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The National Association of Manufacturers published a booklet called "Bolshevism, Self-Defined and Self-Convicted," to inform business men throughout the country of the situation in Russia. This book was of interest more from the intention animating its publication than from the actual value of its contents.

The National Liberal Immigration League advocates the careful selection, distribution, education and protection of immigrants; opposes indiscriminate restriction; studies bills introduced in Congress on immigration and kindred subjects; enlightens public sentiment as to it own views on these matters through its books, pamphlets, etc.; organizes and advises societies and individuals favoring a liberal immigration policy; and promotes the enactment of legislation of such subjects as deportation of alien criminals, Federal employment bureaus, placing industrial plants in the

GREGORY ZILBOORG

Eminent Author, Dramatist and Lecturer in the last two lectures of his REMARKABLE SERIES

on

"VOICES OF SOCIAL HOPE AND DESPAIR."

TUESDAY EVENINGS, 8.15 p. m.

NOV. 9-GUY DE MAUPASSANT: Victims of a Civilized World.
NOV. 16-ROMAIN ROLLAND: The Voice of a Prophet.

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and other lecturers of merit (some of the above series are definitely deter mined upon; others are being arranged).

All those who are interested in receiving announcements of these lectures, kindly send your name and address to

21 East 14th Street

THE FINE ARTS GUILD

NEW YORK CITY

country or in small cities, education and protection of immigrants, and amendments to the Contract Labor Law, to exempt from its application agricultural laborers and certain skilled labor in cases where they cannot be recruited on American soil.

(It must, of course, be understood, that in mentioning these and the following organizations, the Committee does not give its full endorsement or approval to all of the views expressed or advocated by them.)

The National Security League is a non-political, non-partisan league of American men and women who are working to promote patriotic education and to spread American ideals. They furnish ideas as to methods of teaching patriotic subjects, and material for use in such course. They have also had a "flying squadron" of Americanization speakers and they have published a catechism on the Constitution of the United States in twelve lessons, which has had a wide circulation.

The New York Kindergarten Association believes that the time to make Americans of little foreigners is at the beginning. That is when they begin their kindergarten work at the time they are most impressionable.

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The Russian Collegiate Institute operates classes for children and for adults, and it is the only educational institution which has reported to the Committee on efforts to counteract Bolshevism and radicalism by direct education in this country and (through returning pupils) in Russia.

The Y. M. C. A. have two secretaries on Ellis Island, who speak a number of different languages. They meet immigrants, attempt to take care of their needs and send them to their destinations. They also have immigration secretaries throughout the country and a system whereby these various secretaries are informed of the expected arrival of immigrants in their respective towns. This allows the secretary to take care of immigrants en route and at their destinations. The Y. M. C. A. also has secretarics at the chief ports of embarkation in Europe, and on the large steamers bringing immigrants to America.

The Y. W. C. A. has established in some of the larger cities having foreign populations, International Institutes, notably in New York City, where the foreign-born girl comes in contact with American life and also learns English.

Many foreign groups have benevolent associations for taking care of unfortunates of their own nati nality and for the educat

ing of their fellow-countrymen here; for example, The Chinese Benevolent Association, the Federation of Russian and Bukovinian Jews, Finnish Educational Association of Marhattan, Hebrew Sheltering and Immigrant Aid Society of America, the Hungarian Society of New York, Irish Emigrant Society, The Japanese Association, Inc., The Japanese Christian Institute, Inc., Jewish Protectory and Aid Society, Jewish Welfare Board, Maedschenheim Verein (for German girls), Pan-Hellenic Union, GreekAmerican Institute, Polish National Alliance, Russian Collegiate Institute, The Society for Italian Immigrants, etc.

In all of these private enterprises radicals and intellectuals attempt to gain a footing, and in some of the instances, even among the organizations which we have cited in this chapter, they have done so to a limited extent. It is for this reason that, as previously stated, this Committee believes that the most effective work in Americanization and citizenship training can be done by the public school system.

