged to the council shall, on the expiration of their membership, become honorary members, with the privilege of attending its regular sessions, and participating in its discussions. No State shall be represented in the council by more than eight members.

ARTICLE II.-Fees.

There shall be no fee for membership in the council of education, but each member of it shall secure a membership in the National Educational Association by becoming a life member of the same, or by paying to the treasurer of the association the annual menibership fee of two dollars.

ARTICLE III.-Meetings.

There shall be a regular annual meeting of the council held at the same place as the meeting of the National Association, and at least two days previous to this meeting. There may be special meetings of the council, subject to the call of the executive committee, but the attendance at these meetings shall be entirely voluntary. The regular meeting of the committees shall take place on the days provided for the annual meeting of the council. Meetings of committees may be called at any time by the chairmen of the respective committees, but attendance at such special meetings shall be entirely voluntary. A majority of the council shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at any meeting, whether regular or called; but any less number, exceeding eight members, may constitute a quorum for the transaction of business at the regular annual meeting, as defined in this article.

ARTICLE IV.-Committees.

The general management of the affairs of the council shall be vested in an executive committee composed of the president, vice-president, and secretary of the council, and four other members, all of whom are to be elected by the council at its annual meeting. There shall be twelve standing committees, each consisting of five members. They shall be appointed by the executive committee, and be named as follows:

1. Committee on State school systems.
2. Committee on city school systems.
3. Committee on higher education.
4. Committee on secondary education.

5. Committee on elementary education.
6. Committee on normal education.

7. Committee on technological education.
8. Committee on pedagogics.

9. Committee on moral education.

10. Committee on school sanitation, hygiene, and physical training.
11. Committee on psychological inquiry.

12. Committee on educational reports and statistics.

ARTICLE V.-Duties of standing committees.

The committees of the council shall consider the topics assigned to them, and report on the same; they may select for their deliberations such other questions belonging to their departments as they deem proper to discuss.

Whenever called upon, the committees shall continue the deliberative work of the association on topics assigned to them, or prepare questions to be submitted to that body.

It shall be the duty of the standing committees to observe the new educational experiments and original investigations within the scope of their assigned topics, and report the same from time to time to the president of the council.

ARTICLE VI.-Duties of members of the committees.

The members of the council shall render active service and assistance in the work of the committee to which they have been assigned, and further the general work of the council as much as is in their power. They shall give their attention to the questions submitted to them, and communicate their conclusions in writing to the chairman of the committee.

Meeting of committees for special work.-A half day at each annual session shall be set apart for "Round-table" discussions, and each standing committee may conduct its own meeting separately, inviting, at its pleasure, experts, original investigators, or other persons to present their experience or theoretical views before it, for discussion.

ARTICLE VII.-Duties of the chairmen of committees.

The chairman of each committee shall communicate the questions which are to be discussed to each of the members of his committee, and send them such other communications as may assist them in their work. He shall arrange a suitable plan for an exchange of opinion, and embody the conclusions arrived at in a brief report. He shall, from time to time, inform the secretary of the council of the progress made by his committee. He shall, with the consent of the other members of his committee, arrange special meetings at a convenient time and place. He shall see that the communications, sent in turn to each member of his committee, are promptly forwarded. He shall state distinctly (in the form of questions, when feasible) the topics on which he desires to have a brief expression of opinion from the members of his committee, and embody the substance of their answers in his report.

ARTICLE VIII.-The work of the committees.

The work of the committees of the council shall be carried on in the regular meetings provided for above, and in such special meetings as can be arranged from time to time, according to the pleasure of the committee, and principally in writing, by an exchange of briefly expressed opinions. It shall be the duty of each chairman to devise a plan for the latter. Each member may be required to report on a part of the subject; or the whole topic may be submitted to each member, together with the opinion of the other members that have considered the topic before.

ARTICLE IX.-Duties of the council.

It shall be the duty of the council to further the objects of the National Association, and to use its best efforts to promote the cause of education in general. The council shall assign work to each committee, and receive a report on the same; it shall cause to be published such reports of committees, or part of the same, as in its judgment should be brought to general notice; it shall present, through the president of the council, an annual report of its work to the National Educational Association. Arrangement of annual programme.-The president, in making up the annual programme of exercises, may select any of the twelve standing committees which will, in his opinion, prepare work for the council of the most timely and vital character, and he shall not be limited in his choice by

considerations of routine.

The committee thus reporting may introduce before the council such specialists, experts, original investigators or inventors of new methods as they may deem essential to present effectively their subject-matter before the council for discussion.

ARTICLE X.-Amendments.

This constitution may be altered or amended, at a regular meeting of the council, by a two-thirds vote of the members present, and any provision may be waived at any regular meeting, by unani

mous consent.

By-laws, not in violation of this constitution, may be adopted by a two-thirds vote of the council.

BY-LAWS.

1. Each active member of the council shall pay annually two dollars, to defray the expenses of the council.

2. The secretary shall act as treasurer of the council.

The National Teachers' and the National Educational Association.

ORGANIZATION, MEETINGS, AND OFFICERS.

[The National Teachers' Association was organized at Philadelphia, Pa., 1857. James L. Enos, of Iowa, was chosen chairman, and William E. Sheldon, of Massachusetts, secretary.] ANNUAL MEETINGS AND OFFICERS.

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@International Congress of Education at Chicago in 1893, W. T. Harris, United States Commis sioner of Education, chairman of committee of National Educational Association, in general charge; Dr. James B. Angell, presiding chairman.

Membership.

The following table gives by States the number of members registered at each annual meeting from 1884 to 1894, inclusive:

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Annual membership of the National Educational Association-Continued.

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