« AnteriorContinuar »
pens that only one leg is attacked, and this, in some
These people seek to cure their diseases by enchantment. They call their enchanters, or conjurors, Mullingar, that is, doctor. These men are generally clever fellows, and either from the accident of a dream, or through cunning, give out that they have the power of seeing Jannock, that is, a being which is neither a god nor a devil, but a phantom to which every kind of good and evil is attributed; which is feared and not feared; whose name is constantly in their mouths as the most common exclamation; and yet spoken with fear and dread in the dark. When closely questioned as to the nature of this being, they lower their voices to a whisper, and declare it to be "all same white man's devil.”
Every tribe (that is, a number of small families collected together) has its doctor. One of the tribe enjoys this dignity, and in some rare cases it is shared by two persons. The doctor is not a chief or leader; but be is looked upon with awe as a familiar of Jannock's, as an inspired man, and long journeys are often undertaken to consult him. Suppose the patient to be suffering from rheumatism; he is extended on the ground, and the part affected is rubbed violently for some time with the hand, If after several of these applications the the conjuror, perhaps, assisting the friction by means of a rough stone. pain ceases, or is diminished, and the attack seems to have yielded, the cunning doctor, with many contortions of his body and much blowing and spluttering over the patient, appears at length to extract a piece of quartz from the ear, or from under the arm-pits, or from the affected with the disease, and then pretends that part this piece of quartz is the disease itself concentrated; and thus extracted at the expense of a large portion of the patient's skin rubbed off during this rude operation. These quartz pebbles are preserved with great care in some secret place by the relatives of the patient.
Our informant states that he discovered only one medicinal plant in use among this people, namely, a small shrub, which, when heated, smells strongly of garlic; this is strewed on the floor of the wigwam and slept upon. It is supposed to be a remedy for head-ache, to which these people are very subject in winter, arising probably from their consumption of vast quantities of whale flesh in a filthy and corrupt state, a feast from which Europeans, under almost any circumstances, would turn away with horror and disgust.
These people are not long-lived. Few of the men attain the age of sixty, and the women seldom live to the age of forty. The oldest woman our informant ever saw might have been fifty; but they are so miserably shrivelled even when young, that it is difficult to form an opinion of their age. These people make no calcu lation of the lapse of time and the probable termination of their career; they appear to regard such subjects with great indifference; they never look back upon the past; they think only of the present moment; when sleepy they lie down; when hungry they eat; and when inclined to walk, they do so in an idle and listless manner; and only while engaged in hunting do the men display energy and activity.
THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE.
The foregoing articles of food are mostly, if not entirely procured by the women, by means of their long sticks, with the use of which they are surprisingly dexterous; and which in their wigwam squabbles, are converted into instruments of defence; with these they often inflict serious wounds on each others' heads, and give and receive blows which would prove highly dangerous, if not mortal, to an European, with seeming
The men obtain their food by hunting and fishing, the practice of which they resemble the North American Indians. Whether in hunting or fishing, their chief dependence is upon the spear; but in hunting the smaller animals they also use a toorala and kylie. Their spears are barbed and thrown by the mear, or meera of Swan River, from the hand with incredible force and dexterity; the barb is to prevent the spear from being drawn out of the animal's body, which it does effectually, and the prey is seldom lost. Their hunting season commences in the month of September, when the equinoctial gales set in, and the kangaroos are fat from the spring grasses.
In the summer months numbers of the natives assemble at day-light in the shallow bays, when the neap or low tides prevail from the influence of the easterly breezes; when wading to the knee they pursue with their spears the fish; they run about hither and thither, making a great noise; and in this way capture great numbers; many of the young men will kill in this manner ten or twelve pounds weight of fish during one tide. On the ocean side of King George's Sound, they also congregate, and from the rocks spear fish of enormous size. Our informant has seen men capture a black wrasse of upwards of thirty pounds' weight; and other kinds are described as weighing from fifty to sixty pounds, one of which affords to a whole tribe a noble repast, which is generally concluded with a dance.
