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forming the fountain of Hippocrene, while the Muses attend, and Mercury shews Pegasus the way to Heaven, in allusion to the before-mentioned Volat ad æthera virtus." Garth, indeed, seems to think that the lawyers assumed too much by this connection with the Muses, when he says,
"Sooner shall glow-worms vie with Titan's beams, Or Hare-Court pump with Aganippe's streams." To explain which last line, it is necessary to observe that Hare Court is in the Inner Temple, and the pump there not failing in summer, as most of the others do, it is chiefly resorted to by the inhabitants for water.
It appears that the Middle Temple had neither arms nor seal until more than fifty years after the Inner Temple had adopted the Pegasus, when in 1615 Sir George Buc proposed two devices; one was "two armed knights riding upon one horse," and the other "a field argent charged with a cross gules, and upon the nombril thereof a Holy
Now these are the identical devices of the Knights Templars, the first pertaining to their poverty, and the second to their state of affluence. The latter was adopted by the Middle Temple, which circumstance in after-times caused this society to claim precedence over the other on the ground of superior antiquity. Hence arose warm disputes with regard to precedence, "which in the seventeenth century were carried so far as to the priority of receiving the sacrament from the Master of the Temple; and even so late as in 1736, both inns of court, upon a general call of serjeants, claimed the honour of walking last in the procession, which, being referred to the Lord Chancellor and two Chief Justices, was determined in favour of the Inner Temple."
The following epigrams refer to the cognizances of these societies. The author of the amusing volumes on Law and Lawyers says, "they are certainly more laudable for wit than for good taste:"
As by the Templars' haunts you go
The merits of their trade;
The lamb sets forth their innocence
The horse their expedition.
Oh! happy Britons! happy isle,
Let foreign nations say,
Where you get justice without guile,
And law without delay.
In the volume just noticed it is very properly remarked that "to charge 'the law's delay' upon the lawyers, is about as just as it would be to ascribe the rapidity with which some medicines effect a cure to the wisdom and honesty of the physicians." The above epigram has elicited the following reply:
Deluded men! their holds forego,
Nor trust such cunning elves; These artful emblems tend to shew Their clients, not themselves.
'Tis all a trick, these all are shams
By which they mean to cheat you, But have a care!-for you're the lambs; And they the wolves that eat you. Nor let the thought of no delay
To these their courts misguide you; 'Tis you're the showy-horse, and they The jockeys that will ride you.
Strand. It was destroyed, together with several other buildings, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, to make room for Somerset House, the students having been previously removed to New Inn.
2. Clifford's Inn adjoins St. Dunstan's church in Fleet Street. Its name is derived from the Barons Clifford, ancestors of the Earls of Cumberland, whose hostel or inn occupied this place. It was originally granted by Edward the Second to Robert de Clifford, to hold by the service of one penny to be paid into the king's exchequer at Michaelmas. After his death, Isabel, his widow, let the same messuage to certain law students, or apprenticiis de banco. Some time after this Clifford's Inn again became royal property, and was again granted to the Cliffords. Since that time, first by lease, and afterwards in the reign of Henry the Sixth, by a grant in fee-farm, to Nicholas Sulyard, Esq., principal of this house, and others, and in consideration of 6007. and the annual rent of 47., it has continued a member of the Inner Temple to be a mansion for lawyers until the present time.
In Maitland's time Clifford's Inn had been "much enlarged in new buildings. In the garden, an airy place and neatly kept, the gardens being inclosed with a palisade paling, and adorned with rows of lime trees, are set grassplats, which have a pleasant appearance, intersected by gravel walks."
Mr. Herbert, in his notice of this inn, quotes this passage, and says, "The gardens do not altogether, at present, answer the above description, being rather neglected, and several of the houses in the inn want rebuilding; but it, nevertheless, is a tolerably pleasant retirement." Since Mr. Herbert wrote, this desirable renovation has been commenced, and Clifford's Inn, and its neighbour, Serjeants' Inn, have shook off their antique looks, and shine in the splendour of handsome modern houses. It now consists of three small squares, two of which are separated by the hall, the passage of which forms a thoroughfare into the two inner courts. The hall is in no way remarkable. It contains an oldfashioned chest, in which are kept the original institutions of this society. Sir Matthew Hale and the principal judges sat in this hall after the great fire of London, to settle the various differences that occurred between landlord and tenant, and to ascertain the several divisions of property.
