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times. The whole principle of his government | pelled to serve in the army. Money, however, was resistance to public opinion; nor did he came in slowly: and the king was compelled make any real concession to that opinion till to summon another Parliament. In the hope it mattered not whether he resisted or con of conciliating his subjects, he set at liberiy ceded; till the nation, which had long ceased the persons who had been imprisoned for relo love him or to trust him, had at last ceased fusing to comply with his unlawful demands. to fear him.
Hampden regained his freedom; and was imHis first Parliament met in June, 1625. mediately re-elected burgess for Wendover. Hampden sat in it as burgess for Wendover. Early in 1628 the Parliament met. During The king wished for money. The Commons its first session, the Commons prevailed on the wished for the redress of grievances. The king, after many delays and much equivoca. var, however, could not be carried on without tion, to give, in return for five subsidies, his funds. The plan of the Opposition was, it full and solemn assent to that celebrated inshould seem, to dole out supplies by small strument, the second great charter of the libersums in order to prevent a speedy dissolution. ties of England, known by the name of the They gave the king two subsidies only, and Petition of Right. By agreeing to this act, the proceeded to complain that his ships had been king bound himself to raise no taxes without employed against the Huguenots in France, the consent of Parliament, to imprison no man and to petition in behalf of the Puritans who except by legal process, lo billet no more sol. were persecuted in England. The king dis. diers on the people, and to leave the cognisance solved them, and raised money by letters un- of offences to the ordinary tribunals. der his privy seal. The supply fell far short In the summer this memorable Parliament of what he needed; and, in the spring of 1626, was prorogued. It inet again in January, 1629. he called together another Parliament. In this Buckingham was no more. That weak, vioParliament, Hampden again sat for Wendover. lent, and dissolute adventurer, who, with no
The Commons resolved to grant a very libe- talents or acquirements but those of a mere ral supply, but to defer the final passing of courtier, had, in a great crisis of foreign and the act for that purpose till the grievances of domestic politics, ventured on the part of the nation should be redressed. The struggle prime minister, had fallen, during the recess which followed far exceeded in violence any of Parliament, by the hand of an assassin. that had yet taken place. The Commons im- Both before and after his death, the war had peached Buckingham. The king threw the been feebly and unsuccessfully conducted. managers of the impeachment into prison. The king had continued, in direct violation of The Commons denied the right of the king the Petition of Right, to raise tonnage and to levy tonnage and poundage without their poundage, without the consent of Parliament. consent. The king dissolved them. They put The troops had again been billeted on the forth a remonstrance. The king circulated a people; and it was clear to the Commons, thai deciaration vindicating his measures, and com- the five subsidies which they had given, as the mitted some of the most distinguished members price of the national liberties, had been given of the Opposition to close custody. Money in vain. was raised by a forced loan, which was appor- They met accordingly in no complying hu. tioned among the people according to the rate mour. They took into their most serious conat which they had been respectively assessed sideration the measures of the government to the last subsidy. On this occasion it was concerning tonnage and poundage. They that Hampden made his first stand for the fun- summoned the officers of the custom-house to damental principle of the English constitution. their bar. They interrogated the barons of He positively refused to lend a farthing. He the exchequer. They committed one of the was required to give his reasons. He answer sheriffs of London. Sir John Eliot, a distin. cd, "inat he could be content to lend as well guished member of the opposition, and an as others, but feared to draw upon himself intimate friend of Hampden, proposed a resothat curse in Magna Charta which should lution condemning the unconstitutional impobe read twice a year against those who in- sition. The speaker said that the king had fringe it.” For this noble answer the Privy commanded him to put no such question to Council committed him close prisoner to the the vote. This decision produced the most Gate-House. After some time, he was again violent burst of feeling ever seen within the brought up; but he persisted in his refusal, walls of Parliament. Hayman remonstrated and was sent to a place of confinement in vehemently against the disgraceful language Hampshire.
