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These are the only barometer records extant, no ships carrying meteorological instruments in those days.
The log of the Guernsey shows that after Thursday's gale the wind drew from S. by W. to W. and moderated, and the same evening began to back again to W.S.W. with hail showers, the weather during the night being moderate. Next morning, the 26th, the wind had further backed to S.S.W., with hard gales and thick weather. At noon the ship was in about 49° N., 120 W., heading due east for the Channel. Towards evening the gale came on in all its fury, as will be seen from the following extract :
'9 p.m. a violent storm at S.W. by W. insomuch that all our topsails blew loose from the yards, wee lost our foretops and foretopmast spritsail, topsail and topmast skysaile which blew all in pieces. At 11 lowered mainyard, at 12 [midnight] our ship would not live with a foresaile and we splitt and clew from the yard, we shipt a great sea which washed away all our powder in the lower room the ffish room was also filled with water and we lost a great deal of Oyle we had in the body of the ship. 4 foot & water wee lay a Hull the wind bearing to the W. At 10 a.m. [27th] the wind abated. We were put to both pump Bail at all our Hatchwaies. At noon gained of the Ship a very hard gale we still lay a Hull.' Her position at noon, 27th, was about 49° N., 9° W.
The Oxford was 2° or 3° to the eastward of the Guernsey, but the wind changes were very similar, first going from S. into W., and then back into S.W. by Friday morning, remaining in that quarter all day and blowing a strong gale. 'A very violent gale of wind pticulerly frõ 8 till twelve at night. The foresail was split at 10 P.m., and subsequently some other accidents occurred. By midnight of the 27th the ship was five leagues west by south from Scilly.
In Kinsale Harbour a hard gale from S.W. to N.W. by W., with rain and lightning, was recorded, but no further comment was made on the events of the 26th and 27th. Ships on the east of Ireland and on the North Wales coast gave similar information to those at Kinsale, so that we may assume there was nothing very exceptional in the severity of the gale in these localities, although at Parkgate, Cheshire, 'ye Dispatch Pacquett Boat staved to pieces.'
At the entrance to the English Channel the Hampton Court had 'thick hurry durry weather with a great sea, blows hard' on the 26th, the wind having chopped from W.N.W. to S.W. by S. early in the day. * About 1 p.m. set mainsail, at 8 set foresail reef'd, thick weather blows a verry hard storm of wind, insomuch that at about 11 we was forced to lower our yards, but both our courses blew away, as did the spritsail which was furl'd, about 12 the weather yard arm of the main topsail blew loose and broke the yard, likewise blew away main topmast and mizen topsail. About 2 [A.M. of 27th] shipp'd a sea over all as well as yo poop. Had 5 feet water in the store rooms and much between decks.' This ship anchored off Torbay at 6 P.M., 27th. The Hound, at anchor near Penzance, reported on the 27th, 'A violent and terrible storme from 10 last night till 4 this morning which parted our best bower. A Portuguese laden with lemons and oranges was drove by the Sd. tempest from Gwavaslake and run ashore near Marazion.' The wind was at first S.W., then W., and finally N.N.W. Off the Eddystone the Torbay lost sails, topmasts, &c., the worst of the storm being between 11 P.M. and 3.30 A.M., from S.W., the wind afterwards veering to W.N.W. In the Hamoaze, , Plymouth, 'about 10 at night we had a very dreadful storme of wind,' several men-of-war drew from their moorings, and the Defiance drove ashore. In the log of the Fireship Griffin it is noted 'ye Lighthouse on ye Eddystone blown downe, ye Project" m' winStanley, with seven others were lost in itt.'
Milford Haven had a very stormy night, with thunder, lightning, rain, and hail. There was a heavy gale till 2 A.M.,
then exceeding much wind,' and at 3 A.M. in a squall, the wind hauled from S. by W. to W.N.W. At this hour the Cumberland drove.