The natives also procure at the fall of the year great quantities of fish by forming wears of brushwood at high water in the estuaries and shallow bays, by which means whole shoals are caught. From this abundance of food they often suffer, the body breaking out into boils and cutaneous eruptions. It is curious to remark, that the habit of capturing fish in wears is known to almost every nation on the earth's surface.
Throughout the greater portion of the year, the chief
The natives are subject to many diseases, among which
We here conclude the information kindly furnished by our correspondent respecting these remarkable people. In another article we propose to state some further particulars on the authority of Mr. Scott Nind, Capt. on Western Australia. Grey, Mr. Backhouse, and one or two other recent writers
JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISHER WEST STRAND LONDON
The Castelle of Barnard stondith stately apon Tese.-LELAND.
The moon is in her summer glow,;
THE chronicle of Mickleton states that "Guy Baliol came into England with the Conqueror, and to him gave William Rufus the barony of Bywell, in Northumberland, and the forests of Teesdale and Narwood with the lordship of Middleton in Teesdale and Gainford, with also their royalties, franchises, and immunities." Barnard Castle did not then exist, but the commanding situation attracted the notice of Barnard, the son of Guy he reared his castle on the lofty cliff which overhangs the Tees, called it after his own name, BARNARD's VOL. XXV.
PRICE ONE PENNY
CASTLE, and made it the head and seat of his barony and feudal government. Peasants and retainers gathered for protection and favour around and under the walls of their chieftain's fortress. Barnard and his descendants granted to the increasing population common rights and civil immunities; and a borough and market town arose under the shelter of these powerful barons, separate from and independent of the wide patrimony of St. Cuthbert. A son of the same name succeeded to the patrimony in 1167. Of him it is related that, in 1174, he joined Robert de Stutevile, and other northern barons, in relieving Alnwick castle, then besieged by William, king of Scotland. "Towards morning, when they had proceeded about twenty-five miles from Newcastle, so thick a fog arose as to render the march dubious or dangerous; but sensible of the advantages of speed and decision, Stay or turn who will,' said Baliol, if I go alone, yet will I onward.' Fortune favoured the enterprise; the mist suddenly dispersed, and the towers of Alnwick glittered before them in the morning sun. William of Scotland was observed at some distance in the open field, with of his troops, fearless of any surprise, were plundering the no stronger escort than a party of sixty horse, whilst most resistance, the Lion of Scotland was led away prisoner, and country in scattered parties. After a short but gallant delivered to King Henry at Northampton."
In the turbulent reign of King John, this castle held out against the barons in favour of the sovereign. In 1116, the occupier, Hugh Baliol, was joined in commission with Philip de Ulcotes, then guardian of the bishopric, to defend the northern marches of Teesdale against 778
an expected invasion of the Scots. In August, 1216, Alexander of Scotland entered England as an ally of Louis of France (to whom the pope had granted John's kingdom); he swept through Cumberland with a powerful army, and reconnoitred Baliol's strong-hold. "Whilst Alexander and his attendants were surveying the rocky strength of the fortress, a man on the battlements discharged a shaft from a cross-bow, which 'strake Eustace Vesey (Alexander's brother-in-law) on the forehead with such might that he fell dead to the ground. At this fatal accident, the Scots immediately drew off their forces." In the service of King John, ("among whose faults that of forgetting to reward the services of his adherents could not justly be counted,") Baliol seems to have acquired some habits which he did not find it convenient to relinquish. "Certain it is," says Dugdale, "that Hugh Baliol benefited himself not a little in those troublesome times of King John; for when all was quiet, at the entrance of Henry III., he could not forbear his wonted course of plundering." This is only one of the numerous illustrations of the general corruption of morals among all classes of society that always accompanies civil war.
In 1278, John Baliol succeeded at an early age to the vast possessions of his family. From his mother he inherited Devorgill, in Scotland, whence "he derived the very dubious blessing of the nearest claim in blood to the crown of Scotland, after the decease of the Maid of Norway." Under the decision of Edward I. of England, his title was pronounced superior to those of Bruce and Hastings: he was crowned King of Scotland in 1292, and soon after did homage to Edward for his crown. The succeeding events of his life belong to the history of Scotland, rather than to that of his castle.
