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MATTHEW ARNOLD was born at Laleham, December 24, 1822; was educated at Rugby and Winchester, and at Balliol College, Oxford (B.A., 1844); elected Fellow of Oriel College, 1845; became a master at Rugby, 1846; Secretary to the Marquis of Lansdowne, 1847; Inspector of Schools for the government, 1851-83; Professor of Poetry, Oxford University, 1857-67; lectured in America, 1883-84, 1886; retired on a pension, 1883; died April 15, 1888. His works include volumes of poems, 1849, 1852, 1853, 1855; lectures On Translating Homer, 1861, and On the Study of Celtic Literature, 1867; Essays in Criticism, 1865 and 1888; Culture and Anarchy, 1869; St. Paul and Protestantism, 1870; Literature and Dogma, 1873; God and the Bible, 1875
The best biography of Arnold is by G. W. E. Russell, 1904; his Letters were edited also by Russell in 1895. There is a brief life by H. W. Paul (Men of Letters). Convenient volumes of selected essays are in the series of English Readings (Holt & Co.) and the Riverside Literature Series; the introduction to the former, by L. E. Gates, is reprinted in his Three Studies in Literature, 1899. For further criticism, see Matthew Arnold, How to Know Him, by S. P. Sherman, 1917; Matthew Arnold and his Relation to the Thought of our Time, by W. H. Dawson, 1904; essays in Frederic Harrison's Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill, and other Literary Estimates, Leslie Stephen's Studies of a Biographer, J. M. Robertson's Modern Humanists, G. Saintsbury's Corrected Impressions, G. E. Woodberry's Makers of Literature, and W. C. Brownell's Victorian Prose Masters.
THOMAS CARLYLE was born at Ecclefechan, Scotland, December 4, 1795; was educated at the University of Edinburgh, being intended for the ministry; taught school, 1814-16; studied law, 1819; served as tutor, 1822-24; took up the study of German, and wrote on German subjects for the London Magazine and other periodicals; became a contributor to the Edinburgh Review; moved to London, 1834; suffered considerable pecuniary difficulties; made his reputation through his French Revolution, 1837; lectured in London on biography and history, 1837-40; was chosen Lord Rector of the University of Edinburgh, 1865; lost his wife (Jane Welsh Carlyle), 1866; lived in much solitude, gloom, and ill health; died February 4, 1881. His works include: Sartor Resartus, 1833-35; The French Revolution, 1837; Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in
History, 1841; Past and Present, 1843; Life of Oliver Cromwell, 1845; Frederick the Great, 1858-65.
Carlyle's Works were collected in 1857-58; the standard edition is now the "Ashburton," in seventeen volumes, 1885-88. There is a convenient edition of Sartor Resartus, with introduction and notes by A. Macmechan, in the Athenæum Press Series. Carlyle's authorized biographer was J. A. Froude, who edited his Reminiscences, 1881, and issued his Life in two parts, 1882 and 1884. There are brief lives by Richard Garnett (Great Writers) and John Nichol (Men of Letters). For criticism, see Carlyle, How to Know Him, by Bliss Perry; and essays in G. Saintsbury's Corrected Impressions, A. Birrell's Obiter Dicta, J. M. Robertson's Modern Humanists, Leslie Stephen's Hours in a Library, W. C. Brownell's Victorian Prose Masters, P. E. More's Shelburne Essays, first series, and J. C. Shairp's Aspects of Poetry (the essay on "Prose Poets").
THOMAS HENRY HUXLEY was born at Ealing, May 4, 1825; studied physiology, etc., at Charing Cross Hospital, taking a degree in medicine at London University, 1845; assistant surgeon in the Royal Navy, 1846-50, devoting much of his time to the investigation of biological subjects; elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, 1850; Naturalist to the Geological Survey, 1855; subsequently on various royal commissions; Professor at the Royal College of Surgeons, 1863-69; member of the first London School Board, 1870-72; Rector of the University of Aberdeen, 1872-74; President of the Royal Society, 1883-85; engaged in numerous controversies on educational subjects and on the attitude of theologians toward natural science; despite much opposition, received the honorary degree of D.C.L. from Oxford University, 1885; died June 29, 1895. His works include: Man's Place in Nature, 1863; Lay Sermons, 1870; Comparative Anatomy of Vertebrate Animals, 1871; Collected Essays, in nine volumes, 1893-94.
There is a convenient volume of selections from Huxley's Essays in the Riverside Literature Series. His Life and Letters, by his son, Leonard H. Huxley, appeared in 1900, and in the same year a biography by P. C. Mitchell. For criticism, see essays by Leslie Stephen in Studies of a Biographer and by P. E. More in The Drift of Romanticism; one on "Huxley and Scientific Agnosticism," in J. G. Schurman's Agnosticism and Religion; and one on "The Scientific Theory of Culture," in J. C. Shairp's Culture and Religion.
JOHN HENRY NEWMAN was born at London, February 21, 1801; was educated at Trinity College, Oxford (B.A., 1820); elected Fellow
of Oriel College, 1822; became curate of St. Clement's Church, Oxford, 1824; tutor at Oriel, 1826; vicar of St. Mary's Church, 1828; visited Rome, 1833; with other churchmen planned a campaign for High Church doctrines in the Church of England (the "Oxford Movement"), and to this end preached notable sermons at St. Mary's Church and began the series of pamphlets called Tracts for the Times, 1833; in particular, aroused a storm of opposition by "Tract 90" (1841), on the Catholic elements in the Anglican Church; lived in retirement, 1843-45, then entered the Roman Catholic Church; established the Birmingham Oratory, 1847; was attacked in a libel suit by an apostate monk, as the result of a course of lectures on English Catholics; Rector of the new Catholic University of Dublin, 1854-58; engaged in a theological controversy with Charles Kingsley, 1864; elected Honorary Fellow of Trinity College, Oxford, 1877; Cardinal of the Roman Catholic Church, 1879; died August 11, 1890. His works include: Arians of the Fourth Century, 1833; Romanism and Popular Protestantism, 1837; Apologia pro Vita Sua, 1864; The Idea of a University, 1852; University Subjects, 1858; A Grammar of Assent, 1870; and very many others.