This society was governed by a principal and twelve rulers. The gentlemen were to be in commons a fortnight in every term; and those that failed to do so paid about 4s. a-week. They sell their chambers for one life: mootings were formerly held here. Their armorial bearings are, chequy or and azure, a fess gules, within a border of the third.
3. Lyon's Inn is attached to the Inner Temple. It is situate between Holywell Street and Wych Street: it consists of one square with chambers on two of its sides, the windows of the northern range looking into Wych Street, and the others into the inn: the south side is formed by the houses in Holywell Street. The hall stands in the south-west corner of the court, and is now of but little use: the pediment of its roof is ornamented with the armorial bearing of the society, a lion, beneath which is the date 1700. This little inn bears evident marks of neglect and decay. It is of great antiquity, being mentioned in the old books of the steward's accounts, which contain entries made in the time of Henry the Fifth. Its government was formerly vested in a treasurer and twelve ancients.
4. St. Clement's Inn, an appendage of the Inner Temple, appears to have derived its name from the neighbouring church and a celebrated holy well, both dedicated to the Roman pontiff St. Clement. According to Stowe, "The fountain called St. Clement's well, north from the parish church of St. Clements, and neare unto an inne of chancery, called Clement's Inne, is a faire curbed square, with hard stone, kept clean for common, and is always full." This well now supplies the parish pump with excellent
Mention is made of this inn for the education of law students so early as the 19th of Edward the Fourth, but its origin is unknown. In the reign of Henry the Seventh, 1486, Sir John Cantlowe, Knight, by lease in consideration of xl. marks fine, and 41. vis. viiid. yearly rent, demised it for eighty years to William and John Eylot, (in trust, it is presumed, for the students.) About 1528 Cantlowe's right and interest passed to William Holles, citizen and Lord Mayor of London, and ancestor of the Dukes of Newcastle, one of whom, John, earl of Clare, son and successor of Sir John Holles, the first earl, and whose residence was on the
site of the present Clare Market, demised it to the then principal and fellows.
The present buildings occupy three small courts. The hall fills one side of the middle square. It contains a good portrait of Sir Matthew Hale. The arms of the society appear on the outside, argent, an anchor (without a stock) in pale, proper, and a C sable passing through the middle.
In the midst of the garden, which adjoins that of New Inn, is a sun-dial supported by the kneeling figure of a Moor or African, which was brought from Italy by Lord Clare, and presented to the society. The following lines are said to have been found stuck upon the figure:
In vain, poor sable son of woe, Thou seek'st the tender tear:
From thee in vain with pangs they flow, For mercy dwells not here.
From cannibals thou fled'st in vain;
Lawyers less quarter give;
The first won't eat you till you're slain, The last will do't alive.
The conduct of the students of these little law seminaries in the olden time may be judged of from the following anecdote told by Strype. He is speaking of St. Clement's church:
"Here about this church, and in the parts adjacent, were frequent disturbances, by reason of the unthrifts of the inns of Chancery, who were so unruly on nights, walking about to the disturbance and danger of such as passed along the streets, that the inhabitants were fain to keep watches. In the year 1582 the recorder himself, with six more of the honest inhabitants, stood by St. Clement's church to see the lanthorn hung out, and to observe if he could meet with any of these outrageous dealers. About seven at night they saw young Mr. Robert Cecil, the lord treasurer's son, who was afterwards Secretary of State to the Queen, pass by the church, and as he passed gave them a civil salute; at which they said, 'Lo! you may see how a nobleman's son can use himself, and how he putteth off his cap to poor men: our Lord bless him.' This passage the recorder wrote in a letter to his father, adding, "Your lordship hath cause to thank God for so virtuous a child.'"
