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THE CATHEDRAL OF SEVILLE. THE stranger who visits Seville from Cadiz, is at once impressed with the strong contrast between these two cities. In Cadiz every one seems to be engaged in the heartless pursuit of pleasure. In Seville the pursuit is perhaps equally heartless, but the object is different; here the Romish church ha established her gorgeous court, here her sway is absolute, and here her throne is propped by wealth, bigotry, and power. The following are some of the sights and sounds that a visitor meets with at Seville. "From the first appearance of early dawn, and throughout all hours of the day, the chiming of bells from the innumerable monasteries, churches, and chapels, strikes in varied tones upon his ear, and when about to close his eyes, the mournful toll of some neighbouring convent, reminds him that its fair recluses are summoned to midnight prayers from their hard couches. He walks out to view the city; at every step he takes, a friar crosses his path; and he sees with surprise canons, ecclesiastics, monks, and lay brethren, hurrying about in all directions, with looks swelled with importance and good living: he hears at dark the sound of distant music, and sees numerous lights approaching, and mixing with the assembled crowd, he learns that it is one of those beautiful and imposing processions called novenas, which during nine nights move in slow and solemn order through different parts of the city, the inhabitants as the pageant passes along the streets, displaying wax-lights from their windows, which are thrown open, and from which are suspended coverlets and silk hangings. As the procession slowly passes, he perceives a high costly standard of cloth of gold, bearing the figure of the Virgin, and preceded by eight large rich sil ver lamps, raised on high supporters. A number of beautiful children, dressed as cherubs, next advance, bearing lanterns, adorned with a profusion of flowers. After these are carried numerous other lamps, followed by a band of choristers and musicians, the whole procession being headed by a single military trumpet.

"Nothing can be more striking than the effect of these nocturnal pageants at Seville, when the darkness which pervades the city is chased away by the sudden beautiful illumination, and the silence of a sultry Andalusian night is interrupted by the swelling strains of the chorus. As the procession is seen at a distance, crossing the great square with slow and solemn steps, and casting a deep gleam on the base of the tall gigantic Arab tower, one of the fine remaining monuments of the Moslem race; the lofty head of this building seems to look down with proud contempt

on the procession at its feet*."

This Arab tower forms part of the vast edifice of the cathedral, and with the court and garden leading to the modern sacristy, was the work of the Moors. In this garden, or court of the orange trees as it is called, the devout Musulmans were accustomed to perform their ablutions preparatory to entering the grand mosque.

When Seville surrendered to the victorious Christians, the Moslems, dreading to behold the desecration of the most sacred of their edifices, stipulated that the mosque, together with its tower, the pride of the city, should be razed; but fortunately for the admirers of Moorish art, the request was not complied with, and the Giralda yet continues the pride and boast of the "Sevillanos."

The cathedral is not surpassed in magnitude by any edifice of the kind in Spain, and in wealth it far exceeds that of every other. It is situated on the south side of the city, and is built on uneven ground, so that towards the east and south it is level with the pavement, but in other parts is ascended by a flight of steps. A range of marble columns, nearly seven feet high, runs round the building, and they are united at the top with bands of iron. The neighbouring buildings to the north and west are not calculated to embellish the site of this magnificent temple; but to the south is the Exchange, a very fine building, whilst the most open side is to the east. The author of A Year in Spain, describes the exterior of the cathedral as presenting a grotesque grandeur, produced by the combination of three utterly different species of architecture. The church itself is of

*Sketches in Spain and Morocco, by SIR ARTHUR DE CAPELL BROOKE, Bart.

