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driven back Protestantism even to the German land and Protestant Holland joined with Catho Ocean. Then the great southern reaction be- lic Savoy and Catholic Portugal, for the purgan to slacken, as the great northern movement pose of transferring the crown of Spain from had slackened before. The zeal of the Catho- one bigoted Catholic to another. 'ics became cool; their union was dissolved. The geographical frontier between the two The paroxysm of religious excitement was religions has continued to run almost preover on both sides. The one party had de- cisely where it ran at the close of the Thirty generated as far from the spirit of Loyola as Years' War; nor has Protestantism given any The other from the spirit of Luther. During proofs of that “expansive power” which has :hree generations, religion had been the main- been ascribed to it. But the Protestant boasis, spring of politics. The revolutions and civil and most justly, that wealth, civilization, and wars of France, Scotland, Holland, Sweden, intelligence have increased far more on the the long struggle between Philip and Elizabeth, northern than on the southern side of the the bloody competition for the Bohemian crown, boundary; that countries so little favoured by all originated in theological disputes.
nature as Scotland and Prussia are now among But a great change now took place. The the most tlourishing and best governed portions contest which was raging in Germany lost its of the world—while the marble palaces of religious character. It was now, on the one side, Genoa are deserted—while banditti infest the less a contest for the spiritual ascendency of beautiful shores of Campania-while the fertile the Church of Rome than for the lemporal as- sea-coast of the Pontifical State is abandoned cendency of the house of Austria. On the to buffaloes and wild boars. It cannot be nther, it was less a contest for the reformed doubted, that since the sixteenth century, the doctrine than for national independence. Go- Protestant nations—fair allowance being made vernments began to form themselves into new for physical disadvantages-have made de combinations, in which community of political cidedly greater progress than their neighbours. interest was far more regarded than communi. The progress n.ade by those nations in which ty of religious belief. Even at Rome the pro- Protestantism, though not finally successful, yet gress of the Catholic arms was observed with maintained a long struggle, and left permanent very mixed feelings. The Supreme Pontiff traces, kas generally been considerable. But was a sovereign prince of the second rank, and when we come to the Catholic Land, to the was anxious about the balance of power, as part of Europe in which the first spark of rewell as about the propagation of truth. It was formation was trodden out as soon as it appear. known that he dreaded the rise of a universal ed, and from which proceeded the impulse monarchy even more than ne desired the pros- which drove Protestantism back, we find, at perity of the Universal Church. At length a best, a very slow progress, and on the whole a greai event announced to the world thai the retrogression. Compare Denmark and Porwar of sects had ceased, and that the war of tugal. When Luther began to preach, the states had succeeded. A coalition, including superiority of the Portuguese was unquestionCalvinists, Lutherans, and Catholics, was able. At present the superiority of the Danes formed against the house of Austria. At the is no less so. Compare Edinburgh and Flohead of that coalition were the first statesman rence. Edinburgh has owed less to climate, and first warrior of the age; the former a to soil, and to the fostering care of rulers, than prince of the Catholic Church, distinguished any capital, Protestant or Catholic. In all by the vigour and success with which he had these respects, Florence has been singularly put down the Huguenots—the lattera Protestant happy. Yet whoever knows what Florence king, who owed his throne to the revolution and Edinburgh were in the generation precaused by hatred of Popery. The alliance of ceding the Reformation, and what they are Richelieu and Gustavus marks the time at now, will acknowledge that some greai cause which the great religious struggle terminated. has, during the last three centuries, opera:ed The war which followed was a war for the to raise one part of the European family, and equilibrium of Europe. When, at length, the to depress the other. Compare the history of peace of Westphalia was concluded, it appear- England and that of Spain during the last cened that the Church of Rome remained in full tury. In arms, arts, sciences, letters, compossession of a vast dominion, which in the merce, agriculture, the contrast is most strikmiddle of the preceding century she seemed ing. The distinction is not confined to this to be on the point of losing. No part of Eu- side of the Atlantic. The colonies planted by rope remained Protestant, except that part | England in America have immeasurably ouiwhich had become thoroughly Protestant be grown in power those planted by Spain. Yet fore the generation which heard Luther preach we have no reason to believe that, at the behad passed away.
