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animal spirits, and those finer juices of the brain, so that the imagination grows irregular. Thus, the ideas presented to the mind lose their due magnitude, and become liable to distortion, and often produce insanity; which, carrying the appearance of soundness in all the ordinary transactions of life, only shows itself, when the mind is oppressed by a combination of unfavourable circumstances, and gives the colour of criminality to actions which really result from the disordered state of the mental organs.
The remedy for such evils, lies in a strict care of the bodily health, particularly in an attention to rendering it robust and equal. The mind should be kept perpetually engaged in those innocent occupations, which amuse without transporting. Instruction should at all times wear the face of gaiety. A full confidence should be acquired, and solitude avoided.
As the strength of the body lies chiefly in being able to endure hardships, so also does that of the mind. When the period of adolescence comes on, very strenuous endeavours should be made, to give the pupil an insight into the mechanism of the human mind, and the methods of disciplining it.
STRICTURE THE THIRD.
PRINCIPLES OF EDUCATION TO BE ESTABLISHED EARLY.
IT was the saying of Rousseau, that he would not undertake the education of a child, unless he had him an infant from the breast. And indeed, when we consider that all our ideas proceed from sensation and reflection, we cannot begin too early to make the mind obedient to discipline, and pliant to reason.
As infants are not capable of great evils, foolish parents imagine, that they may safely indulge their little irregularities and petty perverseness, which they say becomes their innocent age. If a parent would have a son obedient when grown up, he must establish his authority of a father, as soon as the child is capable of submission. If he would have him stand in awe of him, it must be implanted in infancy.
Solon, to a parent, who excused his child from correction for perverseness, by the plea, saying it was a small matter, wisely replied,-Aye, but custom is a great one.
We have heard parents complain of their children when they have grown too old to be their playthings, as troublesome and perverse brats; after they have infused ill humours, and established ill habits. The general practice is, a child is allowed to have the will of the nurse-maid
before he can walk or speak; the mastery of the parents as soon as he can prattle; so that, when he is grown up, he is grounded in irregularities and evil passions. At eight or ten years old, he is turned over to a schoolmaster, who by his flogging, either breaks his spirit. or confirms him in hardihood and stubbornness.
If parents would successfully secure for the understanding of youth, the just supremacy of truth, it must be before prejudice or falsehood shall have first wrought its perversion,-if they would enshrine within the heart an elevated and sublime devotion, it must be before it is imbrued by sensuality, and defiled by lust,-if they would witness in action a noble and a manlike piety, or purposes of exalted benevolence, filling their path with light, it must be, while yet the throne of conscience has not been usurped, nor the affections blunted and chilled, whether by selfishness, or vanity, or guilty pleasure.
Parents must also bear in remembrance, that to enable their children, to think well,-to act wisely,—to live happily, and to die calmly, they must have that maturity and soundness of mind, that can only co-exist with a healthy body and contented spirit;—the foundations of these must be laid in childhood and youth. The greatest good is to be effected through Parents, by the proper exercise of the functions deputed to them by HIM, who will not allow even a sparrow to fall without his knowledge. RULES FOR HOME EDUCATION.
The following may be found worthy of being placed in a conspicuous position in every household :—
I. From your children's earliest infancy you must inculcate the necessity for instant obedience.
2. Unite firmness with gentleness. Let your children understand that you mean exactly what you say.
3. Never promise them anything unless you are sure you can give them what you promise.
4. If you tell a child to do something, show him how to do it, and see that it is done.
5. Always punish your children for wilfully disobeying you, but never punish in anger.
6. Never let them perceive that they can vex you, or make self-command.
you lose your
7. If they give way to petulance and temper, wait till they are calm, and then gently reason with them on the impropriety of their conduct.
8. Remember that a little present punishment, when the occasion arises, is much more effectual than the threatening of a great punishment should the fault be renewed.
9. Never give your children anything because they cry for it.
10. On no account allow them to do at one time what you have forbidden, under the like circumstances, at another.
11. Teach them that the only sure and easy way to appear good is to be good.
12. Accustom them to make their little recitals with perfect truth.
13. Never allow of tale-bearing.
We remember, when a child, about six years old, to have been occasionally solicited to play with another about our own age. This boy was an only son, and
often to us a troublesome companion: his bawling and crying, unless he was supplied three or four times in the afternoon, with beer, greatly annoyed us. Even at that tender age, we were surprised that his mother should comply with his wishes, and we soon learnt that he obtained all his ends by the same means. A few years since, we visited the place where we spent onr earlier days. On enquiry, we found that his parents had apprenticed this boy to a cabinet-maker; that they were since both dead, and left him considerable property, which he had spent in tippling and sottishness; that latterly he had become a confirmed drunkard, and had enlisted for a common soldier! Since his discharge he had become a vagabond, frequently to be found at the Inn of his native place begging a penny for watering the horses of a stage coach.
Parents! you who will not begin early to establish good habits in your children, go and follow the example of the infatuated parents of this youth, and you will bitterly experience the fatal consequences of your neglect.