On the forfeiture of John Baliol's English estates, in 1296, Anthony Beke, bishop of Durham, seized Barnard Castle and its dependencies in right of his royal purchase. The castle and honour of Barnard were seized
by the king and granted to Guy Beauchamp, earl of Warwick, one of the most powerful of the English nobles. Some of the prelates who succeeded Beke resisted this alienation, and sought to recover the severed estates. In the first year of Edward III., parliament acknowledged the claims of the see on Barnard Castle to be just, and writs commanding restitution were issued. These, and repeated orders to deliver up possession to the bishop were never obeyed, and "for five descents, the Beauchamps and their princely successors, the Nevills of Warwick, held, with one slight interruption, full possession of Barnard Castle, which never again became subject to the see of Durham."
The great Earl of Warwick, who fell in Barnet-field, on Easter-day, 1471, left two daughters, Isabel, who married George, duke of Clarence, and Anne, successively wife of Edward, prince of Wales, and of Richard the Third. On the attainder of Clarence, Richard obtained undivided possession of the castle; at his death it fell into the hands of Henry the Seventh, but how long it remained in the possession of the crown is not known. It appears to have been vested in Nevill, earl of Westmoreland, some time before the forfeiture of the last earl, in 1569, when, during the disturbances in the north, which involved in ruin the great houses of Percy and Nevill, Sir George Bowes threw himself into Barnard Castle, which he had defended against the main body of the insurgents for eleven days, and then surrendered for want of provisions, on honourable terms. The delay gave time to the Earls of Warwick and Sussex to advance, and mainly contributed to the speedy suppression of the insurrection. For this eminent service, Sir George Bowes obtained the demesnes under a lease. "What the penury or prudence of Elizabeth had retained, the prodigality of James lavished on a favourite; and, in 161-, the fee of the castle and manor were granted to Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, afterwards Earl of Somerset, on whose disgrace and condemnation to death, the lordship
was resumed by the crown; and soon after, with Brancepeth, and the other forfeited estates, was settled for the maintenance of Charles, prince of Wales, by demise, for ninety-nine years, to Sir Francis Bacon, and others, with power to grant leases for twenty-seven years, or three lives. In 16-, the surviving grantees assigned the unexpired residue of the term in the demesne lands of Barnard Castle, &c., to Sir John Henry Vane, Knt. This was the first footing that the Vanes obtained in Barnard Castle. In 1640, Sir Henry Vane had a grant from the crown of various privileges annexed to his honour or lordship of Raby and Barnard Castle, under which the lordship is still vested in the Duke of Cleveland, Earl of Darlington."
It appears, however, that in 1630, this fortress was unroofed and totally dismantled. After this date, several entries occur in the court rolls, which prove the ruinous and deserted condition of the castle; orders against encroachments by new buildings in the moat, and prohibitions against carrying away materials for building, or laying rubbish against the wall.
The remains of the castle cover an extent of ground equal to about six acres and three quarters. The most massive portions are at the edge of a steep rock, about eighty feet above the river, in the north-west corner of the principal area, commanding a most beautiful prospect up the river.
The present ruins do not convey an adequate idea of this ancient stronghold in the time of its prosperity. It was inclosed from the town by a strong and high wall, with a gateway from the present market-place, and another to the north from the Flatts. The area entered by the market-place gate does not appear to have had any communication with the chief strongholds and bulwarks of the place, but probably contained the chapel; it is separated from the interior buildings by a deep fosse, which surrounds the rest of the fortress.