There are convenient volumes of selections from Newman's writings in Holt's English Readings (edited by L. E. Gates) and the Riverside Literature Series (edited by M. F. Egan); the introduction to the former is reprinted in Gates's Three Studies in Literature, 1899. The standard biography is by Wilfrid Ward, 1912; Newman's Letters and Correspondence were edited by Anne Mozley, 1903. See also The Oxford Movement, by R. W. Church, and Cardinal Newman and his Influence on Religious Life and Thought, by C. Sarolea. For further criticism, see essays by R. H. Hutton in his Criticisms, volume 2, and his Essays (1891; the latter on "Cardinal Newman and Matthew Arnold"); one by P. E. More in The Drift of Romanticism; and J. C. Shairp's essay on "Prose Poets" in Aspects of Poetry.
WALTER PATER was born at Shadwell, London, August 4, 1839; was educated at Queen's College, Oxford (B.A., 1862); elected Fellow of Brasenose College, 1864; was associated with the early interests of Swinburne and other "Pre-Raphaelites"; never married, but devoted himself to literature and the University; died July 30, 1894. His works include: Studies in the History of the Renaissance, 1873; Marius the Epicurean, 1885; Imaginary Portraits, 1887; Appreciations, 1889.
The fullest biography of Pater is that of Thomas Wright, 1907; for most purposes one is likely to prefer the briefer life by Ferris
Greenslet or that by A. C. Benson (Men of Letters). A useful volume of selections from his writings is in Holt's series of English Readings, with introduction by E. E. Hale, Jr. For other criticism, see essays in E. Dowden's Essays Modern and Elizabethan, E. Gosse's Critical Kit-Kats, and P. E. More's The Drift of Romanticism.
JOHN RUSKIN was born at London, February 18, 1819; was educated chiefly by his parents and private tutors, studying also at King's College, London, and at Christ Church, Oxford (B.A., 1842); during the same period travelled largely, for his health, and studied landscape drawing, etc.; made the acquaintance of the artist Turner, and in order to introduce his work to the public began to write Modern Painters, the first two volumes being published anonymously; lectured on art at Edinburgh, 1853; began the publication of annual "notes" on the exhibitions of the Royal Academy; conducted art classes for workingmen; from about 1860 devoted himself vigorously to economic studies, on which he lectured and issued numberless pamphlets; moved to Coniston Lake, 1871; in the same year founded the Guild of St. George, an experiment for rural living on what Ruskin considered to be sound economic and social lines, - and subsequently various similar experiments; was Professor of Art at Oxford, 1870-79 and 1883-84, giving lectures which are published in eight volumes; elected Honorary Fellow of Corpus Christi College, 1871; gave the greater part of his considerable fortune to social and charitable objects; in his later years became insane; died January 20, 1900. His works include: Modern Painters, 1843-60; The Seven Lamps of Architecture, 1849; The Stones of Venice, 185153; Sesame and Lilies, 1865; The Crown of Wild Olive, 1866; Ethics of the Dust, 1866; Præterita (memoirs, left unfinished), 1885-89.
The standard edition of Ruskin's works is the great one edited by Cook and Wedderburn, in thirty-nine volumes, 1903-12. There is a useful volume of selections, edited by C. B. Tinker, in the Riverside Literature Series. The standard biography is W. G. Collingwood's Life and Work of John Ruskin, published in 1893, and issued in a new form after Ruskin's death; see also E. T. Cook's Life of Ruskin, 1911, and a brief life by Frederic Harrison (Men of Letters). For criticism, see A. C. Benson's Ruskin, a Study in Personality, and essays in Frederic Harrison's Tennyson, Ruskin, Mill, and other Literary Estimates, Leslie Stephen's Studies of a Biographer, J. M. Robertson's Modern Humanists, W. C. Brownell's Victorian Prose Masters, and G. Saintsbury's Corrected Impressions.
ROBERT LOUIS STEVENSON was born at Edinburgh, November 13, 1850; was educated at the University of Edinburgh; studied engineering and law; contributed to the Edinburgh University Magazine and other journals; in 1876 and 1878 went for his health on canoe trips in France and Belgium, resulting in his earliest books; became a contributor to the Cornhill Magazine and others; made a journey to California, 1879; lived in Scotland, Switzerland, and France, 1880-83; wrote a number of plays in collaboration with W. E. Henley; visited America again, still in search of health, in 1887; in 1888 made a voyage to the South Seas, and in 1889 established his residence in Samoa; died there, December 3, 1894. His works include: Travels with a Donkey, 1879; Virginibus Puerisque, 1881; Treasure Island, 1882; The New Arabian Nights, 1882; Kidnapped, 1886; Memories and Portraits, 1887; The Master of Ballantrae, 1889; Across the Plains, 1892.
The best edition of Stevenson's works is the Biographical edition, in twenty-seven volumes (Scribner). His letters were edited by Sidney Colvin, 1900; his life was written by G. Balfour, 1901. See also J. A. Hammerton's Stevensoniana: an anecdotal life and appreciation; and for further criticism, essays in E. Gosse's Critical Kit-Kats, Leslie Stephen's Studies of a Biographer, Andrew Lang's Essays in Little, Henry James's Partial Portraits, and J. J. Chapman's Emerson and other Essays.