gothic construction, partly erected at an earlier period than the eighth century. The sacristy is entirely in the modern taste, whilst the court and garden adjoining, with the thrice-famous Giralda, date from the dominion of the Arabians. Mr. Standish* describes the architecture as belonging to "all classes,-Arabic, Gothic, the 'Plateresco' and the Greek-Roman. Although all these are jumbled together, and an abominably unsightly 'grand entrance' has been recently attempted, (though, fortunately, not finished,) by a Sevillan architect, Cano, and a good deal of the outer walls are left rough, nevertheless, of all the cathedrals I have seen, this is the one which, on the whole, has most pleased me in Europe; for, from without, its construction recalls many interesting epochs of the world, and within are specimens of the finest Spanish masters in art. The horse-shoe Arabic arch, and the pillared windows of the East, predominate in what is called the Giralda, or tower of Geva, which was built in the year 1000 by a Moor, who used it as an observatory. It was in his time only 250 feet high: four brazen balls, which stood on the top, fell down in the earthquake of 1395, and were replaced by a gilt weathercock shaped as a harpoon. In 1568, Ferdinand Ruiz, an architect, raised it one hundred feet higher, which was then considered a hazardous attempt. The entrance of this tower is very narrow, but it widens in the course of the ascent; the form is a quadrant, of 55 feet diameter. In the different windows are twenty-five bells of various sizes, and in the dome hang six large ones with clappers. Where the bells end, the Christian part of the work begins, and in the first tier stands the accurate clock made by the Franciscan friar, Joseph Cordero, in the middle of the eighteenth century. It is audible all over the town, but strikes only the hours; its bell is placed in the story above, which is formed with Doric pillars; on the exterior frieze are the following Latin words, distributed round the four faces after this manner-Turris-Fortissima-Nomen-DNI. Prov. 8.' The third story is Ionic and spherical; upon it is placed a statue of Faith in gilt bronze, which revolves upon a globe of the same metal, serving as a weathercock. It is fourteen feet high, and is the work of Bartholomew Morel, who, in 1568, copied it from a design by Luis de Vargas, the eminent painter, whose frescoes adorned the Moorish exterior, and the intercolumniations of the lower part. These, owing to the carelessness of the masons in preparing their cement, and exposure to the weather, have almost altogether faded."

The Giralda tower has furnished a theme for the

eloquence of so many writers that we are tempted to give another description.

It was erected by Al Geber, a distinguished mathematician and architect who lived in the reign of Almanzor, towards the end of the twelfth century. From him the science of quantities, first introduced into Europe by the Arabs, received its name. Though known many centuries previously, Algebra, like most other branches of abstract tutors of European royalty as well as the promoters of science, was successfully cultivated by them: they were the learning; and Alonzo the Wise in preparing his astronomic tables, made use of the calculations of the astronomers of Granada. There are many original inventors, and many simultaneous discoveries made, of which Newton and Leibnitz afford instances; and though the processes of Algebra were known some centuries before the Arab founder of the discovered, and introduced, the same system among his Giralda lived, there is little reason to doubt that he also countrymen. He was a native of Seville, and is believed to have first erected the Giralda for an observatory. He raised the tower to an elevation of 280 feet, and after the expulsion of the Moors, when the cathedral was commenced, it was raised to the height of 364. Surmounted by an iron globe of enormous size, splendidly gilded, its refulgence at a distance and in the brilliant moonlight, is said to have surpassed everything that art had before achieved. Directly below this ball was the gallery, from which the muezzins were used to summon the faithful to prayer, at the least five times during the twenty-four hours. The ascent to the summit is by a spiral staircase without steps, so gradual as to admit of being regularly composed of a neat pavement of tiles, and easy enough to allow two persons abreast riding up to the top. The towering pile terminates in a colossal statue, which is intended to represent the Faith. The Giralda (Anglice, a weathercock) is thus singularly made the emblem Seville and its Vicinity, 1840.

of a Creed, which, like the fortunes of the city over which it seems to preside, has experienced many a change during the storms of destiny, of which, with the wind that bloweth where it listeth,' it may be considered equally the

index.