5. New Inn is the only law seminary remaining in the
possession of the Middle Temple. It forms three sides of a square, the fourth, or north-east, being the boundary, a gate and iron railing, between it and Clement's Inn, which adjoins it. The garden is common to both societies. The hall stands near the south-east corner of the square.
About the year 1485 the site of this inn was occupied as a common inn or hostelry for travellers. Its sign being that of the Virgin Mary, it obtained the name of "Our Lady Inn." According to Dugdale, "it first became an hostell for students of the law, (as the tradition is,) upon the removal of the students from an old inn of chancery, situate in Seacoal-lane, a little south from St. Sepulchre's church, called St. George's inn, and was procured from Sir John Fineux, knight, sometime lord chief justice of the king's bench, for the rent of 67. per annum, by the name of New Inn." Stowe also says, "In St. George's-lane, near St. Sepulchre's church, on the north side thereof, remaineth yet an olde wall, inclosing a piece of ground by Sea-cole-lane, wherein, by report, sometime stood an inne of Chancery; which house being greatly decayed, and standing remote from other houses of that profession, the company removed to a common hostelry, called of the signe Our Lady Inne, not far from Clement's Inne, which they procured from Sir John Fineux, lord chief justice of the King's Bench, and since have held it of the owners by the name of the New Inne, paying therefore sixe pound rent by the yeere, as tenants at their owne will; for more (as is said) cannot be gotten of them, and much lesse will they be put from it."
This society was governed by a treasurer and twelve ancients. Their armorial bearings are, vert, a flower-pot argent.
In the year 1221 twelve black or preaching friars, accompanied by their prior, Gilbert de Fraxineto, arrived in England, and having found your ith Stephen Langton, archbishop of Canterbury, they were soon assisted by numerous benefactions, and founded a house and church upon a plot of ground which was given to them, "without the wall of the city, by Holbourn, near unto the Old Temple." Here they remained till 1276, when, having
received the gift of a more extensive site in the district | building is of black or dark-grey bricks, intersecting each which now bears their name, they erected a new convent, and removed to it.
other nearly at right angles. Over the gateway are three circular compartments, containing, in the centre, the arms of England, encircled with the garter and its motto. The arms on the dexter side are those of Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and on the sinister those of Sir Thomas Lovell, Knight of the Garter. A label beneath bears the date 1518. Oliver Cromwell is reported to have had chambers over this entrance.
The hall is a fine room, but not equal to the halls of some of the other inns. It is used not only for the commons of the society, but for the sittings before the Lord Chancellor. At a short distance from the hall is the ViceChancellor's Court.
Adjoining the site of the first establishment of the black friars was the mansion of Ralph Nevil, bishop of Chichester, and chancellor of England in the reign of Henry the Third. This house was situated in a garden, in the lower part of what was then called New-street, afterwards Chancellor's, but now Chancery-lane. On the death of Bishop Nevil, Chichester-house fell into the possession of Richard de Wihtz, called Saint Richard, about which time that mansion, and the deserted house of the black friars, became appropriated to the study of the law, but in what particular way does not appear. It is said that Henry Lacy, earl of Lincoln, who had a grant by patent from Edward the First, of "the old friar-house juxta Holborn, being a person well affected to the study of the laws," assigned the professors this residence, but whether by gift or purchase is uncertain. From this nobleman, who died in 1310, the name of Lincoln's Inn is derived.
To the Earl of Lincoln's estate, on this spot, was soon afterwards added the greater part of that possessed by the Bishops of Chichester, who leased it to the students of the law, reserving a rent and lodgings for themselves on their coming to London. In 1536 Bishop Simpson passed the inheritance thereof, and of the garden called Cotterell Garden, or Coneygarth+, to William and Eustace Suliarde. In 1580 Edward, the son of Eustace, conveyed to Richard Kingsmill, and other benchers, this house, garden, &c., in fee. A succession of deeds from this time to 1786 testify the freehold right conferred by tenure under this society.
Up to the reign of Elizabeth Lincoln's Inn was separated from Chancery-lane on one side, and from the fields on the other, by a mere embankment of clay; but in the first year of that reign an order was made that a brick wall and gates should be set up, which in the course of time was done, not, however, until the order had been repeated in the 4th of Elizabeth, and sundry negotiations completed, for in those days the erection of a brick wall was not a trifle.