which had been heard from the chair. Eliot The government went on, oppressing at dashed the paper which contained his resoluhome, and blundering in all its measures tion on the floor of the House. Valentine and abroad. A war
was foolishly undertaken Hollis held the speaker down in his seat by against France, and more foolishly conducted. main force, and read the motion amidst the Buckingham led an expedition against Rhé, loudest shouts. The door was locked; the key and failed ignominiously. In the mean time, was laid on the table. Black Rod knocked for soldiers were billeted on the people. Crimes, admittance in vain. After passing several of which ordinary justice should have taken strong resolutions, the House adjourned.-On Cugnisance, were punished by martial law. the day appointed for its meeting, it was Nearly eighty gentlemen were imprisoned for dissolved by the king, and several of its refusing to contribute to the forced loan. The most eminent members, among whom were ower people, who showed any signs of insub- Hollis and Sir John Eliot, were committe: to riination, were pressed into the fleet, or com- prison.
LORD NUGENT'S MEMORIALS OF HAMPDEN.
Though Hampden had as yet taken little will, in the intermissions of action, add study part in the debates of the Hcuse, he had been to practice, and adorn that lively spirit with a member of many very important committees, flowers of contemplation, he will raise our and had read and written much concerning the expectations of another Sir Edward Vere, that law of Parliament. A manuscript volume of had this character-all summer in the field, ali Parliamentary Cases, which is still in exist- winter in his study—in whose fall fame makes ence, contains many extracts from his notes. this kingdom a great loser; and, having taken
He now retired to the duties and pleasures this resolution from counsel with the highest of a rural life. During the eleven years which wisdom, as I doubt not you have, I hope and followed the dissolution of the Parliament of pray that the same Power will crown it with a 1628, he resided at his seat in one of the most blessing answerable to our wish. The way beautiful parts of the county of Buckingham. you take with my other friend shows you to be The house, which has, since his time, been none of the Bishop of Exeter's converts;* of greatly altered, and which is now, we believe, whose mind neither am I superstitiously. But almost entirely neglected, was then an old had my opinion been asked, I should, as vulgar English mansion, built in the days of the conceits use to do, have showed my power Plantagenets and the Tudors. It stood on the rather to raise objections than to answer thein. brow of a hill which overlooks a narrow val- A tempert between France and Oxford might ley. The extensive woods which surround it have taken away his scruples, with more adwere pierced by long avenues. One of those vantage to his years. avenues the grandfather of the great statesman although he be one of those that, if his age cut for the approach of Elizabeth ; and the were looked for in no other book but that of opening, which is still visible for many miles, the mind, would be found no ward if you should retains the name of the Queen's Gap. In this die to-morrow; yet it is a great hazard, medelightful retreat Hampden passed several thinks, to see so sweet a disposition guarded years, performing with great activity all the with no more, amongst a people whereof many duties of a landed gentleman and a magistrate, make it their religion to be superstitious in and amusing himself with books and with impiely, and their behaviour to be affected in ,fie!dsports.
ill manners. But God, who only knoweth the He was not in his retirement unmindful of periods of life and opportunities to come, hath his prosecuted friends. In particular, he kept designed him, I hope, for his own servime be. up a close correspondence with Sir John Eliot, time, and stirred up your providence to hus. who was confined in the Tower. Lord Nugent band him so early for great affairs. Then has published several of the letters. We may shall he be sure to find Him in France that perhaps be fanciful; but it seems to us that Abraham did in Sechem and Joseph in Egypt every one of them is an admirable illustration under whose wing alone is perfect safety: of some part of the character of Hampden Sir John Eliot employed himself, during his which Clarendon has drawn.
imprisonment, in writing a treatise on govern. Part of the correspondence relates to the ment, which he transmitted to his friend. lwo sons of Sir John Eliot. These young Hampden's criticisms are strikingly characmen were wild and unsteady; and their father, teristic. They are written with oi that "flowwho was now separated from them, was na-ing courtesy” which is ascribed to him by turally anxious about their conduct. He at Clarendon. The objections are irsinuated sengih resolved to send one of them to France, with so much delicacy, that:ney could scarce. and the other to serve a campaign in the Low ly gall the most irritablo author.