"The prospect from the summit is extensive as it is striking, churches, towers, and convents, (Mr. Inglis says I counted no fewer than one hundred and twenty spires and towers, belonging to the city and the neighbouring villages and convents,") the old Alcazar, amphitheatres and ruins; the vast cathedral immediately below, and beyond the rude walls and dilapidated turrets of Hispalis, masts, yards, and flags, the wooded walks of the Almeda; while still further stretches the level tracts of the Vega, through which the meanderings of the bright river break at intervals on the eye, altogether forming a panorama equally picturesque and beautiful. Its appearance in the full glow of summer has been described by Sir Arthur Brooke, who observes, that the immense extent of burnt up country actually presents the aspect of the sands of the desert, the waters of the Guadalquiver* and the extensive orange and olive groves only occasionally refreshing the parched landscapet."

No other city in Spain has more numerous public edifices, devoted to objects of religion and charity, or to so gorgeous a display of the emblems of Roman Catholic worship. Besides twenty-five parish churches, Seville comprehends five chapels of ease, a commandery of St. Jean d'Acre, exempted from episcopal jurisdiction, about thirty nunneries, three congregations of canons regular, three religious communities, called Beaterios, two seminaries, and two houses of correction. For this reason the archiepiscopal see of Seville is one of the wealthiest in the world. It is united with that of Toledo, which had formerly still higher pretensions both as respects dignity and wealth.

The history of this cathedral is somewhat imperfect, the plans and records relating to it having been removed by Philip the Second to Madrid, and destroyed in the fire which consumed the old palace of that capital on the 24th December, 1734. Other sources of information are, however, open; from which it appears that in 1401, the chapter of Seville had subscribed largely for the erection of a new cathedral instead of the old one which

then existed, and had determined to make it "such and so good that none in the kingdom should exceed it." Their own riches and the subscriptions of "the faithful," enabled them to commence this design, which does not seem to have been finally completed until the year 1519. The ground-plan of the church is quadrilateral, from east to west 398 feet, from north to south, 291. It contains 36 columns, composed of groups of small ones, of 15 feet diameter: there are 78 arches of stone: the distance between each vault, in the lateral naves, of which there are eight, is 40 feet, the three between the cross vault, under the dome and the upper end of the church, being considerably less, namely 59 feet to the cross-vault in its width, and 20 to each of the chapels of St. Peter and St. Paul. The interior of this temple is of the plainest Gothic. The pavement is formed in lozenges. of black and white marble. The gates of the cathedral are nine in number, three to the west, two to the east, three to the north, and one to the south; the middle one to the west being the principal entrance. That of St. Michael is the one whence the processions issue. Mr. Standish that the painted glass in this cathedral is not exceeded in beauty perhaps by any in Europe. These beautiful windows shed what may indeed be termed a religious light' through the vaulted edifice they adorn."

says

86

6

'The endowment of this temple accords with the magnificence of its construction; for so late as the last century the archbishop received the large income of one hundred and fifty thousand dollars, with a corresponding provision for two hundred and thirty-five canons, pre

• Literally "the great River," from the Arabic, Wada-l-Kebir. † Roscoe, Tourist in Spain, 1836.

bendaries, curates, confessors, musicians, singers, and levitical aspirants. Nor will this number of dependants appear extravagant when it is stated that they have to officiate at no fewer than eighty-two altars, and perform five hundred masses on a daily average.

The interior is very rich in paintings, statues and relics, and it contains the tombs of many illustrious men. The paintings are described as being above all praise. "It is indeed only in Seville that one may properly appreciate the school of Seville. This school owes its chief celebrity to Murillo, born in Seville, like his great master Velasquez, and who spent the greater part of his life in painting for the churches, convents, and hospitals of his native city. Scarce a public edifice there but contains something from the pencil of this great man. The Hospital of Charity, near the bank of the river, is especially rich in these precious productions. Among the number are the Return of the Prodigal Son, and Moses smiting the Rock in Horeb. The men, women, children, and even the beasts of the thirsty caravan, are drinking with a joyful avidity that gives almost equal delight to the spectator."