ginning of the sixteenth century, the Castilian Since that time there has been no religious was in any respect inferior to the Englishman. war between Catholics and Protestants as such. Our firm belief is, that the North owes its In the time of Cromwell, Protestant England great civilization and prosperity chiefly to the was united with Catholic France, then govern moral effect of the Protestant Reformation; ed by a priest, against Catholic Spain. William and that the decay of the Southern countries .he Third, the eminently Protestant hero, was of Europe is to be mainly ascribed to the great at the head of a coalition which included many Catholic revival. Catholic powers, and which was secretly fa- About a hundred years after the final settle. voured even by Rome, against the Catholic ment of the boundary line between ProtestantSmuis in the time of Anne, Protestant Eng-lism and Catholicism, began to appear the
signs of the fourth great peril of the Church on the wheel at Toulouse - when a youth, of Rome. The storm which was now rising guilty only of an indiscretion, was burned at against her was of a very different kind from Abbeville—when a brave officer, borne down those which had preceded it. Those who had by public injustice, was dragged, with a gag in formerly attacked her had questioned only a his mouth, to die on the Place de Grêve, a part of her doctrines. A school was now voice instantly went forth from the banks of growing up which rejected the whole. The Lake Leman, which made itself heard from Albigenses, the Lollards, the Lutherans, the Moscow to Cadiz, and which sentenced the Calvinists, had a positive religious system, unjust judges to the contempt and detestation and were strongly attached to it. The creed of all Europe. The really efficient weapons of the new sectaries was altogether negative. with which the philosophers assailed the evan. They took one of their premises from the gelical faith were borrowed from the evangeliCatholics, and one from the Protestants. cal morality. The ethical and dogmatical From the former they borrowed the principle, parts of the Gospel were unhappily turned that Catholicism was the only pure and ge- against each other. On the one side was a nuine Christianity. With the laiter they held church boasting of the purity of a doctrine de. that some parts of the Catholic system were rived from the apostles; but disgraced by the contrary to reason. The conclusion was ob- massacre of St. Bartholomew, by the murder vious. Two propositions, each of which sepa- of the best of kings, by the war of the Cevenrately is compatible with the most exalted nes, by the destruction of Port-Royal. On the piety, formed, when held in conjunction, the other side was a sect laughing at the Scrip. groundwork of a system of irreligion. The tures, shooting out the tongue at the sacradoctrine of Bossuet, that transubstantiation is ments, but ready to encounter principalities affirmed in the Gospel, and the doctrine of and powers in the cause of justice, mercy, and Tillotson, that transubstantiation is an absurd-toleration. ity, when put together, produced by logical ne- Irreligion, accidentally associated with phi. cessity the inferences of Voltaire.
lanthropy, triumphed for a time over religion Had the sect which was rising at Paris been accidentally associated with political and soa sect of mere scoffers, it is very improbable cial abuses. Every thing gave way to the that it would have left deep traces of its exist-zeal and activity of the new reformers. In ence in the institutions and manners of Eu- France, every man distinguished in letters rope. Mere negation-mere Epicurean infi- was found in their ranks. Every year gave delity, as Lord Bacon most justly observes birth to works in which the fundamental prin. has never disturbed the peace of the world. It ciples of the Church were attacked with argufurnishes no motive for action. It inspires no ment, invective, and ridicule. The Church enthusiasm. It has no missionaries, no cru- made no defence, except by acts of power. saders, no martyrs. If the Patriarch of the Censures were pronounced – editions were Holy Philosophical Church had contented seized-insults were offered to the remains oi himself with making jokes about Saul's asses infidel writers; but no Bossuet, no Pascal, and David's wives, and with criticising the came forth to encounter Voltaire. There appoetry of Ezekiel in the same narrow spirit in peared not a single defence of the Catholic which he criticised that of Shakspeare, the doctrine which produced any considerable ef. Church would have had little to fear. But it is fect, or which is now even remembered. A due to him and to his compeers to say, that the bloody and unsparing persecution, like that real secret of their strength lay in the truth which put down the Albigenses, might have which was mingled with their errors, and in put down the philosophers. But the time for the generous enthusiasm which was hidden De Montforts and Dominics had gone by. The under their flippancy. They were men who, punishments which the priests were still able with all their faults, moral and intellectual, to inflict were sufficient io irritate, but not sufsincerely and earnestly desired the improve- ficient to destroy. The war was between ment of the condition of the human race-power on the one side, and wit on the other, whose blood boiled at the sight of cruelty and and the power was under far more restraint injustice-who made manful war, with every than the wit. Orthodoxy soon becaine a badge taculty which they possessed, on what they of ignorance and stupidity. It