We see, too, Countries. The letter which we subjoin shows how highly Hampden value in the writings that Hampden, though rigorous towards him- of others that consissness which was one of self, was not uncharitable towards others, and the most striking pecuniarities of his own elothat his puritanism was perfectly compatible quence. Sir Juba Zliot's style was, it seems, with the sentiments and the tastes of an accom- too diffuse, ar.d it is impossible not to admire plished gentleman. It also illustrates admi- the skill win which this is suggested. “The rably what has been said of him by Clarendon: piece,” says !Iampden, “is as complete an " He was of that rare affability and temper in image o? t'e pattern as can be drawn by lines debate, and of that seeming húmility and sub--a lively character of a large mind—the submission of judgınent, as if he brought no opi-jec', method, and expression, excellent and nion of his own with him, but a desire of her ugenial, and to say truth, sweetheart, information and instruction. Yet he had so unc.what exceeding my commendations. My subile a way of interrogating, and, under) vords cannot render them to the life. Yet cover of doubts, insinuating his objections 1.o show my ingenuity rather than wil-would that he infused his own opinions into tho:e not a less model have given a full representa. from whom he pretended to learn and receiv tion of that subject-not by diminution but by them.”
contraction of parts? I desire to learn. 1 The letter runs thus: “I am so perle ily dare not say—T'he variations upon each par acquainted with your clear insight is .o che dispositions of men, and ability to set them with courses suitable, that, had you westowed
* Lord Nugent, we think, has misunderstood this pas sons of mine as you have done your own, my satire, in which the custom or sending young men
sage. Hampden seems to allude to Bishop Hall's sixth judgment durst hardly have called it into abroad is censured, and an academic life recommended. question, especially when, in laying the de. We have a general recollection that inere is something sign, you have prevented the objections to be to the same effect in Jall's prose works ; but we have
ticular seem many-all, I confess, excellent. every thing that seemed likely to stunt ii, struck The fountain was full, the channel narrow; its roots deep into a barren soil, and spread its that may be the cause; or that the author re- branches wide to an inclement sky. 'The mul. sembled Virgil, who made more verses by titude thronged round Prynne in the pillory many than he intended to write. To extract with more respect than they paid to Mainwara just number, had I seen all his, I could easily ing in the pulpit, and treasured up the rags have bid him make fewer; but if he had bade which the blood of Burton had soaked, with a me tell which he could have spared, I had been veneration such as rochets and surplices had ceased to inspire.
2. This is evidently the writing, not only of a For the misgovernment of this disastrous man of good sense and good taste, but of a man period, Charles himself is principally responof literary habits. Of the studies of Hampden sible. After the death of Buckingham, he little is known. But as it was at one time in seemed to have been his own prime minister. contemplation to give him the charge of the He had, however, two counsellors who seeducation of the Prince of Wales, it cannot be conded him, or went beyond him, in intolerance doubted that his acquirements were consider- and lawless violence; the one a superstitious able. Davila, it is said, was one of his fa-, driveller, as honest as a vile temper would vourite writers. The moderation of Davila's suffer him to be; the other a man of great vaopinions, and the perspicuity and manliness lour and capacity, but licentious, faithless, of his style, could not but recommend hiin to corrupt, and cruel. so judicious a reader. It is not improbable Never were faces more strikingly character. that the parallel between France and England, istic of the individuals to whom they belonged, the Huguenots and the Puritans, had struck than those of Laud and Strafford, as they still the mind of Hampden, and that he already felt remain portrayed by the most skilful hand of within himself powers not unequal to the lofty that age. The mean forehead, the pinched part of Coligni. While he was engaged in features, the peering eyes of the prelate suit ihese pursuits, a heavy domestic calamity fell admirably with his disposition. They mark on him. His wife, who had borne him nine him out as a lower kind of Saint Dominic, children, died in the summer of 1634. She differing from the fierce and gloomy enthu. lies in the parish church of Hampden, close to siast who founded the Inquisition, as we mighi the manor house The tender and energetic imagine the familiar imp of a spiteful witch to language of her epitaph still attests the bitter- differ from an archangel of darkness. When ness of her husband's sorrow, and the consola- we read his judgments, when we read the retion which he found in a hope full of immor- port which he drew up, setting forth that he tality.