Following are a few instances of successful work being done by private enterprise outside New York State. The summary is not comprehensive but includes the most unique and outstanding efforts.

Missouri, Kansas City

The Chamber of Commerce has an Americanization Committee which helps in the work of naturalization. They encourage attendance upon the evening schools, help the foreigners to become naturalized and once a year they arrange an Americanization celebration for the newly made citizens.

Missouri, St. Louis

The Y. M. C. A. cooperates with the leading industries in the establishment and conduct of factory classes in English. They also aid materially in the work of naturalization.

Nevada

The Y. W. C. A. has helped along the work of Americanization by making a survey of the foreign-born in the state, and they are at work on the problem of reaching the foreign-born woman in the home.

New Hampshire

In New Hampshire all forces cooperate in the matter of Americanization state, church, schools, industry, labor, and press.

The New Hampshire State Federation of Labor passed resolutions to cooperate with the State Education Department. The Manufacturers Association of New Hampshire passed resolutions to aid in the work to the end that every employee in the state become able to read, write and speak the English language as soon as possible. The Association Canado-Americaine also passed resolutions agreeing to aid in the organization of evening schools and encouraging attendance.

Ohio

The Committee on Education of the Cleveland Chamber of Commerce cooperates in the work of Americanization, this work having grown out of its emergency work in teaching English to foreigners. The Ohio Council of National Defense publishes bulletins on methods of teaching English to foreigners.

Washington

Spokane has a Constitutional Government League. Its purposes are: to promote understanding and interest in the fundamentals of our government; to secure a higher standard of the performance of the duties of citizenship; to defend American institutions against foreign and domestic revolutionaries; to strengthen the independence of public officials and protect them against intimidation. After the murder of several ex-service men by the I. W. W. on Armistice Day of 1919, in Centralia, the League made a membership drive, in connection with which they issued some live literature. "The radicals are gaining strength," they said, "only because they have had the field all to themselves, because Americans have been too confident of the goodness of our government to realize that it needs defense." The Constitutional Government League of Spokane is one of the few agencies in the country who are working directly to counteract the radical menace. A bolt struck near home and the Constitutional Government League renewed its efforts in the defense of Americanism. If other communities would awaken to a similar responsibility, the Centralia affair could never be repeated.

CHAPTER II

Relative Merit of Private and Public Agencies for

Americanization

The original design in making education a public service in this country, supported by taxation of all the people, was, and the present purpose should be, that the public schools would prepare citizens for the duties and obligations they owe to their fellows as participators in the conduct of government. This purpose must be the first function of all public teaching; never secondary or incidental. As the task of so-called Americanization is the making of good citizens, it is clear that its purpose squares with that of the principal function of the public school, and that, theoretically at least, Americanization should be the work of the public school so far as actual, formal education enters into it. It has been a general policy in respect to education in the United States to place chief responsibility upon the various states and upon the cities, towns, counties and school districts in the states. Moreover, in the field of public education, it has been the policy to relate the general education system in its administration and conduct as closely to popular control as possible. The effect of this policy has been to link public education very strongly to local educational needs. The education of minors and minors of employment age through the medium of free public schools and various part-time and extension classes is on the whole very thoroughly organized throughout the several states. The legislature of each state has the power to provide for the educational programs of that state, and although there are minor differences, the system is, generally speaking, fairly uniform in this field.

The most prevalent system provides for the annual election by the qualified electors of the state of first, a superintendent or commissioner of public education, and second, a state board of education, some of whose members are usually appointed by the governor or elected by the state legislature. To the superintendent and the state board of education are entrusted all matters pertaining to, first, the establishment and maintenance of free public schools and other public educational institutions throughout the counties and districts of the state; second, the authorization and licensing of properly qualified superintendents, principals and teachers; third, the prescription of courses of study and the standardization of text books; and fourth, the submission of the

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