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CHARGING ORDERS.

XL. Order by Court of Quarter Sessions

XLI. Notice by Clerk of the Peace

XLII. Common Lodging Houses Act-Notice

XLIII. Nuisances Removal Act-Order to inspect

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XLIX. Order to permit Execution of Works by Owners 252
L. Summons for Non-payment of Costs, Expenses

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LV. Directions for testing Petroleum to ascertain
the Temperature at which it gives off Inflam-
mable Vapour

LVI. Notice of Resolution of Council to oppose Par-
liamentary Bill..

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LVII. Notice of Resolution of Burgesses consenting
to opposition to Parliamentary Bill

LVIII. Time Table

THE

Town Councillors and Burgesses

MANUAL.

CHAPTER I.

OF CORPORATIONS-MUNICIPAL BOROUGHS, WHEN SANITARY AUTHORITIES.

A CORPORATION is a privilege possessed by one person or several persons, who subsist as a body politick under a special denomination, and are vested by the law with the capacity of perpetual succession, and of acting as a single individual. The object of the institution is to enable the members to act by one united will, and to continue their joint powers and property in the same body undisturbed by the change of members, and without the necessity of perpetual conveyances (a).

(a) There appear to be several sources of municipal institutions(1.) The Roman system of decurions, handed down prescriptively, as in the cities of the south of France. The municipal magistrates of Nîmes are mentioned in the 10th century.

G.

B

Corporations are sole or aggregate.

Corporations sole reside in one person; Corporations aggregate reside in a number of

persons.

Municipal corporations are corporations aggre

(2.) The Teutonic system of guilds, spreading to the whole community.

(3.) The forcible insurrection of the inhabitants against their

lords.

(4.) Charters regularly granted by the king. The Charter of London was granted by Henry I., in 1100 A.D. There were guilds existing in the city before that date.

The object of charters of incorporation is to give to the grantees a general name by which they can sue and be sued and take and grant lands, and that they should, in that general name, enjoy all their rights, privileges and possessions by perpetual succession.

The old chartered towns before Henry VI. (1421) were not incorporated; the municipal bodies of these towns were regarded as bodies perpetual by natural succession-as one generation succeeds another.

The artificial notion of a succession under a special denomination is first instanced in the Charter of Kingston-upon-Hull, A.D. 1439. The Statutes of Mortmain, which provide that religious houses and secular bodies shall not acquire land without the licence of the crown, were the cause of the introduction of municipal corporations. 15 Richard II. c. 5 (A.D. 1391), provides that "mayors, bailiffs and commons of cities, boroughs and other towns which have a perpetual commonalty, and others which have offices perpetual, being as perpetual as men of religion, shall not purchase land without licence of the crown."

Under such provisions boroughs were unable to acquire land for public purposes; and, to enable them to do so, the charters were altered or surrendered, and in new charters the constitution of bodies corporate conferred upon them.

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