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in which there are at least 500 foreigners should have a teacher to take charge of this work in the evening schools, and during such hours of the day as the Legislature might feel it advisable to prescribe. In cities of the third class this teacher might, perhaps, act as the head of the department of history in the day schools. This teacher should be a man. He should, of course, be a college man, and have had extra courses in Americanization after graduation. (I presume that nothing concerning the matter of sex could be written into the law.) Successful previous experience in teaching should be prescribed and some experience in Americanization work would be most desirable.

"It seems to me to get a man of this kind the minimum salary should start at not less than $3,000, with substantial increases after successful experience.

"I might say that this subject has been one that has had a great deal of interest for me for the more than seven years I have been in Cortland. Naturally, I have looked at it from the angle of this locality and of one preparing teachers for the elementary schools.

"I have long desired to have a man of the right type on our faculty to direct the work in history and patriotisni inasmuch as about 20 or 25 percent of the children in our training schools are of foreign parentage. A man of the type I have mentioned would be a valuable asset in giving such courses in patriotism as would be required by elementary teachers. At the same time he could direct the whole Americanization program for the entire city."

3. Myron T. Dana, Principal, State Normal School, Fredonia, January 13, 1920.

"I have delayed answering your favor hoping to inform myself sufficiently on the subject of the educating and Americanizing of adult foreigners to justify an opinion. Owing to a combination of circumstances, I have not been able to do so.

"I consider it a matter the importance of which calls. for the best judgment of educators and legislators. There is at present an unprecedented dearth of teachers and, even at large salaries, it would be difficult, in my opinion, to find teachers who by nature and attainments are prepared to undertake the important work which you name."

4. John C. Bliss, Principal, State Normal School, New Paltz, January 8, 1920.

"I hardly feel competent to advise what the requirements should be in choosing teachers for the work of Americanizing adult foreigners. I am sure of one thing, however, they should be adaptable. Teaching foreigners is vastly different from teaching pupils, no matter if the latter be of the older type. It seems to me that these teachers should be men, that they should have had experience in dealing with men that they may know how a man thinks and what are some of the problems that he meets. Given this understanding on the teacher's part, a pliable mind and disposition, and the ordinary professional requirements, there should be success.

"I have no experience along this line and do not feel competent to pass upon it. Those who have studied the problems are none too well prepared to take up the work. It is a hard job, but the most pressing one that we have."

5. Percy I. Bugbee, Principal, State Normal School, Oneonta, January 6, 1920.

"It seems to me that teachers for the work in question should be teachers who are duly licensed as teachers of public schools in the state, and that they should receive compensation at a rate no less than the rate which they receive as teachers in public schools."

6. James C. Riggs, Principal, State Normal and Training School, Oswego.

"The faculty of the Oswego State Normal School, conscious of the urgent need in our country of a quickening civic consciousness and of the firm establishment in the hearts of all its people, native or adopted, of a compelling patriotism and love of country, record in these resolutions its acceptance of the following:

"1. That all instruction in elementary schools be imparted in English.

"2. That adequate opportunity be given through our school system to all adult immigrants to learn the English language to enable them to more readily grasp the meaning of our institutions and to appreciate their worth.

"3. That contemporaneously with instruction in English, immigrants should be instructed in the nature and purpose of our institutions in any language which they are able to understand.

"4. That it is the duty of every teacher to be at all times fully conscious of his obligation to develop patriotism and good citizenship, and should so frame his thinking and point of view that the consciousness of this duty will be manifest in all his conduct and teaching.

"5. That state normal schools through their faculties endeavor to exert such influence through all their teachings that graduates of these institutions enter their profession with a determined purpose to contribute their part to the strengthening of real Americanism.

"6. That state normal faculties contribute their share in formulating tangible conceptions of patriotism and definite ideals of citizenship.

"With regard to the training of teachers of adult foreigners, the faculty of the Oswego State Normal School expresses the following convictions:

"1. Such teachers should be sufficiently mature to have a thorough grasp of the nature of their problem and possess that sympathy with the foreigner handicapped by a strange environment which will gain his confidence and co-operation.

"2. She should be thoroughly conversant with our social and civic institutions and American ideals.

"3. She should have a reasonable mastery of the technique of teaching and be able to adapt her efforts to the peculiar local problems which she may encounter.

"4. Compensation for the work of such teacher should be sufficient to attract the best members of the profession."

7. George K. Hawkins, Principal, State Normal School, Plattsburg, January 5, 1920.

"It is my judgment that the problem of Americanization in New York State is one that for the most part should be handled by the Education Department of the state. Co-operation of corporations and large employers of labor is, of course, necessary in any scheme.

"I know of no better service that can be enlisted than that of the trained body of high class teachers who are available in every community and would be patriotically willing for small extra compensation to engage in the work. It could probably be articulated reasonably well with their regular duties.

"A plan disassociated from the organized educational activities of the state would be not only very expensive if administered in volume, but would in my opinion be disappointing in results."


Principal Cities of the State Outside of New York City

The following chapter of this report contains information in regard to training for citizenship in New York State outside of New York City. It does not claim to be comprehensive, but it is representative. It contains all the information obtainable from the superintendents of schools in cities having a population over 10,000, and a few others. The views of the superintendents, although more or less fragmentary, indicate the nature of their problems, the tendency of their efforts and their desire to co-operate with the State Department of Education. of interest here to call attention to the fact that many educational authorities throughout the country, in response to the request of this Committee for their suggestions in regard to citizenship training and immigrant education, implied that it would be carrying coals to Newcastle to make such suggestions to New York State, where the best methods in the country are already being employed, according to their views.

1. Albany

C. Edward Jones, Superintendent of Schools.
The population of Albany is about 112,000.

It may be

The leading industries employing foreign-born labor are the railroad shops and the iron and steel foundries.

Only one factory conducts classes for its foreign-born, the average age being somewhere between thirty and forty.

Americanization work is being done by the Board of Education and by the State of New York.

The requirements for teachers of adult foreigners is the completion of the Americanization course in the State College for Teachers.

The Board of Education of the City of Albany in the fall of 1919 published a handbill announcing school courses for the season. The following paragraph from this handbill contains a unique idea:

"All courses are free, but a registration fee of one dollar will be collected for each Academic, Commercial and Vocational Course. This will be returned at the close of the

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