Lincoln's Inn consists of two principal portions, the old and the new. In the former the objects most worthy of notice are the gateway, the hall, and the chapel. The latter contains New Square and Stone Buildings. There are also some new buildings now in progress which comprise a hall, library, council rooms, &c. These promise to excel in extent, magnificence, and beauty, any similar erections in the metropolis. The architect of this splendid pile is Mr. Hardwick.
In the year 1492 the society pulled down their old hall, for the purpose of erecting a new one; but want of means prevented them from commencing it until about the year 1506, when, partly by loan and partly by contribution, they had raised a sum of money for the purpose. John Nethersole, a member of this society, (13 Hen. VII.) bequeathed forty marks, "partly towards the building of a library here, for the benefit of the students of the laws of England, and partly that every priest of this house, then being, or hereafter to be, who should celebrate mass and other divine service every Friday weekly, should then sing a mass of requiem, and also, in the time of the said mass, before his first lavature, say the psalm of De profundis, with the orizons and collects accustomed, for the soul of the said John."
By the register of the inn, it appears that the hall was finished in the 22nd of Henry the Seventh, and that in the following year the gatehouse-tower was contracted for, "unto which Sir Thomas Lovell, formerly a member of this society, but then treasurer of the household to King Henry the Eighth, was a good benefactor;" and his example seems to have stimulated the rest of the society to contribute to the work. It was not completed until the 9th of Henry the Eighth, the expense amounting to 153l. 10s. 8d. The timber used in this structure was brought by water from Henley-upon-Thames. The materials for making the brick and tile were dug from the Coneygarth; the sum of 167. 78. 5d. was paid for forty-three cart-loads of free-stone, together with the wrought work of the chimneys, and sculpturing the arms over the gate.
This gateway consists of two wings or square towers, with a handsome stone gothic arch in the centre. The
*The site of this house and garden still retains the names of "Bishop's
court" and "Chichester-rents."
So called from the quantity of rabbits; "for we find," says Mr. Lane, " in the 8th of Edward the Fourth, the 12th of Henry the Seventh, and 24th of Henry the Eighth, strict penalties on the students hunting the
same with bows, arrows, or darts."
The lantern over the hall was added in the 6th of Edward the Sixth (1552); it was formerly decorated with the arms of Lacy, earl of Lincoln, and of the earl of Chester, dated 1682. In 1818 the lantern was rebuilt, and the lead containing the arms removed.
At the upper end of the hall is a painting, by Hogarth, representing Paul before Felix. We learn from Mr. Lane's Student's Guide through Lincoln's Inn, the origin of this picture. Lord Wyndham, chancellor of Ireland, left by will 2007. to be expended in ornamenting the hall by any means the treasurer and benchers should approve. Lord Mansfield, who had a great esteem for Hogarth, proposed that the money should be applied to the purchase of a picture by this artist. This was agreed to, and the picture was painted, and placed in the hall in 1750. It is 14 feet wide by 104 feet high. "Hogarth, solicitous to learn if it met the approbation of the benchers, waited on them for that purpose, when he was invited to dine with them,-a favour seldom conferred but on legal or ecclesiastical characters, and generally members of the society."
There is also a three-quarter portrait with the inscription "Anno 1600, Æ. 58, Glanville, father to Glanville, the Speaker, in 1640;" and another of the same size, inscribed "A.D. 1640. Ætatis suæ, 55, Serjeant Glanville, Speaker to the House of Commons in the reign of King Charles the First." On the windows and panels around are the arms of the various law dignitaries and others, who were formerly members of this society. The statue of Erskine is placed at the southern end of the hall, opposite to the chair of the Lord Chancellor.
The chapel is in the gothic style, from a design by Inigo Jones; it is erected on pillars and arches, which form an open walk beneath the floor of the chapel, but of late years it has been enclosed with an iron railing, and is now used as a place of interment for benchers only.