had sent some separatists to prison, and imlu the mean time, the aspect of public affairs ploring the royal aid against others, we feel a grew darker and darker. The health of Eliot movement of indignation. We turn to his had sunk under an unlawful imprisonment of Diary, and we are at once as cool as contempt several years. The brave sufferer refused to can make us. There we read how his picture purchase liberty, though liberty would to him fell down, and how fearful he was lest the fall have been life, by recognising the authority should be an omen; how he dreamed that the which had confined him. In consequence of Duke of Buckingham came to bed to him; that the representations of his physicians, the se- King James walked past him; that he saw verity of restraint was somewhat relaxed. But Thomas Flaxage in green garments, and the it was in vain. He languished and expired a Bishop of Worcester with his shoulders wrapmartyr to that good cause, for which his friend ped in linen. In the early part of 1627, the Hampden was destined to meet a more brilliant sleep of this great ornament of the church but not a more honourable death.
seems to have been much disturbed. On the All the promises of the king were violated 5th of January, he saw a merry old man with without scruple or shame. The Petition of a wrinkled countenance, named Grove, lying Right, to which he had, in consideration of on the ground. On the fourteenth of the same moneys duly numbered, given a solemn assent, memorable month, he saw the Bishop of Lin. was set at naught. _Taxes were raised by the coln jump on a horse and ride away. A day royal authority. Patents of monopoly were or two after this, he dreamed that he gave the granted. The old usages of feudal times were king drink in a silver cup, and that the king made pretexts for harassing the people with refused it, and called for a glass. Then he exactions unknown during many years. The dreamed that he had turned Papist-of all his Puritans were persecuted with cruelty worthy dreams the only one, we suspect, which came of the Holy Office. They were forced to fly through the gate of horn. But of these visions, from the country.
They were imprisoned. our favourite is that which, as he has recordThey were whipped. Their ears were cut off. ed, he enjoyed on the night of Friday the 9th Their noses were slit. Their cheeks were of February, 1627. “I dreamed,” says he, branded with red-hot iron. But the cruelty of " that I had the scurvy; and that forth with all the oppressor could not tire out the fortitude my teeth became loose. There was one in of the victims. The mutilated defenders of especial in my lower jaw, which I could Liberty again defied the vengeance of the Star- scarcely keep in with my finger till I had called Chamber, came back with undiminished reso- for help.” Here was a man to have the
su; lution to the place of their glorious infamy, and intendence of the opinions of a great nation! inanfully presented the stumps of their ears to But Wentworth—who ever names him withbe grubbed out by the hangman's knife. The out thinking of those harsh dark features, en nardv sect grew up and flourished, in spite of nobled by their expressions into more than the
LORD NUGENT'S MEMORIALS OF HAMPDEN.
majesty of an antique Jupiter; of that brow, 'scribed even by the partial Clarendon as pow.
