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The Descent of Real Property.
of this chapter, at large, instead of the short forms thereof, in said sections contained, the sum of five dollars in addition to the fees chargeable by law for such recording.
275. Certain acts not affected.-Nothing contained in this article repeals or affects any act providing for recording and indexing instruments affecting real property in the city of New York, according to city blocks or other limited areas.
$276. Actions to have certain instruments cancelled of record. An owner of real property or of any undivided part thereof or interest therein, may maintain an action to have any recorded instrument in writing relating to the same, other than those required by law to be recorded, declared void or invalid, or to have the same cancelled of record as to said real property, or his undivided part thereof or interest therein.
§ 277. Officers guilty of malfeasance liable for damages.—An officer authorized to take the acknowledgment or proof of a conveyance or other instrument, or to certify such proof or acknowledgment, or to record the same, who is guilty of malfeasance or fraudulent practice in the execution of any duty prescribed by law in relation thereto, is liable in damages to the person injured.
THE DESCENT OF REAL PROPERTY.
SECTION 280. Definitions and use of terms; effect of article.
281. General rule of descent.
282. Lineal descendants of equal degree.
283. Lineal descendants of unequal degree.
284. When father inherits.
285. When mother inherits.
286. When collateral relatives inherit; collateral relatives of equal degrees.
287. Brothers and sisters and their descendants.
288. Brothers and sisters of father and mother and their descend
289. Illegitimate children.
290. Relatives of the half-blood.
291. Cases not hereinbefore provided for.
292. Posthumous children and relatives.
293. Inheritance, sole or in common.
294. Alienism of ancestor.
296. How advancements adjusted.
§ 280. Definitions and use of terms; effect of article.-The term "real property as used in this article, includes every estate, interest and right, legal and equitable in lands, tenements and hereditaments except such as are determined or extinguished by the death of an intestate seized or possessed thereof, or in any manner entitled thereto; leases for years, estates for the life of another person; and real property held in trust, not devised by the beneficiary. "Inheritance" means real property as herein defined, descended according to the provisions of this article; the expressions" where the inheritance shall have come to the intestate on the part of the father" or "mother," as the case may be, include every case where the inheritance shall have come to the intestate by devise, gift or descent from the parent referred to, or from any relative of the blood of such parent. When in this article a person is described as living, it means living at the time of the death of the intestate from whom the descent came; when he is described as having died, it means that he died before such intestate. This article does not affect a limitation of an estate by deed or will, or tenancy by the curtesy or dower.
§ 281. General rule of descent.-The real property of a person who dies without devising the same shall descend:
I. To his lineal descendants.
2. To his father.
3. To his mother; and
4. To his collateral relatives, as prescribed in the following sections of this article.
§ 282. Lineal descendants of equal degree.-If the intestate leave descendants in the direct line of lineal descent, all of equal degree of consanguinity to him, the inheritance shall descend to them in equal parts however remote from him the common degree of consanguinity may be.
$283. Lineal descendants of unequal degree.-If any of the descendants of such intestate be living, and any be dead, the inheritance shall descend to the living, and the descendants of the dead, so that each living descendant shall inherit such share as would have descended to him had all the descendants in the same degree of consanguinity who shall have died leaving issue been living; and so that issue of the descendants who shall have died shall respectively take the shares which their ancestors would have received.
$284. When father inherits.-If the intestate die without law
The Descent of Real Property.
ful descendants, and leave a father, the inheritance shall go to such father, unless the inheritance came to the intestate on the part of his mother, and she be living; if she be dead, the inheritance descending on her part shall go to the father for life, and the reversion to the brothers and sisters of the intestate and their descendants, according to the law of inheritance by collateral relatives hereinafter provided; if there be no such brothers or sisters or their descendants living, such inheritance shall descend to the father in fee.
§ 285. When mother inherits. If the intestate die without descendants and leave no father, or leave a father not entitled to take the inheritance under the last section, and leave a mother, and a brother or sister, or the descendant of a brother or sister, the inheritance shall descend to the mother for life, and the reversion to such brothers and sisters of the intestate as may be living, and the descendants of such as may be dead, according to the same law of inheritance hereinafter provided. If the intestate in such case leave no brother or sister or descendant thereof, the inheritance shall descend to the mother in fee.
§ 286. When collateral relatives inherit; collateral relatives of equal degrees. If there be no father or mother capable of inheriting the estate, it shall descend in the cases hereinafter specified to the collateral relatives of the intestate; and if there be several such relatives, all of equal degree of consanguinity to the intestate, the inheritance shall descend to them in equal parts, however remote from him the common degree of consanguinity may be.