This chapel was commenced in the time of James the First, when it was ordered that the old chapel, which had become ruinous, should be pulled down and a new one erected. The estimate of the architect amounted to 2000l., to meet which a subscription was opened among the benchers, which, however, did not produce more than 2001.; whereupon "it was agreed and induced, first that each of the masters of the bench and associates thereunto, should pay towards this structure xxl. a-piece; each of seven years standing at the bar, xx nobles; each of the bar, under that time, vl.; and each gentleman of the house under the bar, xls." At a subsequent meeting, a general tax was laid upon all such as had not contributed, or showed their willingness so to do.
By such means the chapel was completed, and on Ascension Day, 1623, it was consecrated by George Mountaine, bishop of London; Doctor Donne, then dean of St. Paul's, preaching from the text John x. 22, 23.
Very considerable additions have been made to Lincoln's Inn in modern times. These lie to the north and south of the older portion, and are known as New-square," or "Searle's-court," and the "Stone Buildings." Searle'scourt received its name from Henry Searle, esq., a bencher of the house whose property it was about 1697, when it formed part of a plot of ground called "Little Lincoln's Inn Fields." It is surrounded on three sides by brick buildings, which are let out as chambers; the fourth, or north side, opens on the garden. In the centre of this square is a fountain, as it called; it formerly consisted of a small column, of the Corinthian order, from a design of Inigo Jones; the top supported a sun-dial, and from the four corners of the pedestal, infant tritons, holding shells, spouted water. All these ornaments have disappeared, and nothing remains but a mutilated pedestal, supporting a gaslamp, and surrounded by stagnant water, so that the fountain disfigures the place it was intended to adorn." The
arms of Mr. Searle, with those of the inn, are in one corner of the square. The Stone Buildings" are a range of houses, so called from the material with which they are erected: they stand towards the north end of Chancery-lane, immediately behind the "Six Clerks' Office," their fronts facing the west. This handsome range is part of a regular plan by Sir Robert Taylor, for rebuilding the whole inn, but which has never been completed.
The library, situated in Stone Buildings, is a handsome spacious apartment, being made out of three sets of chambers. It contains a good collection of books, and many very curious and valuable manuscripts. The first formation of this library was begun in the reign of Henry the Seventh, but the books accumulated so slowly, that in the 6th of James the First it was ordered, "for the more speedy furnishing of the same, every one that should thenceforth be called to the bench in this society, should give xxs. towards the buying of bookes for the same library; and every one thenceforth called to the bar xiiis. iiiid., all of which sums to be paid to Mr. Matthew Hadde, who, for the better ordering of the said library, was then made master thereof." According to present arrangements, each master of the bench contributes eleven guineas, and every student on his being called to the bar five pounds. The money thus contributed is expended in the purchase of such books relating to jurisprudence as are not commonly found in private libraries.
The MSS. were mostly bequeathed to this society by Sir Matthew Hale; they have been classed and explained in the return made to the select committee for examining into the state of the public records: they refer to matters of a parliamentary, judicial, legal, and public nature. "Among them there are, strictly speaking, scarcely any originals, but many of the transcripts and abstracts in the collection have, in some respects, acquired the value of originals, and are in the estimation of those who have had occasion to examine them, of great authenticity and importance." They are kept in close presses at one of the ends of the library; the keys of the presses are kept by the master of the library, who is chosen annually by the benchers from their own body, and the manuscripts cannot be viewed without a special order from one or two of the masters of
The library is open daily from 10 till 3 during term, and from 11 till 4 in the vacation, holidays excepted, for the use of the members of the inn. The library also contains a few good pictures. When the new building is completed, the library will indeed be an honour to the society.