the cause of liberty in Parliament, and had, This great, brave, bad man entered the like Wentworth, abandoned that cause for the House of Commons at the same time with sake of office. He devised, in conjunction Hampden, and took the same side with Hamp- with Finch, a scheme of exaction which made den. Both were among the richest and most the alienation of the people from the throne powerful commoners in the kingdom. Both complete. A writ was issued by the king, comwere equally distinguished by force of charac- manding the city of London to equip and man ler and by personal courage. Hampden had ships of war for his service. Similar writs more judgment and sagacity than Wentworth. were sent to the towns along the coast. These But no orator of that time equalled Wentworth measures, though they were direct viclations of in force and brilliancy of expression. In 1626, the Petition of Right, had at least some show both these eminent men were committed to pri- of precedent in their favour. But, after a time, son by the king; Wentworth, who was among the government took a step for which no prethe leaders of the Opposition, on account of his cedent could be pleaded, and sent writs of shipparliamentary conduct; Hampden, who had money to the inland counties. This was a not as yet taken a prominent part in debate, stretch of power on which Elizabeth herself for refusing to pay taxes illegally imposed. had not ventured, even at a time when all laws
Here their paths separated. After the death might with propriety have been made to bend of Buckingham, the king attempted to seduce to that highest law, the safety of the state. The some of the chiefs of the opposition from their inland counties had not been required to furparty; and Wentworth was among those who nish ships, or money in the room of ships, yielded to the seduction. He abandoned his even when the Armada was approaching our associates, and hated them ever after with the shores. It seemed intolerable that a prince, deadly hatred of a renegade. High titles and who, by assenting to the Petition of Right, had great employments were heaped upon him. relinquished the power of levying ship-money He became Earl of Strafford, Lord-Lieutenant even in the outports, should be the first to levy of Ireland, President of the Council of the it on parts of the kingdom where it had been North; and he employed all his power for the unknown, under the most absolute of his prepurpose of crushing those liberties of which decessors. he had been the most distinguished champion. Clarendon distinctly admits that this tax was His counsels respecting public affairs were intended, not only for the support of the navy, fierce and arbitrary. His correspondence with but “for a spring and magazine that should Laud abundantly proves that government with have no bottom, and for an everlasting supply out Parliaments, government by the sword, was of all occasions.” The nation well understock his favourite scheme. He was unwilling even this; and from one end of England to the that the course of justice between man and other, the public mind was strongly excited. man should be unrestrained by the royal pre- Buckinghamshire was assessed at a ship of rogative. He grudged to the Courts of King's four hundred and fifty tons, or a sum of four Bench and Common Pleas even that measure thousand five hundred pounds. The share of of liberty, which the most absolute of the the tax which fell to Hampden was very small; Bourbons have allowed to the Parliaments of so small, indeed, that the sheriff was blame France.
for setting so wealthy a man at so low a rate. In Ireland, where he stood in the place of But though the sum demanded was a trifle, the the king, his practice was in strict accordance principle of the demand was despotisnı. Hamn. with his theory. He set up the authority of the den, after consulting the most eminent consu: executive government over that of the courts tutional lawyers of the time, refused to pay the of law. He permitted no person to leave the few shillings at which he was assessel; and island without his license. He established determined to incur all the certain expense. rast monopolies for his own private benefit. and the probable danger, of bringing tv a Jle imposed taxes arbitrarily. He levied them solemn hearing this great controversy between ty military force. Some of his acts are de- the people and the crown.
"Till this time,"
says Clarendon, "he was rather of reputation by the sentence of the Star-Chamber, and scal in his own county, than of public discourse or to rot in remote dungeons. The estate and the same in the kingdom; but then he grew the person of every man who had opposed the argument of all tongues, every man inquiring court were at its mercy. who and what he was that durst, at his own Hampden determined to leave England. charge, support the liberty and prosperity of Beyond the Atlantic Ocean, a few of the perthe kingdom.”
secuted Puritans had formed, in the wilderness Towards the close of the year 1636, this of Connecticut, a settlement which has since great cause came on in the Excheqner Cham- become a prosperous commonwealth; and ber before all the judges of England. The which, in spite of the lapse of time, and of the leading counsel against the writ was the cele change of government, still retains something brated Oliver St. John; a man whose semper of the character given to it by its first founders. was melancholy, whose manners re- Lord Say and Lord Brooke were the origina! served, and who was as yet little known in projectors of this scheme of emigration Westminster Hall; but whose great talents Hampden had been early consulted respecting had not escaped the penetrating eye of Hamp- it. He was now, it appears, desirous to with. den. The attorney-general and solicitor-gene- draw himself beyond the reach of oppressors, ral appeared for the crown.
