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"A very important thing, it seems to me, in dealing with foreigners, is to show them that we Americans appreciate what they have to bring us from the old world. The children in school so often learn to despise the old home that the parents believe that America has only contempt for it. This feeling is a strong obstacle to unity. Make them feel that we appreciate their art, whether in weaving, embroidery, or painting; their literature, whether serious writing or folksongs; their music, their traditions. If you accept and dignify this background, the spiritual heritage of the foreigners, you will do far more to make them good Americans than if you ignore it."

CHAPTER VII

Settlement Houses

1. UNITED NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSES OF NEW YORK

a. List of Officers and Members

UNITED NEIGHBORHOOD HOUSES OF NEW YORK, 70 Fifth avenue, New York City. Judge Thomas C. T. Crain, honorary president; Miss Harriet T. Righter, president; Mr. Gaylord S. White, first vice-president; Mrs. Cyrus Sulzberger, second vicepresident; Mrs. Max Morgenthau, Jr., third vice-president; Mr. Henry W. Taft, fourth vice-president; Miss I. M. Cammann, recording secretary; Mr. George M. La Monte, treasurer; Mary Elizabeth Barr, executive secretary; Mr. Harold Riegelman, counsel.

Following is a list of members of the United Neighborhood Houses of New York:

Armitage House, 451 East 121st street.
Beth-El Sisterhood, 329 East 62d street.

Bowling Green Neighborhood Association, 45 West street.
Brick Church House, 11 West 37th street.

Central Parish House, 420 West 57th street.
Christodora House, 147 Avenue B.
Clark House, 283 Rivington street.
College Settlement, 84 First street.
D. Y. N. T. House, 18 Leroy street.

Eastchester Neighborhood House, Tuckahoe, N. Y.

East Side House, 540 East 76th street.

Education Alliance, 197 East Broadway.

Emanuel Sisterhood of Personal Service, 318 East 82d street.

Federation Settlement, 240 East 105th street.

Free Synagogue Social Service, 36 West 68th street.

Greenwich House, 27 Barrow street.

Haarlem House, 311 East 116th street.

Hartley House, 413 West 46th street.

Henry Street Settlement, 265 Henry street.
Hamilton House (Branch), 72 Market street.
Lincoln House (Branch), 202 West 63d street.
Seventy-ninth Street House, 232 East 79th street.

Hudson Guild, 436 West 27th street.

Jan IIus Neighborhood, 351 East 74th street.
Kennedy House, 423 West 43d street.
Madison House, 216 Madison street.

Meinhard Memorial House, 100 East 101st street.
Music School Settlement, 55 East Third street.

New York Child Welfare Committee, 70 Fifth avenue.
People's University Extension Society, 111 Fifth avenue.
Recreation Rooms and Settlement, 186 Chrystie street.
Richmond Hill House, 28 Macdougal street.

Riis Neighborhood House, 48 Henry street.

Settlement and Church of All Nations, 9 Second avenue.
St. Ambrose Guild, 236 East 111th street.

Stuyvesant and Ninth Streets, Stuyvesant and Ninth streets,
Union Settlement, 237 East 104th street.
University Settlement, 184 Eldridge street.
Welcome House, 319 East 17th street.
Wesley House, 442 East 59th street.

White Door Settlement, 211 Clinton street.
Brooklyn Settlements:

School Settlement, 120 Jackson street.
Willoughby House.

b. Americanization Program Letter from Mr. Harold Riegelman, December 30, 1919: "In accordance with the assurance of co-operation given by the Special Committee of the United Neighborhood Houses of New York, these suggestions are made with respect to the work of the Lusk Committee in the preparation of recommendations tending to further a broad, sound Americanization program within the State of New York.

"It need hardly be said that the following remarks do not cover the field but are confined to those matters with which the Neighborhood Houses are in most intimate contact and are further limited by your intimation that the final recommendations may not seriously conflict with programs already adopted by existing departments of the state government. But it is felt that much can be accomplished under present laws through the exercise by those departments of a discre

tion already vested in them. It is not understood that the only measures in which your committee is interested are those necessitating the enactment of new laws.

"For the sake of clarity this report is divided into two main headings, Specific and General. The former includes constructive suggestions which are favored for adoption. The latter covers considerations which should qualify any proposals submitted to the legislature or departments. "A. Specific.-Americanization is an educational process based upon precept or instruction and actual experience. “I. Instruction.- Efficiency of instruction varies with the personality of the teacher and the method of teaching. "(a) Teachers:

"1. The profession of teaching will not attract and hold the required number of high-type men and women, unless compensation is sufficient to provide a decent living. The compensation is at present insufficient and should be materially increased.

"2. Teachers cannot throw the requisite zeal and enthusiasm into their exacting work if in addition thereto they must turn to other employment in order to eke out a living.

"3. Night school teaching requires exceptional ability to hold interest and impart instruction because of the fact that persons attend such schools generally after a hard day's work. Consequently, their minds are not normally receptive. Such people are chiefly drawn from the foreign-born population. It should not be necessary to employ in this work men and women who have been teaching the major part of the same day and must be fresh for similar work the succeeding day.

"(b) Methods:

"1. The proposal is favored that factory workers who need instruction should be taught on factory time. To accomplish this, there should be educational qualifications fixed, and unless factory employees are able to qualify, the employer should be prohibited from engaging them unless

he provides opportunities at stated intervals, on
factory time, for instruction by teachers desig-
nated by and working under the supervision of
the State Department of Education. The quali-
fications should be limited in the beginning to
the speaking and reading of English. Such a
law
may be made enforceable by means of exist-
ing instrumentalities similar to those now exist-
ing for the enforcement of factory laws.

It

may ultimately become practicable to extend this plan to unskilled labor.

"2. There should be provided facilities to enable the State Department of Education to make use of such agencies as settlement and Neighborhood Houses and Community Centers by making it possible for these organizations to secure trained and fit instructors capable of organizing and conducting groups in English, civics, literature, debating and public speaking; to secure motion pictures illustrative of the history of our country, its industrial, agricultural and social activities, rural life; and also in emphasis of health campaigns; to stage pageants and plays dramatizing historical themes; institute and develop community singing festivals where patriotic songs may be featured.

"3. A special system of instruction should be devised by which American ideals and customs should be taught in connection with classes in English. It should be remembered that except in language and knowledge of local matters, the adult pupils may be as well educated as the teachers. In any event, their minds are mature and methods of instruction cannot be identical with those used for children without causing irritation and creating distaste. The teaching of adults requires special training and understanding. Such training should be provided by the state. "4. In the teaching of the adult, whether in public

schools or through neighborhood co-operation, it is fundamentally important that he understand.

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