of the rocks behind Briggate or Bridgegate street. This area is fenced with a high wall along the edge In all this length of wall, there appears no cantonment, bastion, or turret; if ever it had any embrasures, they are now totally gone. To the north the wall has a more ancient and fortified appearance. The gateway to the Flatts opens from a large area to the Roman road, which on the one hand communicated with the ford that gave name to the village on the Yorkshire banks of the river, called Street-ford, now corrupted to Stratford; and on the other hand led towards Street-le-ham and
Staindrop. This area, together with that before described, were anciently used to receive the cattle of the adjoining country, in times of invasion and public danger. The gateway last-mentioned is defended by one half-round tower, or demi-bastion, and the broken walls show some appearance of maskings and outworks; and at a turn of the wall, towards the south, there was a tower, which by its projection, flanked the wall towards the gate. Over the fosse there was a drawbridge to the gate. In this area are the remains of some edifices, one of which is called Brackenbury's Tower, having deep vaults, now lying open; but as the ground is covered with a thick old orchard, it is impossible to form any distinct idea of the former state of edifices therein. The chief strongholds of this fortress stand on more elevated ground than any within the areas described; surrounded by a dry ditch or covered way with small gateways through the cross or intersecting walls; this ditch is terminated on one hand by a sally-port that commanded the bridge to the west, and perhaps was anciently of use to scour the pass under the wall, now Briggate street, and the other sally-port to the north; the covered way almost surrounding the inner fortress. The area in which the chief erections were arranged is almost circular, and the buildings are of different Towards the orchard the walls are of modern and
superior architecture, supported by strong buttresses defended by a square turret towards the east; to the south the wall appears very ancient and thick, and has been strengthened by trains or lines of large oak
beams, disposed in tiers in the centre of the wall at | arches, I enterid straite into Richmondshire, that str. equal distances, so as to render it firm against batter-streaceith up with that ripe to the very hed of Tese." ing engines on each side of the sally-port, to the The present bridge consists of two arches handsomely bridge, within the gate, was a semi-circular demi-bas- groined. The date, E. R. 1569, is on a stone in the tion, loaded with earth to the top, very strong and of wall fronting Briggate. rough mason-work, built chiefly of blue flints; the greatest part of one of the bastions still stands; the other, whose foundation only appears, has long been gone to decay. Here are some of the most ancient parts of the castle, and probably part of the works of the Baliols. The west side of the area contained the
Immediately without the north wall of the castle are the Flatts, now inclosed and cultivated, with the Ewer, or reservoir, mentioned by Hutchinson. "The view from this natural terrace is magnificent. To the left is the ruined castle, crowning its rocky steep, and the old bridge; westward, the woody river-valley is seen for miles, and beyond are the blue distant hills, near the sources of the resting on the neat scattered village of Starfforth, with its Tees; in front and across the river the eye is relieved by simple church, surrounded by upland inclosures of green pasturage; and westward, on the deep woods of Lartington, backed by the wild distant moorlands.
principal lodgings; in some parts six stories in height:
"The whole of the banks beneath and beyond the Flatts are a scene of continued beauty. The Tees rushes broad and wild, whirling in eddies of surf, or roaring over masses of solid stone, covering the mill-dam with foam and spray, beneath high shelving banks, covered with native oak and hazel, and intersected by the Woolhouse Beck, and smaller streams falling rapidly from the hill. On the Yorkshire side, a small water, descending from the romantic deep dale, and emerging from the woods of Lartington, throws its slender streamlet into the Tees."
The author of the Tour in Teesdale describes these
wild scenes in beautiful and animated language :—
When you reach the tangled dell at the end of the terand take the road through a fine hanging wood by the Tees race (the Flatts), wind down a small track to the rivulet, side to a small inclosure, part of an ancient park, in the true character of Shakspere's forest scenes, where his outlaws revel and his fairies sport; keep the river, and you will gain a most truly solemn and sequestered spot, comac-pletely closed in by wood, and undisturbed by any sound save the remotely-dashing water. The wild forms of the venerable oaks that skirt the old moss-covered wall of the inclosure; the noble height of the opposite hill, covered to the summit with lofty trees; the glassy smoothness of the river at your feet; and the scattered masses of rock in its channel, impress you with delicious awe. Ascend the hill, and go through a ploughed field, along a carriage road, to a thatched helm or shed in a little wild coppice, (in themselves à pleasing picture,) and you will enjoy a most enchanting scene; but seek for a small oak beyond, near a serpentine path, rather below the summit of the hili, on the brow of the river, and you command at once a view pencil must alike fail. each way. I shall not pretend to describe it; the pen and
The following is what Mr. Surtees appropriately terms "a cabinet picture," by the same artist:
Walk over the Mains, a large pasture on the contrary side of the town to the Flatts; cross it towards the mill, and follow the Tees to the Abbey Bridge. A segment of the arch is seen, deeply shaded by the hanging woods on each side of the river, which, considerably below, presents an unbroken lake-like surface, but within a hundred yards opposing rocks towards the bridge. Endeavour to get on recovers its rough impetuous character, and foams over the rocks, and pass under the bridge, to the distance of about a hundred and fifty yards, till you are opposite to & large mass of rock in the mid-stream; turn round, and, through the majestic arch, the ruins of Egleston Abbey appear like a framed picture. Climb the hill, and return by the fields to the high road. As you approach, you have another and perhaps the best view of the abbey, and an extensive and diversified country. Go down to the bridge which looks on two fine avenues of wood and rock, both up and down the river; one terminated by the tower of Barnard Castle, and taking in the ruins and a rude bridge over a small rivulet; the other closed by the house at Rokeby.