• We could perceive all over the Harbour severall Wracks and ships lost, no possibillity of any help to be had for them the Storme being so violent.' By 7 A.M. the gale was moderating, but still there was much wind. In the Dolphin's log the remark is 'Storm so very dreadfull.' Very hard gales and rain were experienced at Kingroad,
on the 26th, followed by a violent storm in the night, the store ship Canterbury being driven ashore and almost broken to pieces. At 1 A.M. the best bower of the Suffolk gave way, and she drove ashore close to the Canterbury, her hold having 7 feet of water at 7 A.M. A little way down the coast, at Appledore, Bideford, the Express had laid out the sheet anchor in the forenoon, while the wether was sumthing moderate;' but at 3 P.M. the appearance became suspicious, and 'About 10 att night yo storm came very violent and a little before 12 ye best bower cable
parted. The very violence of the wind carried away our Bowsprit which was presently followed by the Foarmast. The ship was driven ashore, and the crew getting safely to land lived in a tent for some days.
The Monmouth was caught off the Start, where on Friday evening it was blowing very hard, with hazy, rainy weather. '11 P.m. began to blow a mere fret of wind which broached our ship to, tried to wear but could not.' Next morning, when making for the Needles, Blowing most excessive hard, allmost unexpressable with bad weather all sails blown away. 4} A.M. tiller rope broke. Wind changing from S.S.W. to W.N.W.
Numbers of ships had already reached Spithead and neighbourhood. On the Assurance the night was very boisterous; it · Blew extreame hard till l A.M., afterwards a mere Storme till ffive a Clock in ye morning, afterwards continued a very hard gale.' At 2 A.M. it was so violent that the ship went adrift and ashore. The log of the Newark for the 27th states, ' At 4 yesterday affter noon vieered out our long service itt blowing a hard geall at We at 12 at night the wind at W.S.W. blowing a great storm. At 3 this morning our ship drove. . . . In my opynin it was the greatest storm that ever I saw in England. On the Humber it was registered as a vehement storm, with thunder, lightning, and rain, “the hardest storme that ever known of wind.'
Close by, at Portsmouth, the Chichester, with the wind at S. and S.S.W., had 'strong gailes of wind. Between 2 and 3 in yo morning it proving a Harricaine of wind our Mowring came home . . yo hight of the Storme was from 2 till 5 in ye morning there being great damage among us.' The Resolution, which had anchored off Bembridge Point on the evening of the 25th, and owing to the high winds 'could nott way to get farder in, lost both her anchors soon after midnight of the 26th ; at 2 A.M. the ship struck on the Owers at least five times, and continuing to drift eastward, she was wrecked later between Beachy Head and Hastings against Pomsey town her hold being full of water.' No lives were lost.
In Rye Camber the Dispatch had . The most dreadfull storm.' It began at S.S.W., with much rain and thick dirty weather. * About 1 A.M., wind veering to the S.W. by W. blow a most violent storm of wind. As the day came on the wind began to ease.'
All sorts of craft, a considerable number being men-of-war,
crowded the Downs. The Assistance had ' about 2 A.M. a violent storme, held till 7, height of the wind at W.S.W.... about 100 sayle of English and Hamburgers missing.' The Cambridge gave the wind as W.S.W. to W.N.W.'a mightie great storme of wind and a mightie great sea.' The Content reported that the RearAdmiral of the Blue's Flag Ship, the Mary, and other vessels were forced from their anchorage between 2 and 4 A.M. Whether lost or not I cannot tell,' and next day, the 28th, the Mary was seen to be a wreck on the Goodwin, almost under water, but some of the men living on board her, but neither Pinnaces or Barges could come near her by a great way. At 2 A.m. the Dorsetshire had a storm at S.W. which drove her on the Galloper. The Dunwich gives 3 A.M. as the violent part of the storm, the Eagle's log stating that it abated at 10 A.M., the hardest of it having been from S.W. by W. The Nassau had 'an extream hard gale of wind between 12 and 7 A.M.' The Russell had a mere Hurricane at Midnight, 4 A.M. ye storm continuing, 6 A.M. ship lost her rudder,' and going adrift she was forced eastward, striking on the Sand Hender at 3 A.M. on the 29th, and afterwards was cast ashore on the Flats against Goree, about four miles from Helvoetsluis. From 2 till 8 A.M. the storm was at its worst, according to the Shrewsbury. Wind S.S.W. to W.S.W. On shore at Deal the storm 'made all the houses of the Town shake.'