was as neces. considered as abuses—and who on many sig- sary to the character of an accomplished man nal occasions placed themselves galladily be that he should despise the religion of his countween the powerful and the oppressed. While try, as that he should know his letters. The they assailed Christianity with a rancour and new doctrines spread rapidly through Christenan unfairness disgraceful to men who call dom. Paris was the capital of the whole conthemselves philosophers, they yet had, in far tinent. French was everywhere the language greater measure than their opponents, that of polite circles. The literary glory of Itaiy charity towards men of all classes and races and Spain had departed. That of Germany which Christianity enjoins. Religious perse- had not yet dawned. The teachers of France cution, judicial torture, arbitrary imprison- were the teachers of Europe. The Parisian ment, the unnecessary multiplication of capital opinions spread fast among the educateu punishments, the delay and chicanery of tri- classes beyond the Alps; nor could the vigi. bunals, the exactions of farmers of the revenue, lance of the Inquisition prevent the contraband! slavery, the slave trade, were the constant sub- importation of the new heresy into Castile ana jects of their lively satire and eloquent disqui- Portugal. Governments-even arbitrary ga sitions. When an innocent man was broken vernments-saw with pleasure the progress
of this philosophy. Numerous reforms, gene- ! Nor were the calamities of the Church con rally laudatle sometimes hurried on without fined to France. The revolutionary spirit, atsufficient regard to time, to place, and to public tacked by all Europe, beat all Europe back, feeling, showed the extent of its influence. became conqueror in its turn, and, not satisfied The rulers of Prussia, of Russia, of Austria, with the Belgian cities and the rich domains and of many smaller states, were supposed to of the spiritual electors, went raging over the be among the in:tiated.
Rhine and through the passes of the Alps. The Church of Rome was still, in outward Throughout the whole of the great war against show, as stately and splendid as ever; but her Protestantism, Italy and Spain had been the foundation was undermined. No state had base of the Catholic operations. Spain was quitted her communion, or confiscated her re- now the obsequious vassal of the infidels. Italy venues; but the reverence of the people was was subjugated by them. To her ancient prin. everywhere departing from her.
cipalities succeeded the Cisalpine republic, and The first great warning stroke was the fall the Ligurian republic, and the Parthenopean of that society which, in the conflict with Pro- republic. The shrine of Loretto was stripped testantism, had saved the Catholic Church of the treasures piled up by the devotion of six from destruction. The order of Jesus had hundred years. The convents of Rome were never recovered from the injury received in pillaged. The tricoloured flag floated on the the struggle with Port-Royal. It was now still iop of the castle of St. Angelo. The successor more rudely assailed by the philosophers. Its of St. Peter was carried away captive by the spirit was broken; its reputation was tainted. unbelievers. He died a prisoner in their hands; Insulted by all the men of genius in Europe, and even the honours of sepulture were long condemned by the civil magistrate, feebly de- withheld from his remains. fended by the chiefs of the hierarchy, it fell It is not strange that in the year 1799, even and great was the fall of it.
sagacious observers should have thought that, The movement went on with increasing at length, the hour of the Church of Rome was speed. The first generation of the new sect come. An infidel power ascendant—the Pope passed away. The doctrines of Voltaire were dying in captivity—the most illustrious preinherited and exaggerated by successors, who lates of France living in a foreign country on bore to him the same relation which the Ana- Protestant alms-the noblest edifices which baptists bore to Luther, or the Fifth-Monarchy the munificence of former ages had consecratmen to Pym. At length the Revolution came. ed to the worship of God, turned into temples Down went the old Church of France, with all of victory, or into banqueting-houses for poliits pomp and wealth. Some of its priests pur- tical societies, or into Theophilanthropic chachased a maintenance by separating them- pels-such signs might well be supposed to inselves from Rome, and by becoming the au- dicate the approaching end of that long domiThors of a fresh schism. Some, rejoicing in nation. the new license, flung away their sacred vest- But the end was not yet. Again doomed to ments, proclaimed that their whole life had death, the milk-white hind was still fated pot been an imposture, insulted and persecuted to die. Even before the funeral rites had been the religion of which they had been ministers, performed over the ashes of Pius the Sixth, a and distinguished themselves even in the Ja great reaction had commenced, which after the cobin Club and the Commune of Paris, by the lapse of more than forty years appears to be excess of their impudence and ferocity. Others, still in progress. Anarchy had its day. A more faithful to their principles, were butch- new order of things rose out of the confusionered by scores without a trial, drowned, shot, new dynasties, new laws, new titles; and hung on lamp-posts. Thousands fled from amidst them emerged the ancient religion. their country to take sanctuary under the shade The Arabs had a fable that the Great