Such is the description of this ancient stronghold, companied by a plan of the ground plot by Mr. Grose, published by Mr. Hutchinson, in his History of Durham, 1785. Mr. Surtees, in his beautiful work on the same subject, gives a very complete history of this castle, with memoirs of its early lords, and the present appearance of its ruins. From the time when Hutchinson wrote, much of this castle has fallen, and many of the interior buildings have been almost obliterated. The outer area is a pasture, and the space within the inner moat a garden and orchard, inclosed by the shell of the mighty fortress. Old Leland says, "The castelle of Barnard stondeth stately apon Tese. The first area hath no very notable thing yn it, but the fair chapelle, wher be two
Mr. Surtees remarks, that though the "fair chapelle" has totally perished, the ground plot as described by Leland, and the division of the outward and inner area, may be still most distinctly traced. The fortress stood probably in all its princely strength when Sir George Bowes in 1569, stood a siege of eleven days against the whole power of the insurgent earls; but, if ballad authority be evidence, it seems not easy to understand what is intended by the outer walls of "lime and bricke." Perhaps on the whole it is most reasonable to suppose that the insurgents got possession of the outer area, but were baffled before the chief strength of the place, or citadel, as it might be termed, within the
The baron to his castle fied,
To Barnard Castle then fled hee;
For they were cut in rocks of stone.
Immediately under the command of the castle is the bridge which connects the long winding street of Briggate with Yorkshire. Leland says: "From Barnardes Castelle over the right fair bridge on Tese of three
WE are more disposed to make candid allowances for the defects of our own age than for those of preceding times.
HONEST loss is preferable to shameful gain; for, by the one a man is a sufferer but once; by the other, always.
THAT state of life is most happy, where superfluities are not required, and necessaries are not wanting. PLUTARCH.
Were thronged with constellations, and the seas Strewn with their images.-JAMES MONTGOMERY.
"As there are stars in the sky, so are there stars in the sea," says the naturalist to whom we are indebted for the first work ever published for the express purpose of elucidating the history of star-fishes. This naturalist was John Henry Link, an apothecary of Leipsic, who rendered himself remarkable by his botanical and zoological acquirements. He published the work in question in 1733, in the form of a handsome folio volume, containing figures of numerous species and varieties of the animals, with short descriptions attached.
Star-fishes, or sea-stars, are so common on most shores, that few persons can have visited the sea-side without observing some of the ordinary kinds left on the Band at the receding of the tide, or lying among rocks below high-water mark. The bodies of these animals consist of five or more rays, proceeding from a centre; hence, by the children of fishermen, they are sometimes called by such names as "five fingers," "dead man's hands," &c. In some places, these harmless animals appear to be the objects of superstition and dread; and such feelings are doubtless enhanced by the wild stories of sailors, who, in returning from tropical countries, describe star-fishes of such enormous growth, that they are capable of entangling and drawing down a ship's boat. Such accounts will be further noticed when we come to speak of the different species to which they more particularly refer; but in commencing a description of sea-stars, it may be desirable to take a less common, but most interesting species, to which the attention of naturalists has been particularly drawn, in consequence of new discoveries respecting its structure, and the changes to which it is subject.