This society seems to have been especially careful respecting the costume of its members. In the 23rd of Henry the Eighth every fellow was forbidden, on pain of expulsion, from wearing any "cut or pansyd hosen or bryches, or pansyd doblet." On one occasion, a member who transgressed so far as to wear his study gown in Cheapside on a Sunday, was fined five groats. In the reign of Elizabeth, the bench hurled its thunders against long hair and great ruffs, and ordered a fine to be levied on such as should wear a hat in the hall or chapel, or go abroad without a gown. An order was also made against cloaks, boots, and spurs, swords, bucklers, and rapiers; but perhaps the most remarkable restriction was that on beards; in the 33rd of Henry the Eighth an order was made, that no fellow, being in commons or at repast, should wear a beard; "and whoso did, to pay double commons or repasts. in this house, during such time as he should have any beard." But this order not being strictly observed, the penalty was increased, and it was ordered, 1st of Mary, "that such as had beards should pay 12d. for every meal they continued them; and every man to be shav'n upon pain of putting out of commons. In the 1st of Elizabeth it was further ordered, that no fellow should wear his beard above a fortnight's growth, and transgressors forfeited for the first offence 3s. 4d., for the second 6s. 8d., while the third was met by expulsion. But the fashion of wearing beards was stronger than these restrictions, and it was at length agreed, "that orders, before that time (2nd of Elizabeth) made, should be void and repealed." Lincoln's Inn, as well as the Temple, had its dancings or well as the Temple, had its dancings or revels. In the 9th of Henry the Sixth it was ordered "that there should be four revels that year, and no more; one at the feast of All Hallows, another at the feast of St. Erkenwald, the third at the feast of the Purification of our Lady, and the fourth on Midsummer Day;" but it appears that in soine years the revels were more frequent. A
master of the revels was chosen annually. In addition to these revels, Lincoln's Inn had its "grand Christmasings." Instead of its "Lord of Misrule," it had its "King of the Cocknies;" and they also had a "Jack Straw," but in the reign of Elizabeth it was agreed, that he, and all his adherents, be thenceforth utterly banished, and no more be used in this house.
Lincoln's Inn first proposed the famous masque which was presented to the King at Christmas, 9th of Charles the First, the total amount of which cost the four inns 24007., and which was so well approved by the King, that, after thanking them, he invited a hundred of the members of the four inns of court to a masque at Whitehall, held on the Shrove Tuesday following.
Readers were appointed in this society, as in the Temple. In the 33rd of Elizabeth, the readings having declined, owing to the excessive expense of keeping them, an order was made to limit the expense.
MODES OF ADMISSION TO THE INNS OF Court.
The principal inns of court have agreed to one common set of regulations for the admission of students, &c.; so that a description of the proceedings, with reference to Lincoln's Inn, may, for the most part, be taken as applicable to all.
The first thing that is required is to lodge at the steward's office a statement, in writing, describing the age, residence, and condition in life, of the party seeking admission, to be signed by him, and witnessed by two persons of acknowledged respectability. Such statement being presented to the treasurer, an entry thereof is made in a book, which is submitted every term to the benchers. If any candidate is rejected by any one of the four societies, a certificate of the fact is sent to the other three. The sums to be paid on admission are, admission fee, 31. 3s. 4d.; stamps, 267. 10s.; bond and fees to the officers, 17. 19s. 8d.; but a bencher has the privilege of entering one son, on paying only for the stamps and fees to the officers. A bond must be entered into by the candidate and a member of the inn, or two housekeepers, in the penalty of 1007., for the payment of his dues annually, amounting to about 67. He must also deposit 1007. before he commences his terms, but exemption from this deposit is obtained by producing a certificate of having kept two years' terms in either of the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, or Dublin, or of being of the Faculty of Advocates in Scotland, or if admitted for the purpose of being called to the Irish Bar.
The method of keeping terms is by dining a certain number of days in the Hall during the four law terms. Dinner commences at half-past four, and the student is required not to leave the hall until grace is said after dinner. The steward then enters the names of all present. One week in each term is denominated "Grand-week," and one of the days in such week "Grand-day." The grand day is fixed by the benchers on the first night of each term. Attendance in the hall is regulated with reference to the grand week. Students may, if they please, dine in the hall every day in term by paying 2s. for each repast above the whole number of days necessary for the purpose of keeping the term. The chief porter supplies a plain black gown worn by the members during dinner.