Pyra. of hostile altars. The churches were closed ; mid was built by antediluvian kings, and alone, the bells were silent; the shrines were plun- of all the works of men, bore the weight of the dered; the silver crucifixes were melted down. food. Such as this was the fate of the Papacy. Buffoons, dressed in copes and surplices, came It had been buried under the great inundalion ; dancing the carmagnole even to the bar of the but its deep foundations had remained unConvention. The bust of Marat was substi- shaken; and, when the waters abated, it aptuted for the statues of the martyrs of Chris- peared alone amidst the ruins of a world which tianity. A prostitute, seated in state in the had passed away. The republic of Holland chancel of Notre Dame, received the adoration was gone, and the empire of Germany, and the of thousands, who exclaimed that at length, Great Council of Venice, and the old Helvetian for the first time, those ancient Gothic arches League, and the house of Bourbon, and the had resounded with the accents of truth. The Parliaments and aristocracy of France. Europe new unbelief was as intolerant as the old su- was full of young creations-a French empire, perstition. To show reverence for religion a kingdom of Italy, a Confederation of the was to incur the suspicion of disaffection. It Rhine. Nor had the late events affected only terwas not without imminent danger that the ritorial limits and political institutions. The dispriest baptized the infant, joined the hands of tribution of property, the composition and spirit lovers, or listened to the confession of the of society, had, through great part of Catholic dying The absurd worship of the Goddess of Europe, undergone a complete change. But Reason was, indeed, of short duration • but the the unchangeable Church was still there. Some deism of Robespierre and Lepaux was not less future historian, as able and temperate as Pronostije to the Catholic faith that the atheism of fessor Ranke, will, we hope, trace the progress Cloo:2 and Chaumette.
of the Catholic revival of the nineteenth cen
tury. We feel that we are drawing too near the Jesuits, and those which were maintained our own time; and that, if we go on, we shall at the little supper parties of the Baron Holbe in danger of saying much which may be bach, there is a vast interval, in which the supposed to indicate, and which will certainly hunian mind, it should seem, might find for excite, angry feelings. We will, therefore, make itself some resting-place more satisfactory than only one observation, which, in our opinion, is either of the two extremes. And at the time deserving of serious attention.
of the Reformation, millions found such a restDuring the eighteenth century, the influence ing-place. Whole nations then renounced of the Church of Rome was constantly on the Popery without ceasing to believe in a firsi decline. Unbelief made extensive conquests cause, in a future life, or in the Divine authority in all the Catholic countries of Europe, and in of Christianity. In the last century, on the some countries obtained a complete ascend- other hand, when a Catholic renounced his be. ency. The Papacy was at length brought so lief in the real presence, it was a thousand 10 low as to be an object of derision to infidels, one that he renounced his belief in the Gospel and of pity rather than of hatred to Protestants. too; and when the reaction took place, with During the nineteenth century, this fallen belief in the Gospel came back belief in the Church has been gradually rising from her real presence. depressed state, and reconquering her old do- We by no means venture to deduce from minion. No person who calmly reflects on these phenomena any general law: but we what, within the last few years, has passed in think it a most remarkable fact, that no ChrisSpain, in Italy, in South America, in Ireland, tian nation, which did not adopt the principles in the Netherlands, in Prussia, even in France, of the Reformation before the end of the six can doubt that her power over the hearts and teenth century, should ever have adopted them minds of men is now greater than it was when Catholic communities have, since that time, the “Encyclopædia” and the “Philosophical become infidel and become Catholic again Dictionary” appeared. It is surely remarkable, but none has become Protestant. that neither the moral revolution of the eight- Here we close this hasty sketch of one of the eenth century, nor the moral counter-revolu- most important portions of the history of manLion of the nineteenth, should, in any per- kind. Our readers will have great reason to ceptible degree, have added to the domain of feel obliged to us if we have interested them Protestantism. During the former period, what- sufficiently to induce them to peruse Professor ever was lost to Catholicism was lost also to Ranke's book. We will only caution them Christianity; during the latter, whatever was against the French translation—a performance regained by Christianity in Catholic countries, which, in our opinion, is just as discreditable was regained also by Catholicism. We should to the moral character of the person from whom naturally have expected that many minds, on it proceeds, as a false affidavit or a forged bil the way from superstition to infidelity, or on of exchange would have been; and advise the way back from infidelity to superstition, them to study either the original, or the English would have stopped at an intermediate point. version, in which the sense and spirit o the Between the doctrines taught in the schools of original are admirably preserved.
