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states that the world has ever known. We have seen that when she first became independent of the mother country, she adopted, with singular directness of purpose, measures necessary to secure civil and religious freedom within her own borders. We have seen that when the proposed Union was presented, she examined it with jealous eyes, and subjected it to the ordeal of minds keen, brilliant, learned, and ardently in love with liberty. We have marked her care in debating, and her caution in adopting it. We have seen that even in the act of receiving it, she sought, and sought with success, to infuse into its soul some of her own healthful qualities; that she procured amendments guarantying the natural rights and the first interests of And now it might be supposed that, as she had become incorporated in a Union which will, we hope, endure to the end of time, at this point her individual history would properly close. Most true it is, that henceforth in the American heavens, the great system absorbs the thoughts, and Virginia is but a single planet, revolving in this system. Yet her very change of position had presented phases interesting to behold; and if she was no longer paramount in dignity, she had at least not lost her power to maintain the equilibrium of other planets, or to develope the rich resources hid in her own bosom.

man.

PART IV.

CHAPTER VI.

Subsequent course of Virginia-Sometimes adverse to that of the Federal Government-Admission of Kentucky to the Union-Memorial of Quakers-Rise and progress of parties-Federalists-Republicans-Foreign element-French Revolution-Its excesses-Conflict of feeling in America Popular sentiment in Virginia-President Adams-His leading measures-Virginia's jealousy-Founding of the armory at RichmondMuskets-Cannon-Passage of the Alien and Sedition Laws-Indignation of the Republican party in Virginia-Legislature of 1798-'99—— Resolutions written by Mr. Madison, and offered by John Taylor, of Caroline-Animated debate-George Keith Taylor-General Lee-Mr. Mercer Mr. Daniel-Mr. Pope, from Prince William-James Barbour -William B. Giles-Resolutions amended and adopted-Kentucky Resolutions-George Washington's letter to Patrick Henry-Mr. Henry is elected to the Legislature from Charlotte-He prepares to defend the Alien and Sedition Laws-His death-Death of Washington-Session of 1799-1800-Mr. Madison's celebrated Report-Brief review of its doctrines as subsequently explained-Their illustration in VirginiaJames Thompson Callender-His libellous pamphlet-Judge Samuel Chase-Holds a Federal Court in Richmond-Callender's indictment, trial, conviction, and punishment-Virginia offers no resistance-Election of Mr. Jefferson to the Presidency.

In the progress of this work, we have kept steadily in view the design of presenting Virginia alone to the thoughts of the reader. Now that she has become united with the General Government, it will be more difficult to follow her fortunes as a state with distinctness, but this very difficulty will make the task more important. Intimately connected as she was with her sisters, she yet retained her identity, and continued in her new relations,

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to act out the same principles that had been announced by her statesmen early in the Revolution. Whenever her course was coincident with that of the Federal Government, the history of the two may be considered as so interwoven, that no attempt should be made to separate them. But this was not always the case. There were to be times of conflict, verging even to dissolution. Therefore our office in continuing the history of the state, will be to tell, not merely of her internal interests and changes, but of the seasons when she was obliged to reassert her sovereignty, and remind the Congress that their powers were limited. In these aspects, she will still appear in bold relief.

The opening events, under which the new government commenced its career, could not but be interesting to Virginia. She saw, with pride, her best and greatest son raised to the head of the Union, by the vote of his country, and in the first years of his administration, several Virginians of eminent talents, were successively assigned to of fices of honour and responsibility. Neither could she be indifferent to the change which stilled discord, restored public credit, and raised America to her proper dignity in the eyes of the world.

(1792.) Among the earliest acts of the Government, was the admission of Kentucky as a state, to the privileges of the Union. She was the daughter of Virginia. We have already noted her birth and infancy. As she budded into girlhood, her mother took special delight in looking upon her charms, and developing them to greatest advantage. Unlike

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