At 7 P.M. on the 25th, the Siam had anchored in Westroat Bay, Margett Towne bearing S.E. by E.,' hard gales blowing all the afternoon and night. On the 26th, 'most part of the afternoon and all night, a most dreadfull Storme of wind at S.W. and W.S.W.,' next day's log stating ‘This morning the Storme continued at W.S.W. and W. till 8 of the Clock, and then began to abate. I ride it out with the Princess Ann, but a Pink and another vessel drew away, and aboundance of ship lost in ye Downes, and aboundance of men drowned.' The Princess Ann's log for the 27th gives at 6 last night itt blew very hard and att 10 it was a mear Hurricane. In the morning the wind lessening something to what itt was in the night.' Wind entered as between S.W. and W.S.W.
Under Sir Cloudesley Shovel, in the Triumph, several ships were at anchor at the Long Sand Head, in the Thames estuary, and their logs agree that the storm was very violent at 3 A.M., when the Association and the Revenge were driven across the Gabbard into the North Sea, the former, by reason of the severe
weather she subsequently encountered, being obliged to put into Gothenburg to refit. The Firme gave 10 P.M. of the 26th as the hour when the storm came on at the Nore.
Chatham had a violent gale from S. and S.W. in the night, with very heavy rain. Several of the moorings in the harbour gave away, and the Vanguard went ashore. The various ships further up the Thames give but little information. At Tripcock Point the Dragon was driven ashore in a storm from S.S.W. to W.S.W., and of four or five vessels at Deptford, the fireship Strombelo noted a strong gale till midnight, 'then a perfect Storme with showers till 3 A.M., at which time more easy wind at W.
At Harwich the Diligence struck yards and topmasts at 8 P.., there being a hard southerly gale. By 3 A.m. it was very vehement at S.W. to W.S.W., the ship going ashore at 5 A.M. It was more moderate at 11 A.M., but continuing a hard gale. hard S.W. gale was recorded in the Adventure at 2 A.m. . Att 7 the storm increasing. Vessels ashore. Blowing an extraordinary storm all night whereby most of the town of Harwich suffer'd, and the wind coming to W.N.W. and W. the storm moderated. Another Dispatch, Pacquet, was sunk here.
Off Yarmouth the Advice had violent storms from 10 P.M. till 10 A.M., with much rain and lightning, wind S. by W., S.W., W.S.W., and W.N.W. "A great many merchant Shipps and Laden Colliers drove on Shoare and were lost.' The Lynn gave an increasing gale on Friday evening; at 3 A.M. it was very strong at S.W. when the best bower anchor came home. At daylight the wind was at W.N.W., and at 11 A.M. the Reserve went to pieces on the Sand, and nearly 250 lives were lost. Towards noon the wind was abating In the Bodleian Library at Oxford there is a short
a account of the disasters caused by the tempest, in which it is stated that at Yarmouth the loss at first appeared dreadful, it being given out that 400 or 500 Colliers perished there; It's true, most of them, and the other Ships were forced from their Anchors, but the Colliers are most of them safe.'
The Tilbury, off Hareborough, felt the storm coming on in the evening, and by midnight it was a hard gale with lightning and small rain. • 2 A.M., stormy winds, storm increasing ; at 6 was very violent at S.S.W. and shifted to N.W., and continued very violent till 11, when it abated.' Off Foulness, Cromer, the Nottingham had a very hard S.W. storm at 3 A.M., which abated somewhat towards noon. The Martin, lying off Boston, alludes