Among the numerous treasures of the cathedral is an altar composed of solid silver, with silver images, as large as life, of St. Isidor and St. Leander, and a tabernacle for the Host more than four yards high, adorned with eight-and-forty columns. "Add to these the gold, precious stones, gifts, and relics of the piety and zeal of good Catholics when the riches of a newly discovered world were poured into the lap of the Church." This cathedral had the peculiar good fortune to save its pictures and other valuables during the invasion of the French by promptly removing them to Cadiz.

The Rev. Mr. Townsend gives an interesting account of his introduction to the Archbishop of Seville, in 1786. He received me with politeness, permitted me to kiss his ring, made me sit down, and then, having read my letter, he told me that as long as I continued at Seville I must dine every day with him, unless when I should be more agreeably engaged. After some little conversation he desired to see the address of my other letters, and calling a page he ordered that a coach should be got ready, and that one of his chaplains should attend me, to deliver my letters, and to show me every thing worthy of attention in the city. When I left him he desired me to come back to dinner, telling me that during my stay, that coach would be wholly and not only dined with him but almost every day during at my service. Agreeably to this invitation I returned, a fortnight's residence at Seville. I was indeed often pressingly invited by other families; but as it was the season of Lent, and as fish in Spain never agreed with me, I declined their invitations. *

* *

The archbishop is well lodged and keeps a hospitable table. He is quite the man of fashion: his manners are engaging and his conversation lively. His usual company at dinner was his confessor, his chaplains, his secretaries, and a few friends. He was attended by his pages, who are generally young men of family, recommended to his patronage, and educated under his inspection. The librarian sometimes sat down at the table, at other times waited behind a chair. He was commonly my guide, and with him I visited every corner of this city.

A library of twenty thousand volumes belongs to this cathedral. It was collected by Fernando Columbus, son of the great navigator, and distinguished both for his taste and learning. A marble slab in the cathedral bears the following inscription, in Spanish, to the memory of his immortal father:

To Castile and to Leon Columbus gave a new world.

ALL the time which the man of the world throws away, is gained by the solitary man; and no enjoyment on earth is so permanent as the real enjoyment of time. Man has many duties to perform; therefore, the good that he has it in his power do, he must do immediately, that the present day may not be torn like a blank leaf from the book of life. We protract the career of time by employment, we lengthen the duration of our lives by wise thoughts and useful actions. Life, to him who wishes not to have lived in vain, is thought and action.-ZIMMERMANN.

EASY LESSONS IN CHESS.
XXV.

THE QUEEN'S GAMBIT.

THE Queen's Gambit is so called because the Queen's Pawn is moved two squares on the first move, and the Queen's Bishop's Pawn sacrificed the second. This game is sometimes called the Aleppo Gambit, in honour of Stamma, a native of Aleppo, who made the game a favourite in Europe. Philidor, in his masterly analysis of this opening, also calls it the Aleppo Gambit. Hence it has been supposed to have originated with Stamma, but such is not the case; for the game occurs in the works of some of the earliest chess writers.

This

The Queen's Gambit is a safer opening for the first player than the King's, because, if the second player attempt to defend the Gambit Pawn, he is likely to lose the game; whereas, in the King's Gambit, it is necessary to defend the Gambit Pawn to the utmost. peculiarity in the Queen's Gambit, has led to a general opinion that the second player ought to refuse the proffered pawn; if he do so, he has a choice of several moves, among which, Q. B, P. one or two squares, is a favourite move.

This Gambit is by no means equal in variety and interest to the numerous branches of the King's Gambit. It has, however, been much played of late years, together with what is called the KING'S PAWN ONE opening, to which it is closely allied. De la Bourdonnais played both games with surpassing skill, and seemed to rely upon them in gaining the majority of games in his contest with M'Donnell, In fact, he wielded this game like a two-edged sword, for when he had the move, he could open with the Queen's Gambit; and when his antagonist had the move, he could reply with K. P, In our first example the Gambit is refused.

one,

BLACK.

