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the line or lines, grade or grades, points or manner of such inter sections and connections, the same shall be ascertained and determined by commissioners, one of whom must be a practical civil engineer and surveyor, to be appointed by the court, as is provided in the condemnation law. Such commissioners may determine whether the crossing or crossings of any railroad before constructed shall be beneath, at, or above the existing grade of such railroad, and upon the route designated upon the map of the corporation seeking the crossing or otherwise. All railroad corporations whose roads are or shall hereafter be so crossed, intersected or joined, shall receive from each other and forward to their destination all goods, merchandise and other property intended for points on their respective roads, with the same dispatch as, and at a rate of freight not exceeding the local tariff rate charged for similar goods, merchandise and other property, received at or forwarded from the same point for individuals and other corporations. (As amended by chap. 676 of 1892.)

813. Change of route, grade or terminus.-Every railroad corporation, except elevated railway corporations, may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its directors, alter or change the route or any part of the route of its road or its termini, or locate such route, or any part thereof, or its termini, in a county adjoining any county named in its certificate of incorporation, if it shall appear to them that the line can be improved thereby, upon making and filing in the clerk's office of the proper county a survey, map and certificate of such alteration or change. If the same is made after the corporation has commenced grading the original route, compensation shall be made to all persons for injury done by such grading to any lands donated to the corporation. But neither terminus can be changed, under this section, to any other county than one adjoining that in which it was previously located; nor can the route or terminus of any railroad be so changed in any town, county or municipal corporation, which has issued bonds and taken any stock or bonds in aid of the construction of such railroad without the written consent of a majority of the taxpayers appearing upon the last assessment roll of such town, county or municipal corporation, unless such terminus, after the change, will remain in the same village or city as theretofore. No alteration of the route of any railroad after its construction shall be made or new line or route of road laid out or established, as provided in this section, in any city or village, unless approved by a vote of

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two-thirds of the common council of the city or trustees of the village. Any railroad corporation whose road as located terminates at any railroad previously constructed or located, whereby communication might be had with any incorporated city of the state, may amend its certificate of incorporation so as to terminate its road at the point of its intersection with any railroad subsequently located to intersect it, and thereby, by itself or its connection, afford communication with such city, with the consent of the stockholders owning two-thirds of the stock of the corporation. Any railroad corporation may, by a vote of its directors, change the grade of any part of its road, except that in the city of Buffalo such change must conform to the general plan heretofore adopted and filed by the grade crossing commissioners of said city, or any modification thereof, within the territory covered by said general plan, in such manner as it may deem necessary to avoid accidents and facilitate the use of such road; and it may by such vote alter the grade of its road, for such distance and in such manner as it may deem necessary, on each or either side of the place where the grade of its road has been changed by direction of the superintendent of public works, at any point where its road crosses any canal or canal feeder, except that in the city of Buffalo such change must conform to the general plan heretofore adopted and filed by the grade crossing commissioners of said city, or any modification thereof, within the territory covered by said general plan. The superintendent of public works shall have a general and supervisory power over that part of any railroad which passes over, or approaches within ten rods of any canal or canal feeder belonging to the state so far as may be necessary to preserve the free and perfect use of such canals or feeders, or to make any repairs, improvements or alterations, in the same. Any railroad corporation whose tracks cross any of the canals of the state, and the grade of which may be raised by direction of the superintendent of public works, with the assent of such superintendent, may lay out a new line of road to cross such canal at a more favorable grade, and may extend such new line and connect the same with any other line of road owned by such corporation upon making and filing in the clerk's office of the proper county a survey map and certificate of such new or altered line. No portion of the track of any railroad, as described in its certificate of incorporation, shall be abandoned under this section. (As amended by chap. 676 of 1892; chap. 235 of 1897, § 1.)

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14. Construction of part of line in another state.-Any railroad corporation, whose proposed railroad is to be built between any two points in this state, may, by a vote of two-thirds of all its directors, locate and construct a part of its road in an adjoining state; and the sections of its road within this state shall be deemed a connected line, according to the certificate of incorporation, and the directors may reduce the capital stock of the corporation to such amount as may be deemed proper, but not less than ten thousand dollars per mile for the number of miles of road to be actually constructed in this state.

15. Two roads having the same location.-If two railroad corporations for a portion of their respective lines embrace the same location of line, or if their lines connect, or are tributary to each other, such corporations may by agreement provide for the construction by one of them of so much of such line as is common to both, or connects with its own line, and for the manner and terms upon which the business thereon shall be performed, and the corporation that is not to constrnct the part of the line which is common to both, may amend its certificate of incorporation, and terminate its line at the point of intersection, and may reduce its capital to a sum not less than ten thousand dollars for each mile of road proposed to be constructed in such amended certificate.