§ 287. Brothers and sisters and their descendants. If all the brothers and sisters of the intestate be living, the inheritance shall descend to them; if any of them be living and any be dead, to the brothers and sisters living, and the descendants, in whatever degree, of those dead; so that each living brother or sister shall inherit such share as would have descended to him or her if all the brothers and sisters of the intestate who shall have died, leaving issue, had been living, and so that such descendants in whatever degree shall collectively inherit the share which their parents would have received if living; and the same rule shall prevail as to all direct lineal descendants of every brother and sister of the intestate whenever such descendants are of unequal degrees.
§ 288. Brothers and sisters of father and mother and their
descendants.-If there be no heir entitled to take, under either of the preceding sections, the inheritance, if it shall have come to the intestate on the part of his father, shall descend:
I. To the brothers and sisters of the father of the intestate in equal shares, if all be living:
2. If any be living, and any shall have died, leaving issue, to such brothers and sisters as shall be living and to the descendants of such as shall have died.
3. If all such brothers and sisters shall have died, to their descendants.
4. If there be no such brothers or sisters of such father, nor any descendants of such brothers or sisters, to the brothers and sisters of the mother of the intestate, and to the descendants of such as shall have died, or if all have died, to their descendants. But, if the inheritance shall have come to the intestate on the part of his mother, it shall descend to her brothers and sisters and their descendants; and if there be none, to the brothers and sisters of the father and their descendants, in the manner aforesaid. If the inheritance has not come to the intestate on the part of either father or mother, it shall descend to the brothers and sisters both of the father and mother of the intestate, and their descendants in the same manner. In all cases mentioned in this section the inheritance shall descend to the brothers and sisters of the intestate's father or mother, as the case may be, or to their descendants in like manner as if they had been the brothers and sisters of the intestate.
§ 289. Illegitimate children.-If an intestate who shall have been illegitimate die without lawful issue, or illegitimate issue entitled to take, under this section, the inheritance shall descend to his mother; if she be dead, to his relatives on her part, as if he had been legitimate. If a woman die without lawful issue, leaving an illegitimate child, the inheritance shall descend to him. as if he were legitimate. In any other case illegitimate children or relatives shall not inherit.
§ 290. Relatives of the half-blood.-Relatives of the halfblood and their descendants, shall inherit equally with those of the whole blood and their descendants, in the same degree, unless the inheritance came to the intestate by descent, devise or gift from an ancestor; in which case all those who are not of the blood of such ancestor shall be excluded from such inheritance. $290a-adged ia; 291. Cases not hereinbefore provided for.-In all cases not
The Descent of Real Property.
provided for by the preceding sections of this article, the inheritance shall descend according to the course of the common law.
$292. Posthumous children and relatives.-A descendant or a relative of the intestate begotten before his death, but born thereafter, shall inherit in the same manner as if he had been born in the lifetime of the intestate and had survived him.
§ 293. Inheritance, sole or in common. When there is but one person entitled to inherit, he shall take and hold the inheritance solely; when an inheritance or a share of an inheritance descends to several persons they shall take as tenants in common, in proportion to their respective rights.
$294. Alienism of ancestor.-A person capable of inheriting under the provisions of this article, shall not be precluded from such inheritance by reason of the alienism of an ancestor.
§ 295. Advancements.-If a child of an intestate shall have been advanced by him, by settlement or portion, real or personal property, the value thereof must be reckoned for the purposes of descent and distribution as part of the real and personal property of the intestate descendible to his heirs and to be distributed to his next of kin; and if such advancement be equal to or greater than the amount of the share which such child would be entitled to receive of the estate of the deceased, such child and his descendants shall not share in the estate of the intestate; but if it be less than such share, such child and his descendants shall receive so much, only, of the personal property, and inherit so much only, of the real property, of the intestate, as shall be sufficient to make all the shares of all the children in the whole property, including the advancement, equal. The value of any real or personal property so advanced, shall be deemed to be that, if any, which was acknowledged by the child by an instrument in writing; otherwise it must be estimated according to the worth of the property when given. Maintaining or educating a child, or giving him money without a view to a portion or settlement in life is not an advancement. An estate or interest given by a parent to a descendant by virtue of a beneficial power, or of a power in trust, with a right of selection, is an advancement.
§ 296. How advancements adjusted.-When an advancement to be adjusted consisted of real property, the adjustment must be made out of the real property descendible to the heirs. When