COWLEY AND MILTON.*
" Referre sermones Deorum et
I Have thought it good to set down in writing an hour on the river.” To this they bum cheeri meinorable debate, wherein I was a listener, fully consented, and forth we walked, Mr. Cow. and two men of pregnant parts and great repu- ley and Fleading Mr. Milton between us, to the lation discoursers; hoping that my friends will Temple Stairs. There we took a boat, and not be displeased to have a record both of the thence we rowed up the river. strange times through which I have lived, and The wind was pleasant; the evening fine; of the famous men with whom I have con- the sky, the earth, and the water beautiful to versed. It chanced in the warm and beautiful look upon. But Mr. Cowley and I held our spring of the year 1665, a little before the sad- peace, and said nothing of the gay sights around dest summer that ever London saw, that I went us, lest we should too feelingly remind Mr. to the Bowling-Green at Piccadilly, whither at Milton of his calamity; whereof, however, he that time the best gentry made continual resort. I needed no monitor, for soon he said, sadly, There I met Mr. Cowley, who had lately left|“Ah, Mr. Cowley, you are a happy man. What Barnelms. There was then a house preparing would I now give for one more look at the sun, for him at Chertsey, and till it should be finished and the waters, and the gardens of this fair he had come up for a short time to London, that city ?" he might urge a suit to his Grace of Bucking. “I know not,” said Mr. Cowley, “whether ham touching certain lands of her majesty's we ought not rather to envy you for that which whereof he requested a lease. I had the ho- makes you to envy others; and that especially nour to be familiarly acquainted with that in this place, where all eyes which are not worthy gentleman and most excellent poet, closed in blindness ought to become fountains whose death hath been deplored with as gene- of tears. What can we look upon which is not ral a consent of all powers that delight in the a memorial of change and sorrow, of fair woods, or in verse, or in love, as was of old things vanished, and evil things done? When that of Daphnis or of Gallus.
I see the gate of Whitehall, and the stately pilAfter some talk, which it is not material to lars of the Banqueting House, I cannot choose sel down at large, concerning his suit and his but think of what I have seen there in former vexations at the court, where indeed his ho- days, masques, and pageants, and dances, and nesty did him more harm than his parts could smiles, and the waving of graceful heads, and do him good, I entreated him to dine with me the bounding of delicate feet. And then I turn at my lodgings in the Temple, which he most to thoughts of other things, which even to recourteously promised. And that so eminent a member makes me blush and weep;-of the guest might not lack a better entertainment great black scaffold, and the axe and the block, than cooks or vintners can provide, I sent to which were placed before those very windows; the house of Mr. John Milton, in the Artillery and the voice seems to sound in mine ears, the Walk, to beg that he would also be my guesi. lawless and terrible voice which cried out that For, though he had been secretary, first to the the head of a king was the head of a traitor. Council of State, and after that to the Protector, There stands Westminster Hall, which who and Mr. Cowley had held the same post under can look upon and not tremble to think how Lord St. Albans in his banishment, I hoped, time, and change, and death confound the notwithstanding, that they would think them- counsels of the wise, and beat down the weaselves rather united by their common art than pons of the mighty? How have I seen it surdivided by their different factions. And so in- rounded with tens of thousands of petitioners Jeed it proved. For while we sate at table crying for justice and privilege ! How have I they talked freely of many men and things, as heard it shake with fierce and proud words, well ancient as modern, with much civility. which made the hearts of the people to burn Nay, Mr. Milton, who seldom tasted wine, both within them! Then it is blockaded by drabecause of his singular temperance, and be goons and cleared by pikemen. And they who cause of his gout, did more ihan once pledge have conquered their master go forth trembling Mr. Cowley, who was indeed no hermit in diet. at the word of their servant. And yet a little At last, being heated, Mr. Milton begged that I while, and the usurper comes forth from it, in would open the windows. “Nay,” said I, “ if his robe of ermine, with the golden staff in one you desire fresh air and coolness, what should hand and the Bible in the other, amidst the hinder us, as the evening is fair, from sailing roaring of the guns and the shouting of the
people. And yet again a little while, and the A Conversation between Mr. Abraham Cowley and Mr. and the hearse and the plumes come forth, and
doors are thronged with multitudes in black, Joka Milton, touching the Great Civil War.-Set down by the tyrant is borne, in more than royal pomp Gentleman of the Middle Temple.