I. THE ROSY FEATHER-STAR.
Comatula rosacea. (LINK.)
THE Rosy Feather-Star, so called by Professor Forbes, in his recent History of British Star-Fishes, is the only animal of its kind at present inhabiting our seas; and as belonging to the almost extinct order of Crinoid star-fishes, it is an object of much interest among naturalists. The words of the Professor himself will best convey to our readers an idea of the former importance of these animals in the economy of the world, as evidenced by the fossil remains with which our country
Now scarcely a dozen kinds of these beautiful animals live in the seas of our globe, and individuals of these kinds
are comparatively rarely to be met with: formerly they were among the most numerous of the ocean's inhabitants, -so numerous, that the remains of their skeletons constitute great tracts of the dry land as it now appears. For miles and miles we may walk over fragments of the Crinoidea; fragments which were once built up in animated forms, encased in living flesh, and obeying the will of creatures among the loveliest of the inhabitants of the ocean. Even in their present disjointed and petrified state, they excite the admiration, not only of the naturalist, but of the applied to them, indicates a popular appreciation of their common gazer; and the name of Stone-lily, popularly beauty. To the philosopher they have long been subjects of contemplation as well as of admiration. In him they raise up a vision of an early world,-a world, the potentates of which were not men, but animals,-of seas, on whose tranquil surface myriads of convoluted nautili sported, and in whose depths millions of lily-stars waved wilfully on their slender stems.
The most curious part of the history of the featherstar is this; that in the early stages of its growth it is mounted on a stalk, and gradually increases and unfolds at its extreme end; but when its growth is complete, it is cast off from the parent stem, and commences a free and separate existence in the star-like form in which it is usually found.
While it is not uncommon to find animals (among the zoophytes, for instance,) which remain fixed to one spot during the whole period of their existence, and on the other hand, to find others that are free and locomotive in their first stages, and afterwards become permanently fixed; it is quite a new fact, and one without parallel in the whole range of the organized part of creation, that "an animal growing for a period, like a flower, fixed by its stem," should drop from its pedicel and become, during the remainder of its life, free and locomotive. It is not to be wondered at, therefore, that when Mr. Thomson first discovered the young animal in its first or fixed state of existence, he supposed it to belong to those which are permanently fixed, and named it in accordance with that supposition. After discovering his mistake he writes, "When I formerly described the young of the Comatula as a new species of Pentacrinus, no person could have suspected so anomalous and unexpected a result as that it was the young state of this curious starfish, an animal not only free, but leading the most vagrant life of any of the tribe with which it has been associated by naturalists,-at one time crawling about among submarine plants, at others floating to and fro, adhering to thin fragments by means of its dorsal claspers, or even swimming about after the manner of the meduse."
It will now be interesting to describe the appearance of the feather-star in its perfect or free state as it is usually seen, and for this purpose we shall endeavour to simplify the scientific account of Professor Forbes, in which he describes the specimens taken by himself in the Irish Sea. The adult animal, then, consists of a cup-shaped calcareous base, having on the outside of the cup a number of slender, jointed, simple arms, and on the inside, a soft body, which is the stomach of the animal, with a membrane, and other appendages. The arms are five in number, but as each arm separates into two parts very near to the base, the animal appears to have ten arms. The arms are not all exactly alike, but are of two kinds. One kind has fourteen joints, and a thick, blunt, curved, claw, which is smaller than the joints, and has a horny lustre: the other kind has eighteen rough joints, and an almost straight claw, which is larger than the joints preceding it. All the arms are pinnated or winged, that is having a number of small, slender arms, or filaments, proceeding from the sides of the principal arm. In a full-grown feather-star there are thirty-four of these pinnæ on each side of each arm. The stomach of the animal is thin and membranous, and has an opening in the centre. From the side of the stomach proceeds an intestine which winds round the body, and has a laterally-placed opening. The membrane, or skin which covers the stomach, is also the