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are criminal. It converts the sense of want into a stirring spirit of enterprise. It gives prudence to accumulate, and talent to improve capital. When the resources of a man's country fail, it enables him to look beyond it; and men who, but for education, would have been burdens on their country, have emigrated, and have, in consequence of education, returned to enrich and embellish it.




OUR views of public education have already been given in Stricture the Fourth, of the First Part of this work. Much caution, therefore, as before observed, will be necessary, on the part of the public, how far they allow Government to interfere with their natural rights. The co-operation and patronage of Government in the establishment of schools for the poor are desirable; and we trust there will be found patriotic men of influence in England, who will gladly step forward to lend a willing hand to a national work of such vast interests to all.


We would recommend that an advance be made by the Government to erect two schools in London, for the purpose of training the male and female teachers.* these schools none should be admitted as candidates, who were not of tried moral character and ability. Here they should be instructed and examined in the most approved systems of cultivating the minds of youth; and directed to the best methods of obtaining the co-operation of parents, in order to establish early the moral virtues. The schools should be invested in trustees, and a president, vice-president, secretary, and directors appointed. Perhaps it would be advisable for the Government to

* This, since writing the above, has been partially done.

appoint a minister exclusively for educational affairs, to whom the officers of the parent school could, when necessary, apply for co-operation and assistance. The minister might issue to the sheriff of every county a circular, containing the rules to be adopted for a national education, requesting him to forward one of the same to the influential inhabitants of every town, calling on them to convene a public meeting, form a committee, obtain subscribers for a branch school, and to co-operate with the parent institution, to carry the object into full effect.

In order to give a stimulus to the nobility, as well as to produce a check upon Government, a brief report and list of subscribers to each school, from every town, should be forwarded to the sheriffs, who, respectively, should cause them to be bound into distinct volumes, and labelled with the names of the counties to which they belong. These volumes should be forwarded, against a given day, to the minister, who should cause them to be laid successively on the tables of both houses of parliament, to be inspected by the respective members of each county; who should report thereon to the house, as occasion required. These volumes should afterwards be placed in the parent institution for public and general inspection.

As the intellectual education of youth should obtain the chief attention in the new system to be introduced, a register of the general character of youth should be kept, alphabetically arranged, for the public examination of masters and mistresses in general. The parents of each child should have given to them, to be hung in

their respective houses, a printed form of the resolutions which Government had passed, showing them that the country would no longer tolerate persons of immoral or questionable character;-that the future interests of their children would depend upon their co-operation with the public schools, in setting a good example, and establishing sound principles of morality at home;—and that no employment would in future be given to those who appeared in the public registers as undeserving.

Teachers would also have it in their power, from time to time, to remind parents of their duty, and to show that the interests of their children would now solely depend upon their united labour and diligence. They would also see that every parent possessed the resolutions of Government, and urge on them the necessity of a strict adherence to the rules. This appears to us to be the most simple and effectual public mode to insure


The limits of these Strictures will not allow us to go into the minutiae of education, so as to point out the absolute mechanical system to be adopted. This subject should have a fair discussion before a committee of practical men, who should collect their materials from the best sources, and then arrange them for general adoption.

In writing these Strictures, we have borne in mind. the necessity of a text-book for teachers; and should recommend, that although every lesson should be made to directly convey, as well as have, a moral tendency; yet that a portion of the day should be appropriated to short lectures on the moral virtues. One subject a day

can be well discussed, till the whole be gone through, when they must again be taken up and continued, the teacher making such observations and enlargements as circumstances may require.

the best feelings towards

We believe we are tolerably well acquainted with the various imperfect systems of education, not only of Messrs. Bell and Lancaster, but of most others now in use. We have lately been called on by Mr. Dolier to examine the Smith and Dolier School Inventions, and find the whole ingenious, and that some of the apparatus might be introduced into schools with advantage to the improvement of youth. Messrs. Smith and Dolier have, we are informed, with each other, mutually dissolved partnership, still holding a joint copyright in the patent of the inventions. Mr. Smith is devoting his time to lecturing on the all-important subject of education; we never yet had the opportunity of hearing him, and consequently can give no opinion of what is likely to be the result of his labours. Mr. Dolier is a practical man, for the lower forms of education, and of an ingenious turn of mind. The suggestions we have made on the inventions, he acknowledges to be worthy of attention. We have made several additions to them.

The necessity of a more efficient mechanical system of education than any that has yet appeared must be felt to be necessary by all. The plan and arrangement of school-rooms have hitherto been very incomplete in heating and ventilation; and the noise and disorder of pupils have never yet been practically overcome; and the stimulus to the self-advancement of teachers, by per

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