§ 16. Tunnel railroads.-When, according to the route and plan for the building of its road, adopted by any railroad corporation, including corporations organized under chapter 140 of the laws of 1850, and the acts amendatcry thereof, and supplementary thereto, it shall be necessary or proper to build it or any part of it under ground, or to tunnel or bridge any river or waters, such cor poration may enter upon, acquire title to and use such lands under water and uplands, except on or along any canals of the state, as may be necessary for the purpose herein mentioned, and may con struct, erect and secure the necessary foundations and other struct ures which may be required for operating and maintaining such road or connecting the same with another, and to acquire, in the manner provided by law, such land or rights or easements in lands along its route upon, over or beneath the surface thereof as may be necessary for the construction of its road and making such connections. Where such road runs underneath the ground at such depth as to enable the corporation to tunnel the same, such tunnel shall be so built and at all times kept in such condition as to make the surface

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of the ground above the same and in the neighborhood thereof firm and safe for buildings and other erections thereon, and if surface excavations are made the surface shall be restored to its former condition as soon as can be done, except so far as may be actually required for ventilation of the tunnel beneath the same or access thereto. Such road or any part of it may be built within the limits of any city or incorporated village of this state, and run by means of a tunnel underneath any of the streets, roads or public places thereof, provided such corporation shall before constructing the same underneath any such street, road or public place, have obtained the consent of the owners of one-half in value of the property bounded on the line of such street, road or public place, and the consent of the board of trustees of the village, by a resolution adopted at a regular meeting and entered on the records of the board, or of the proper authorities of the city having control of such streets, roads or public places. If the consent of such property owners can not be obtained, the general term of the supreme court in the district in which said city or village or any part thereof is situated, may upon application appoint three commissioners, who shall determine, after a hearing of all parties interested, whether such railroad ought to be built underneath such streets, roads or public places, or any of them, and in what manner the same may be so built with the least damage to the surface and to the use of the surface by the public and the determination of the commissioners confirmed by the court may be taken in lieu of the consent of the property owners. All railroad corporations constructing their road under this section shall be subject to all the provisions of this chapter applicable thereto. Any other railroad corporation may connect its road therewith, at such points or places as it may elect, and where such connections shall be made by connecting roads, the railroad corporations owning such roads shall build, at their joint expense, and for their joint use, such passenger and freight depots, and other accommodations for handling passengers and freight, as may be required for the convenience of the public. All railroad corporations, constructing any tunnel under this section shall be liable to any person or corporation for all damages which may be sustained by reason of the construction of such tunnel. Whenever it shall be necessary in constructing any railroad authorized by this section through any city or incorporated village, to alter the position or course of any sewer, or water or gas pipes, it shall be done at the expense of the railroad corpora

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tion under the direction of the department or corporation having charge thereof, so as not to interfere with such work. In all cases the uses of streets, docks and lands beneath which such railroad is constructed, and on the route thereof and the right of way beneath the same, for the purpose of such railroad shall be considered, and is hereby declared, a public use, consistent with and one of the uses for which streets and docks are publicly held. No public park or square in any city or village of this state shall be used or occupied by any corporation for any of the purposes of this section, and every road constructed hereunder in or through any such street or public place shall be wholly underground and constructed in a tunnel and not otherwise, but nothing in this section shall operate to revive any charter or franchise heretofore granted by or in the city of Brooklyn. This act does not authorize the construction of any bridge over or across the East or North rivers. (As amended by chap. 676 of 1892, chap. 702 of 1892, chap. 316 of 1893, § 1.)

§ 17. Railroads in foreign countries.-A railroad corporation may be formed under this chapter for the purpose of constructing, maintaining and operating in any foreign country a railroad for public use in the transportation of persons and property, or for the purpose of maintaining and operating therein any railroad already constructed, in whole or in part, for the like public use, and of constructing, maintaining and operating in connection there. with, telegraph lines and lines of steamboats or sailing vessels. Any corporation formed for the construction and operation of a railroad by stationary power, may construct, operate and maintain a railroad in any other state or country, if not in conflict with the laws thereof, but the assent of the inventors or patentees of the method of propulsion used must be first obtained in the same manner and to the same extent as would be necessary within the United States. (As amended by chap. 676 of 1892.)

§ 18. Additional corporate powers of such road.-The corporation specified in the preceding section shall have the following additional powers:

1. To expend money in making preliminary examinations and surveys for its proposed railroad, telegraph lines, and lines of steamboats and sailing vessels, and in acquiring from foreign countries, nations or governments, the grants, concessions and privileges herein authorized.

2. To take and receive from foreign countries, nations and gov.

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