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be understood before he can give his attention most profitably to the questions that arise in the course of the Government's practical work.

It will be observed that the book is divided into a series of numbered sections. In each of these sections a more or less distinct subject is treated, and it is believed that from this discussion of the various institutions of the Government a knowledge of the whole as well as of the individual parts will be easily acquired. The formal topics following each section are intended to assist the student in analyzing the text, and in finding out what are the essential points. Then by making use of the references to parts of other books, which are printed immediately below the topics, the student will, it is expected, acquire the habit of getting information from many sources. Through this practice he may, moreover, gradually prepare himself for investigating the subjects that are placed at the end of the several chapters. By reading carefully the documents and passages cited, the student may acquire a broader view than any single volume will convey; and under proper guidance he may receive, by the use of this material, training in the process of verifying statements concerning historical and political affairs. It will be generally expedient, however, for him to omit these subjects for advanced study until after thoroughly mastering the rest of the volume. BERNARD MOSES.

January, 1906.





1. The English Colonies in America.-The fact that several nations exist in the world is almost as apparent as the existence of the human race itself. Frenchmen learn very early that they are not Englishmen; the Japanese, that they are not Russians; and the Spaniards, that they are not Germans. Our traditions, our love of country, and our reading in history tend to keep clear in our minds the fact that the members of our nation constitute a large group by themselves, and that they are in some respects separate and distinct from those of other nations. The nation may be defined as a large independent group of persons possessing a definite territory and a supreme government. By a supreme government is meant a government that is not under any other government. The government of a city in the United States is under the State government. The government of a State is limited by the authority which the Constitution of the United States confers upon the Federal Government. The City of New York is a large group of persons and has a definite territory-that is to say, we know its boundaries; but it is under the government of the State of New York. It is therefore not a nation. The State of New York has also a definite territory; but it is not a nation, because its

government is under the superior authority of the United States. The United States has a definite territory, but its Government is not under any superior power; hence we call the United States a nation. For the same reasons we call France, Italy, or Japan a nation.

The colonies that were united to form the United States were at first under the government of England. They did not then constitute a separate nation; they were rather a part of the English nation. After they had declared their independence and maintained it, and formed a government for themselves that was not under any other government, then they became the nation that we call the United States of America.

The English Government granted, in large measure, to its American colonies the right to govern themselves. These colonies were often small in the beginning, but they grew strong by being compelled to rely upon themselves. The colonists found along the Atlantic coast only a sparse population of savages, who they expected would disappear, and who have almost entirely disappeared. From these Indians they kept aloof. They drove them back into the wilderness, and maintained the European standard of civilization. The Spaniards, who settled Mexico and South America intermarried with the Indians, and as a consequence their descendants fell below the European standard. The colonies of Spain were more completely dependent upon the mother country than were the colonies of England. The most noticeable points of contrast between the relations of these two nations with their colonies are the following:

1. The Spanish colonists might not trade with the merchants of foreign nations. The English colonists were free to trade in certain wares with any nation.

2. For a long time Spain required all trade with America to pass through a single Spanish port. England allowed

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