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d that song is dispensed for us by Mr. Hirwen Jones and Mr. en Davies.


Canon Isaac Taylor has pointed out a still more curious crossvision of Europe as a whole, dependent upon underlying racial atures. Two main types of skull are generally distinguished roughout the whole historic and prehistoric period—there are e dolichocephalic or long-headed, and the brachycephalic or hort-headed people. The dolichocephalic Teutonic race,' says he learned Canon frankly, is Protestant; the brachycephalic elto-Slavic race is either Roman Catholic or Greek orthodox. . . . The Teutonic peoples are averse to sacerdotalism, and have shaken ff priestly guidance and developed individualism. Protestantism as a revolt against a religion imposed by the South upon the North, but which had never been congenial to the Northern mind. The German princes, who were of purer Teutonic blood than their subjects, were the leaders of the ecclesiastical revolt. Scandinavia is more purely Teutonic than Germany, and Scandinavia is Protestant to the backbone. The Lowland Scotch, who are more purely Teutonic than the English, have given the freest development to the genius of Protestantism.' And then the intrepid Canon, instead of worrying about theological explanations of the fact, goes on to show that the mean cephalic index (as it is called) of the Protestant Dutch is nearly that of the Swedes and the North Germans; while the Belgians are Catholics because their cephalic index approaches that of the Catholic Parisians. If a Swiss canton is long-headed, it is Protestant; if round-headed, it is Catholic. And Canon Taylor accounts (rightly, as I think) for one apparent British exception by saying shrewdly, 'The Welsh and the Cornishmen, who became Protestant by political accident, have transformed Protestantism into an emotional religion, which has inner affinities with the emotional faith of Ireland and Italy.'

Unless so distinguished a divine had led the way, I do not know whether I should have ventured myself to follow into this curious by-path of ethnology. But, in future, whenever one is tempted to ask oneself the once famous question, 'Why am I a Protestant?' the answer will be obvious- Because 75 is my cephalic index. If it were 79, I should, no doubt, have become a Dominican brother."

How charming is divine ethnology! I have said enough, I hope, to show that it is not harsh and crabbed as dull fools suppose, but teeming with odd hints of unsuspected quaintness. GRANT ALLEN.


CHIEF FACTOR ARMSTRONG drew the corn-cob from his mouth and spoke :

'You'll be doing me a real service, if you will go with Mac, Talbot. I should hate to send him out, all by himself as you might say. Sinapis isn't a much better companion than a dog.'

The object of the expedition I was about to make with MacDonald, assistant factor, was twofold. Game of all kind had been scarce that season, even wolves had deserted us, while valuable skins came in too slowly for advantageous trading. So we were going to explore the country northwards for signs of the larger fur-bearers. seeing that the reports of the Indians couldn't be relied upon. Still the same unreliable individuals had furnished us with information, which formed the principal incentive to a journey of investigation. There were, so they said, a band of men at no great distance, who were trapping all the best furs in that district, thereby infringing upon the rights of the Governor and Company of Adventurers of England trading into Hudson's Bay.'

Armstrong didn't believe this story, but still he was bound to make a decent search. For if such marauders actually existed, and it transpired that he had made no effort to verify the report, he would, of course, be found guilty of negligence.

The following morning everything was ready for our departure. The long sleigh, packed with provisions and furs, lay upon the glistening snow bed before the fort, while Sinapis with a powerful whip attempted to control the team of twenty-four dogs, the finest lot in the north, and the pride of the chief factor's heart. Well they might be, for the famous breed of sleigh dog, or husky as they are generally named, is well-nigh extinct to-day. The yapping curs in use now are as closely related to them as is the town Indian of the present to his brother of a century ago.

The huskies are creatures more closely allied to bears than dogs. Their strength and staying powers are enormous, and their ferocity is on a par with their hardiness, which is indeed almost abnormal, for I have driven a team for a week on nothing but a little hard biscuit with a few scraps of deer pemmican and frozen fish strips once in the twenty-four hours. Yet they have snapped

as fiercely, and been to all appearance as strong on the last few miles as at the start.

The fierceness of these great brutes has caused many a painful tragedy. Father Royal, priest of a northern mission station, possessed one of the finest teams it has ever been my fortune to look upon. One day I found him in a state of the greatest distress. 'Mon pauvre Henri!' was the only answer I could get from him at first; but after a time I found out the cause of his grief. His half-breed servant had that very morning been torn to pieces, and partially devoured by the huskies. Before I left he was in better spirits, and had announced his intention of at once shooting the canine murderers. However, pride of possession must have been too strong for him, as not long afterwards I heard that a second servant had accepted the responsibility of looking after the dogs, only to share the same fate as his predecessor. After this I believe it became a common thing in that part of the country for a man to tell his enemy to go and look after Father Royal's huskies.'