who, as he probably suspected, and as we The arguments of the counsel occupied know, were bent on punishing his manful remany days; and the Exchequer Chamber took sistance to their tyranny. He was accompaa considerable time for deliberation. The opi- nied by his kinsman Oliver Cromwell, over nion of the bench was divided. So clearly whom he possessed great influence, and in was the law in favour of Hampden, that though whom he alone had discovered, under an exhe judges held their situations only during the terior appearance of coarseness and extravaroyal pleasure, the majority against him was gance, ihose great and commanding talents the least possible. Four of the twelve pro- which were afterwards the admiration and the nounced decidedly in his favour; a fifth took a dread of Europe. middle course. The remaining seven gave
The cousins took their passage in a vessel their voices in favour of the writ.
which lay in the Thames, bound for North The only effect of this decision was to make America. They were actually on board, when the public indignation stronger and deeper. an order of Council appeared, by which the "l'he judgment,” says Clarendon, “proved of ship was prohibited from sailing. Seven other more advantage and credit to the gentleman ships, filled with emigrants, were stopped at condemned than to the king's service.” The the same time. courage which Hampden had shown on this Hampden and Cromwell remained; and with occasion, as the same historian tells us, “raised them remained the Evil Genius of the house his reputation to a great_height generally of Stuart. The tide of public affairs was even throughout the kingdom.” Even courtiers and now on the turn. The king had resolved to crown-lawyers spuke respectfully of him. change the ecclesiastical constitution of Scol. “ His carriage," says Clarendon, " throughout land, and to introduce into the public worship of that agitation, was with that rare temper and that kingdom ceremonies which the great body modesty, that they who watched him narrowly of the Scots regarded as popish. This absurd lo find some advantage against his person, to attempt produced, first discontents, then riots, make him less resolute in his cause, were com- and at length open rebellion. _A provisional pelled to give him a just testimony." But his government was established at Edinburgh, and demeanour, though it impressed Lord Falkland its authority was obeyed throughout the king. with the deepest respect, though it drew forth dom. This government raised an army, apthe praises of Solicitor-general Herbert, only pointed a general, and called a General kindled into a fiercer fiame the ever-burning Assembly of the Kirk. The famous instruhatred of Strafford. That minister, in his let- ment called the Covenant was put forth al ters to Laud, murmured against the lenity with this time, and was eagerly subscribed by the which Hampden was treated. “In good faith,” people. he wrote, “were such men rightly served, they T'he beginnings of this formidable insurrecshould be whipped into their right wits.” tion were strangely neglected by the king anil Again he says, “I still wish Mr. Hampden, his advisers. Bui towards the close of the and others to his likeness, were well whipped year 1638, the danger became pressing. An into their right senses. And if the rod be so army was raised; and early in the following used that it smart not, I am the more sorry.” spring Charles marched northward, at the head
The person of Hampden was now scarcely of a force sufficient, as it seemed, to reduce the sare. His prudence and moderation had Covenanters to submission. hitherto disappointed those who would gladly But Charles acted, at this conjuncture, as he have had a pretence for sending him to the acted at every important conjuncture through. prison of Eliot. But he knew that the eye of out his life. After oppressing, threatening, and a tyrant was on him. In the year 1637, mis- blustering, he hesitated and failed. He was bold government had reached its height. Eight in the wrong place, and timid in the wrong place. years had passed without a Parliament. The He would have shown his wisdoın by being decision of the Exchequer Chamber had placed afraid before the liturgy was read in Si. Giles's at the disposal of the crown the whole pro- church. He put off his fear till he had reached perty of the English people. About the time the Scottish border with his troops. Then, of which that decision was pronounced, after a feelle campaign, he concluded a treaty linne, Bastwick, and Burton were mutilated with the insurgents, and withdrew his army.