Before a student can be called to the English Bar, it is necessary that his name shall have been five years on the books of the society, unless he have previously taken the degree of M.A. or B.L. in one of the universities, in which case three years suffice, during which period he must keep twelve terms' commons, and perform nine exercises, of which not more than three can be performed in one term. An attorney or solicitor cannot perform exercises until his name shall have been taken off the roll; a person in trade, or one who has been a lawyer's, barrister's, or conveyancer's clerk, is not allowed to perform exercises to enable him to be called to the bar. No person in deacon's orders, nor any one under the age of twenty-one, can be called to the bar.
The exercises are done before the barristers immediately after dinner, the student having first obtained a certificate qualifying him thereto. We are ignorant of the nature of these exercises, "the proper officer in the hall" directing the student what to do at the proper time.
When a student is qualified for the bar, and has given notice of his intention of being called, his name must be affixed in the hall a fortnight before that event, and he must present a petition praying to be called to the bar.
This petition "is presented to the benchers at a special council convened expressly relative to calls to the bar; and previous to such council the student must procure some bencher to move the consideration of such petition. Another special council is then fixed for the purpose of calls; when, if the candidate be approved, the petition is granted, and it is ordered that the petitioner be published (or called to the bar) at the next exercise in the hall, which is generally on the following day.
"On that day the student must attend personally; and after dinner proceed to take the oaths of allegiance and supremacy, which are administered by the steward, before the benchers.
"After taking the oaths, he is published, or called to the bar by the benchers, and retires to the council chamber to sign the register of his call in the presence of the benchers; who immediately leave him to the enjoyment of the company of his friends, usually invited on the occasion." He is also required to take the oaths at Westminster, and he must enter into a bond for the payment of the annual dues, which, for the first three years after his call to the bar, amount to 107. 78. 4d. per annum.
The expense of being called to the bar differs in the inns from about 667. (the expense of being called in Gray's Inn) to 93%., (the expense in Lincoln's Inn.)
The Irish Inns of Court originated in the establishment of Courts of Justice in Dublin. Irish students are required to keep eight terms in one of the English inns, as well as nine in the King's Inn, Dublin, before they can be called to the Irish bar. Irish students may keep terms in London and Dublin alternately, or in any order they think proper. Most of the Irish students in London resort to Gray's Inn.
There are two inns of chancery attached to Lincoln's Inn, namely, Thaive's Inn and Furnival's Inn.
1. Thaive's Inn derives its name from John Thaive or Tavie, who had a house adjoining St. Andrew's Church in Holborn, to the support of which, in 1348, he left a considerable estate, the value of which had so much accumulated that from the profits of it the present church was principally rebuilt in 1670. Thaive directed that after the decease of his wife Alice, his estates and the hospicium in quo apprenticii ad legem habitare solebant should be sold in order to maintain a chaplain, who was to pray for his soul and that of his spouse.
In the reign of Edward the Sixth, one Gregory Nicholls, citizen and mercer of London, having inherited this mansion, granted it to the benchers of Lincoln's Inn for the use of students of the law; which society constituted it one of their inns of chancery, and vested the government in a principal and fellows.
The old inn was burnt down some years since, and the houses were rebuilt in the form of a private court.
2. Furnival's Inn is first noticed as a law seminary in its steward's account-book, written about the 9th of King Henry the Fourth, and derives its name from its original occupants, the Lords Furnival. The precise date of its establishment as a school of legal education is uncertain, but it appears to have descended by marriage to the Earls of Shrewsbury, who, in the reign of Edward the Sixth, in consideration of 1207., sold it to the society of Lincoln's Inn. This society granted a lease to the principal and fellows of Furnival's Inn, who were to pay yearly the sum of 31. 6s. 4d. The buildings of old Furnival's Inn will probably be remembered by many of our readers; they had a very dirty desolate appearance. The street front was the best. Mr. Herbert describes it as "a fine specimen of brick-work, being adorned with pilasters, mouldings, and various other ornaments." An arched gateway led to the interior parts of the inn. "The hall is seen on entering the gateway, but its aspect is by no means calculated to make a favourable impression on the spectator: it is a low plain brick building, with a small turret, and two large projecting bow-windows at the west end, and is, like the rest of the inn, in a most neglected state. The north side of it, on passing through the passage, or entrance to the inner court, with a small range of old chambers that adjoins, and whose fronts are plastered in the cottage style, have a singularly rustic appearance, and bear a much greater resemblance to a country village than a London inn of chancery."