Sinapis sprang into the back of the sleigh, the long lash curled forth, the leaders yelped impatiently. The next second we were gliding along swiftly, almost enveloped in the smoke-like breath of the dogs, while old Armstrong waved a farewell from the fort door. There is nothing half so exhilarating as a good scamper over the northern plains, wrapped up to the nose tip, lying full length along the sleigh, with a score of thoroughbred huskies in front. Away on all sides extend the snow-covered wastes, broken here and there by dark-green fir bluffs, the tresses silvered by ice crystals. Not a man, not an animal, no bird, nor insect may greet the eye for miles. But what of that? It is glorious to see the pale blue sky, dotted over with fragile cirri ; to watch the crystals dancing like winter fireflies in myriads around, or to feel the sharp prick of the frost against the exposed features; to hear the comfortable swish of the sleigh as it glides along, with the quick breathing of the dogs. This is indeed to view unrolled nature's stores.

For the first day we travelled at a great pace, for the snow bed was solid and fairly even, though at times we would glance with sudden shock off a hidden point of rock, or grate over a fallen tree trunk which the last sprinkle of snow managed to conceal. At evening we camped well inside a bluff, keeping up a huge fire, which was indeed needed, for the little spirit ther

mometer I had brought with me marked forty-six below zero when I read it at ten o'clock, and of course it would sink much lower than that before morning.

It was not until we had finished supper, and were bending to light our pipes at the fire, that MacDonald put a suspicion I had been harbouring for the last hour into words. 'Say,' he remarked, have you noticed Sinapis lately?'

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The Indian appeared restless and uncomfortable. He moved listlessly, and accomplished his tasks without any pretence of alacrity, working slowly and heavily, though that was no new thing with him.

I answered Mac's question with another. with him?'

What's wrong

He snorted impatiently. Sick, and dead sick, too. He was bad when we started, but never said a word, darn him.'


'He may be all right to-morrow.'

That's a likely thing. You know what a weak, flimsy affair an Indian's constitution is. He's sick one day, dead the next; doing his usual work in the morning, taking his long rest at evening. It's no use kicking backwards because you don't want to go on. Any darned old mule can do that. What we want to do is to face this question.'

'We've got to trust to luck. Let's put him in the sleigh, wrap him up well, and if he's all right in the morning, the better for us. If he isn't, we'll have done all we can. You might have been worse off, Mac. If I hadn't come, you might have talked about being short handed.'

'If you weren't here, I shouldn't think twice about it,' he said rather sulkily; 'I should just hitch up the huskies first thing in the morning, and start to work, covering those tracks we made to-day.'

Unluckily, next morning there could be no question about the seriousness of the Indian's malady. What the disease was I couldn't tell; but his strength had gone, his head and body were racked with pains, and altogether he seemed in a bad way. However we started off north as soon as we had partaken of some food, and made good progress all forenoon. Then our evil fortune overtook us. We came out into bad country, covered over with rocks, and protected on either side by a deep band of firs. Here the snow bed was uneven. The sleigh, instead of gliding over the surface, broke through the crust, while the dogs sank up to their

ellies, tugging ineffectually, and filling the air with their short, angry barks.

Macdonald and I looked at each other. Anger was visible in every line of his countenance, as he sulkily shouted to the dogs, who ceased from their efforts willingly enough.

'Just as I told you, Talbot,' he grumbled. Directly Sinapis is struck down, this sort of job crops up. We're going to have a nice day of it, I tell you.'

There was no help for it. We lashed on the snow-shoes and walked ahead of the dogs, breaking a trail for them. It was hard work that, and took all the breath we could spare, so there was little conversation, until we reached a good camping place about six o'clock, and began to fix up for the night. Luckily the last few miles had been fairly easy, so we looked forward to clear sailing on the morrow. It is worthy of note that, during the whole of the day's travel, we had never sighted a living thing. I don't think you could find another country, where you may journey the sun's course without casting eyes upon something which can lay claim to vital activity.

Sinapis was better, I thought. He was quieter, and had stopped groaning. He lay still, and never appeared to notice either of us. We did what we could for him, little enough, then left him and tried to get to sleep ourselves. The night was much milder, if twenty-five below may be called warm, but we were well sheltered by bluffs on every side.

We had not reasoned incorrectly, as we soon discovered on making a start the following morning. The bad country had been left behind, and we scudded over a level bed at high speed. So we covered a large area of country that day; but still we saw no game, only a few snow birds with a wolf slinking away here and there. It was indeed a barren season. Also we saw no tracks of the band of trappers we had come out to search for, so we put the story down as a fabrication of the native brain. But later it transpired that they were correct after all. The band was never approached; but they quarrelled, when nearing Hudson's Bay and their headquarters, the result of which was that two men, both half-breeds, were picked up by the Indians from the snow, fearfully hacked with knives about face and body.

About four o'clock that afternoon a strange thing happened. We were gliding briskly along in the mysterious semi-darkness, when I found that my eyes were troubling me. They smarted,

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