WHITE. 1 Q. P. two.

2 Q. B. P. two.

3 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

22 Q, to Q. B. fourth, 23 Q. takes B.

24 K. to K. B.

25 K. to K. B. second.

And wins immediately.

We will now give a few examples of the Queen's Gambit accepted, the first of which will show the danger of adopting the line of defence which is generally successful in the King's Gambits.

[blocks in formation]

1 Q. P. two. 2 K. P. one.

This move is well timed; you threaten to bring your Q. and K. B. to bear upon his K.

[blocks in formation]

4 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

5 K. B. to Q. Kt, fifth,

6 Castles,

7 K. P, takes P.

8 Q. B. to K. third.

9 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third, 10 Q. to Q. third.

11 Q. to Q. second.

You leave Q. B. en prise, because, unless Black take the K. B., he will be immediately exposed to consider

able loss.

15 Q. Kt. P, takes K. B.

16 Kt. takes P.

This move is unwise; it is true that you threaten to fork K. and Q., but Black at his next move puts another piece en prise, and you have not the means of defending

both.

12 K. Kt. to K. fifth.

13 B. takes Kt. checking. 14 Q. to Q. B.

16 Q. to K.

17 K. to R.

18 K. Kt. P. two.

19 P. takes B.

20 Q. takes Kt.

21 Q. R. to Q. Kt.

Black thus cleverly gains time, and brings a Rook to command the open file: he sacrifices the B. in order to get the White Q. out of the way, and then forces the game in a few moves.

1 Q. P. two. 2 Q. B. P. two.

3 K. P. one.

4 Q. R. P. two.

You may now play K. P. one or two squares, but which is the better, is still a matter of dispute among chess authorities. If your antagonist is in the habit of defending the Gambit Pawn, it is better to move K. P. one square only; but no sensible player would continue a line of defence after he had proved its defects, and found it condemned by chess authorities; besides, it is always dangerous to calculate on the bad play of your opponent; not only leads to a slovenly, reckless style of play on your part, but may often cause you much annoyance and disappointment. The best rule is always to play your best, and to calculate your game as if your adversary were quite as skilful as yourself.

3 Q. Kt. P. two.

5 K. B. takes P. 6 Q, to K. B. third.

When he defends the Gambit Pawn, you are thus enabled to advance the Q. R. P. with advantage, recovering the P., and perhaps making an important

capture.

22 B. takes P. at Q. fifth. 23 Q. takes K. P. checking. 24 Q. to Q. sixth, checking. 25 Q. R. to Q. Kt, seventh, checking.

1 Q. P. two.

2 P. takes P.

You now threaten to checkmate, or to win his Q. R. at the third move, supposing the Gambit P, to be afterThese are among the advantages of moving K. P. one wards defended. If you had moved K. P. two, Black could have got out of his immediate difficulty by moving K. P. one. If he now attempt to save Q. R., you mate him immediately; for example,

5 Q. Kt. P. one.

6 Q. R. P. takes P.

7 K. B. takes P, checking.

8 Q. takes P.

9 Q. takes B. checking.

10 Q. takes Q.

4 P. takes P.

5 Q. B. to Q. second

[blocks in formation]

6 Q. B. to its third.

7 K. to Q. second. 8 Q. P. one.

11 K. B. P. two.

12 K. to K. second.

5 Gambit P. takes P.

6 Q. B. P. takes P

7 Q. B. interposes.

8 B. takes B.

9 Q. interposes.

10 Kt, retakes.

By exchanging Queens you are enabled to occupy the centre with your Pawns.

11 K. P. one square,

When the Queens are off the board, the K. can generally Your K. will act as a useful support to the Pawns. be as usefully employed as an ordinary piece.

12 K. B. P. two.

His object is to make you advance K. P., whereby your Q. P., instead of taking the lead, will be left behind, and be comparatively useless. If you do not play K. P., your centre will be broken up; you therefore play it, and must afterwards endeavour, with the assistance of your pieces, to exchange your Q, P. for his K. P., so as a free K. P. open for passage your

to
Is K. P. one.
14 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

13 K. Kt. to K. second.
14 K. Kt. to Q. fourth.

Black is forced to propose the exchange of Kts., although he separates his pawns in so doing; because you threaten to advance Kt. to Kt. fifth, and then to fork his K. and R, or if he move Rook, to capture Q. R. P.

15 P. takes Kt.

This is your best move, for if he take the Gambit P., you take the P. at his K. fifth, and threaten his B., thus

You force the exchange of this B., because he runs on

the Black diagonals, and hence might damage your im- gaining time. He therefore plays well by moving,"

6 K. B. P, two.

6 Q. Kt. to Q. B. fourth,

portant group of central pawns.

attacking the other Pawn,
7 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

7 Q. B. P. one,

to prevent his Kt. from entering into your game,

8 K. B. takes Gambit. P. 9 K. B. to Q. Kt. third. 10 Kt. to K, second.

15 Kt. takes Kt.

16 Q. B. to Q. R. third.

17 R. takes B.

18 K. to K. B. third.

19 Kt. to K. second.

20 K. R. to Q. R.

21 Q. R. to R. sixth, checking.

22 K. R. to R. fifth,

You are thus under the shelter of your Q. R., and can play out K. Kt. before he has time to bring his K. R. into play.

[blocks in formation]

16 B. takes B.
17 K. to K. second.

18 K. R. to Q. Kt.

19 K. to K. third.

20 K. R. to Q. Kt. second.

21 Kt. to Q. Kt. third.

It would have been very unwise of Black to have captured either the Kt. or the B., because White, by retaking with a Pawn, would unite a P. to his Q. P.

25 Q. R. to K.

26 R. takes K. Kt. P.

13 K. Kt. to K. fifth,

14 Q. B. to Q. second.

15 Q. R. to K.

Black wishes to liberate the Kt. at Q. fourth.

16 Kt. takes Kt.

1 Q. P. two.

2 P. takes P.

3 K. P. two.

considered to be the best. If P., he will exchange Queens.

This move is ingeniously played.

27 Q. to K. fifth.

28 R. to K. R. fifth, checking: 29 Q. mates.

BLACK.

4 P. takes P.

5 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

1 Q. P. two.

2 Q. B. P. two.

3 K. P. two.

6 K. B. to K. second.

7 Castles.

8 Q. Kt, to Q, second,

9 Q. Kt. to Q. Kt, third.

10 Q. B. P. one.

11 K. Kt. to Q. fourth.

12 K, B, P. two.

4 P. takes P.

5 K. takes Q.

This is a skilful sacrifice, exposing the adverse K. more completely to the action of White's pieces,

22 P. takes P.

13 K. B. P. one.

14 K. Kt. P. two.

15 K. to K. Kt. second.

23 Q. to Q. fourth,

Threatening a fatal check by discovery.

23. K. to R. third.

24 K. R. P. one.

To enable Q. or Q. B., to attack K.

17 Q. Kt. P. takes Kt

18 Q. takes B.

19 R. interposes.

20 Q. B. to K. B. fourth.
21 Q. to Q. second.

It would seem at first view, better to take this P. with K. R. P., checking; but a little consideration will show how much better it was to take it with the R. The K. has now no move, and is compelled to remain defenceless for the fatal check.

24 Q. B. to K. third.

25 Q. R. to K.

Our space will not allow of more than one example

of a successful defence.

26 Q. R. to K. B.

27 Q B. to K. Kt. fifth.

28 B. takes R.

WHITE.

1 Q. P. two.

2 P. takes P.

3 K. P. two.

4 Q. takes Q. checking.

5 Q. Kt. to Q. second

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