In 1817 the lease having expired, and the old and ruinous buildings having been partly destroyed by fire, and partly fallen down, a new lease of the ground was granted to Henry Peto, of Little Britain, who erected the present inn.
The fourth and last inn of court, stands on the north side of Holborn, nearly opposite the end of Chancery-lane, and extends a very considerable distance eastward. It derives its name, like most of the other inns, from its original occupants, who, in this case, were the Lords Gray of Wilton. In the year 1315, John, the son of Reginald de Gray, obtained a license from the king, "to grant xxx acres of land, two acres of meadow, and ten shillings rent, with the appurtenances, lying in Kentish-town, near London, and in the parish of St. Andrew, in Holborn, without the barr of the old Temple, unto the prior and convent of St. Bartholomew's, in Smithfield, to furnish a certain chaplain to celebrate divine service every day in the chapel of Pourtpole without the barrs (that being the chapel to this house,) for the soul of the said John, and for the souls of his ancestors, and all the faithful deceased, for ever."
In the year 1505 Edmund Lord Gray, by indenture of bargain and sale, passed to Hugh Denny, esq., his heirs and assigns, the manor of Portpoole, otherwise called Gray's Inn, four messuages, four gardens, the site of a windmill, eight acres of land, ten shillings of free rent, and the advowson of the chantry of Portpoole aforesaid. This bargain and sale was confirmed by a release in the 22nd of Henry the Seventh.
About eight years afterwards the prior and convent of Shene (as Richmond, in Surrey, was then called,) became possessors, by purchase, of the manor of Portpoole, &c., and soon after demised the premises to the students of the law, for the annual rent of 6l. 13s. 4d.; at which rent they were held of that monastery till the Dissolution, when, becoming the property of the Crown, a grant was made by the king in fee-farm, and the property still continues vested in the Crown.
The ancient orders for learning and government in this society are similar to those of the other inns. Among the orders it may be noticed, that no fellow was allowed to stand with his back to the fire, or to make any rude noise in the hall, at meal times, or to break open any body's chambers; every one was required to wear his cap in the hall both in term time and in vacation. They also had their revels and interludes, and even fined their fellows 12d. each, if they should depart out of the hall before the revels were ended.
Gray's Inn Gardens have long been celebrated. They were planted about the 40th of Elizabeth, when Bacon, afterwards Lord Verulam, in his account as treasurer of the society, allowed the sum of 77. 6s. 8d. for planting elmtrees in them.
The hall ranks next in beauty to that of the Middle Temple; it was finished in the 2nd of Elizabeth. The chapel, which is a modern structure, stands on the site of the ancient religious structure already noticed.
The inns of chancery belonging to Gray's Inn are Staple Inn and Barnard's Inn, both in Holborn. The first is said to have been anciently called Staple Hall, and used as a sort of exchange for the wool merchants or staplers. In the reign of Henry the Fifth, and probably earlier, it had become an inn of chancery. The first grant of it to the ancients of Gray's Inn was in the 20th of Henry the Eighth.
Barnard's Inn was anciently called Mackworth Inn, from John Mackworth, dean of Lincoln, by whose executors it was given in the 32nd of Henry the Sixth to the dean and chapter of Lincoln for pious purposes. It was then spoken of as the second inn of chancery, and it is also named in Stowe's Annals, in reference to an event which occurred in the reign of Henry the Sixth; "a tumult betwixt the gentlemen of the innes of court and chancery and the citizens of London hapning in Fleet-street, in which some mischief was done; the principals of Clifford's Inne, Furnivall's Inne, and Barnard's Inne, were sent prisoners to
The two inns called "Serjeants' Inns," one of which is in Fleet-street and the other in Chancery-lane, are appropriated to such gentlemen only as have been called to the degree of the coif. The Judges are also members of Serjeants' Inn, and had formerly official chambers in Chancery-lane, which have been recently removed to the new buildings in Clifford's Inn.
JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON.