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It is common to look only for the qualities of learning and integrity. These certainly are no ordinary endowments, and I wish all those who professed to be instructors of youth had no deficiencies in these qualities; but, if learning be not united with judgment, penetration, and sagacity, it is merely a magazine of opinions, from which error is oftener produced than truth. Nor indeed are the virtues of the understanding the only necessary qualities in a tutor; they must be accompanied with the virtues of the heart, or the education of the pupil will be very incomplete. He must also be a well bred man, and understand, as Locke expresses it, the ways of carriage, aud measures of civility; in all the variety of persons, times, and places; and keep his pupil, according as his age permits, to the observation of them. Shakspere says, "It is certain, that either wise bearing or ignorant carriage is caught, as men take diseases one of another." This art is not to be acquired from books, but from observation and good society. Good breeding is that which sets a value and gloss upon all our other good qualities, and renders them useful to us, in procuring us the esteem and good will of all. Without it, our other accomplishments make us pass but for proud, conceited, and foolish blockheads. This may be illustrated by Chesterfield's solution of the epigram in Martial :— Non amo te, Sabidi, nec possum dicere quare.

Hoc tantum possum dicere, non amo te.

These two lines have puzzled many, who cannot conceive how it is possible not to love another, and yet be ignorant of the cause. The solution appears to be this :


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O Sabidis, you are a very worthy, deserving man, you have a thousand good qualities, you have a great deal of learning; I esteem, 1 respect, but for the soul of me I cannot love you, though I cannot particularly say why. You are not amiable, you have not those engaging manners, those pleasing attentions, those graces, and that address, which are absolutely necessary to please, though impossible to define. I cannot say it is this, or that particular thing, that hinders me from loving you; it is the whole together, and upon the whole you are not agreeable.

Here we perceive, that virtue and parts are not enough to procure a person esteem, and to make him received in society. Courage in an ill bred man has the air of brutality; learning becomes pedantry; wit, buffoonery; plainness, rusticity; good nature, fawning; and every good quality deprived of good breeding will be disfigured to his disadvantage. Good qualities, indeed, are the substantial riches of the mind, but it is good breeding alone which sets them off, and makes them acceptable. It is the polish that gives the lustre to the diamond.

But these are not all the qualifications necessary for a tutor. He should know the world well. He ought to be thoroughly acquainted with the ways and humours, the follies and vices, of the age. These he should be able to point out to his pupil as opportunities offer. He must be able to give him skill in men and manners. He must unmask their several professions, and show his pupil what lies concealed, lest, not being warned, he should fall a prey to the insinuations of a false appearance. He must teach him to beware of the base designs of men;

but not to judge with too much suspicion, nor too much confidence; rectifying his nature from its bent inclination. He should accustom him to make a true judgment, by those marks which show what they are.* He must lay aside the usual methods of rousing virtue by the principle of pride. He must avoid making invidious comparisons and distinctions, and from bestowing excessive praise on any particular person, in order to point him out to his pupil as an object of emulation, and consequently, as an object of envy. He should acquaint him with the real state of mankind; and direct him to consider no man better or worse than he really is. He should be warned of the applications and designs of those who hereafter will make it their business to corrupt him ;—of the arts they use, and of the baits they will lay, to draw him into those snares and vices which best suit their purpose. In fact, it is the duty of the tutor to do as much himself, and to leave as little for the exertion of his pupil, as he possibly can. And in giving him the wisdom of the serpent, as well as the harmlessness of the dove, none of the vices of the world must be concealed; but the judgment of his pupil must be convinced, that the superiority of happiness lies greatly on the side of virtue. He must, as before observed, be taught to consider mankind as they really are, in masquerade; and that every one is pushing those points which he regards as advantageous to his own interest, without any attention. to the sacrifice he is making of the happiness of others.

* Counsel in the heart of man is like deep waters; but a man of understanding will draw it out. Prov, xx, 5,

That, for these reasons, virtue, when separated from prudence and caution, often misses its rewards. This has been our experience, from the imperfect and inefficient mode of instruction we received when a youth; and our past life has proved, that the want of physical, or moral wisdom, is more certain of being punished in this world, than the want of rectitude. This knowledge will arm a young man against the mischiefs which await him on entering the world; he will be prepared to judge, who are likely to oppose, who to mislead, and who to serve him. This knowledge must be imparted to him by degrees, as his age and circumstances permit, and requires a tutor of discretion, who knows the world, and will be able to judge of the temper, inclination, and weak side of his pupil.

In fine, the tutor suitable to raise youth to that high degree of excellence, of which his nature is capable, must himself partake of the excellence he bestows. His example must lead the pupil into those actions he would have him perform. His practice must keep pace with his precept. It will be to little purpose for a tutor to talk of the restraints of the passions, whilst any of his own are let loose; and he will in vain endeavour to reform any vice in his pupil, which he allows in himself. His learning must be accompanied with modesty, his wisdom, with gravity; his sagacity must have a keenness, which can penetrate through the veil of prejudice, and attain to the high superiority of original thinking; and the virtues of the mind must be accompanied with that tenderness of feeling, which produces the most valuable of all excellences,-an unconfined benevolence.

To obtain a man of learning, of piety, good breeding, sobriety, judgment, temperance, tenderness, diligence, and discretion, will be a difficult task; but when found, salary should be no object. The parent that, at any price, can procure for his child a good mind, well principled in christian verity, tempered to virtue and usefulness, and adorned with civility and good breeding, makes a better purchase for him, than he who sacrifices to his own vanity by the purchase of a landed estate.

Above all, let us impress upon parents the necessity of first examining, that the chief object of a tutor is, to unite an inculcation of christian principle with the attainment of general knowledge, if they wish to secure a beneficial issue of his exertions in the education of their children. Having obtained a tutor thus qualified, let them give him full confidence, and pay him every due respect, that his authority with his pupil might not be lessened by any slight or contempt, otherwise, all his exertions will be fruitless and lost; bearing in mind, that such a tutor feels it delightful to acquire knowledge; but still much more so, to impart and diffuse it. The noblest reward of science, is the pleasure arising from instructing the ignorant.

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