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Statistics relating to alien population, number of illiterates and other statistical data appearing in this section of the report have been furnished by various authorities.
It will be observed that there is a marked disagreement in the statistics received from different sources bearing upon the same subject. The Committee has had no facilities for verifying these statistics and has therefore been compelled to accept them as given.
GENERAL SURVEY OF FIELD OF EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP
3. Private Enterprises
INTRODUCTION PROBLEMS PRESENTED
Chapter I. Americanization Work in Progress...
1. State Enterprises
a. Outside New York State..
b. New York State...
2. Local Boards of Education.
II. Relative Merit of Private and Public Agencies for Ameri
III. Teacher Requirements and Teacher Training.
IV. Curricula Recommended for Courses of Citizenship Training 2316
V. Regulated Attendance
GENERAL SURVEY OF FIELD OF EDUCATION FOR CITIZENSHIP
In Part One of this report an effort has been made to portray the subversive influences that play upon the minds of all classes in this country. It has been shown that every cause of discontent and every injustice has been seized upon by radical groups, magnified and charged to the Government and the institutions of this country and the system under which we live. The selfishness of the individual employer, the action of an indiscreet or dishonest public official, is turned into an argument for the overthrow of this government and its institutions. It has also been shown that the propaganda of the various revolutionary and seditious groups is extremely effective in the alien population of our industrial
The facts disclosed by recent investigations of the radical movement in the United States, and more particularly by the definite findings of this Committee, show that revolutionary propaganda thrives upon ignorance. There has been revealed a lamentable illiteracy and lack of appreciation of America and its institutions. "We have living in America many in whom America does not live." To give them an understanding and appreciation of our institutions and the benefits which may be derived therefrom, to keep alive in the newcomer from Europe such ideals brought over by him as may be consistent with American liberty that is the educational problem of the immediate future.
The doors of America have always stood open. For years hordes have been pouring in from practically all nations of the earth, including thousands of refugees from political and religious persecution. Within the meager limitations prescribed by the Federal immigration laws men, women and children of all kinds and conditions have been welcome to our shores. The original need for manual labor to develop the natural resources of this country and
its industrial enterprises has led to the encouragement and stimulation of immigration in overwhelming numbers, with the result that we are now confronted with a problem of Americanization far greater than the existing educational resources of the various States and of the Federal government are competent to meet.
A marked difference must be noted between the "old immigration" and the "new immigration." The old immigration was from northern and western Europe - Great Britain, Scandinavia, Germany and France. The percentage of illiteracy was small, the number of skilled workers great, and most of the older immigrants came to make America their permanent home. The new immigration comes from eastern and southeastern Europe Italy, Russia, Poland, and the former Austro-Hungarian Empire. It represents an entirely different class. Illiteracy runs as high as 35 percent. Most of the laborers are unskilled and a large percentage of them have come with the expectation of returning to their fatherland after attaining a certain financial goal. Much of their earnings is sent abroad for the support of relatives in foreign lands. Recent records show that one-third of these immigrants not only do not become Americans but return to Europe to stay.
The old immigration for the most part came before 1890. They brought with them religious and political ideals which made their assimilation a comparatively easy matter, but the new immigration is much further removed, in its culture, from American standards, and therefore the work of assimilation is much more difficult. Among the new immigrants the prolific races from Russia, Poland and other Slavic states bring the greatest numbers and present the most serious problem of Americanization.
Not more than twenty percent of these immigrants find their way west of the Pittsburgh district. Of the other 80 percent the large majority remain in New York and its environs. Although during the years of the World War immigration almost ceased, the coming of peace has set in motion a new movement of peoples westward who seek to escape from European turmoil. It has been estimated by Federal authorities that during 1921 we may expect a million and a half immigrants, most of whom will remain in and about the City of New York.
It is for this reason that this committee is concerned with the problems of immigration. It is convinced that stringent Federal legislation should be enacted limiting immigration at least until