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and trenching may now be carried on, and the soil fitted to greater productiveness another season. The method of trenching the ground was noticed in the opening article of this series, in January last, among other directions for the formation of a kitchen garden, and therefore need not further engage our attention.

Among the directions for the present month, the dressing of artichoke and asparagus beds must not be forgotten. The former of these vegetables is much less generally used in England than on the Continent; Lut still it is sufficiently well known to make some notice of it desirable here. Cynara, the botanical name of the artichoke, is derived from cinere, according to Columella, because the ground in which it was planted was manured with ashes; or as it is otherwise thought, because the leaves are ash-coloured. The word choke is no doubt derived from that part of the head which is left after the bottom part of the scales is eaten, and which produces a choking sensation, if accidentally swallowed. The artichoke is a native of Africa, and of many of the warmer portions of Europe. It is supposed to be indigenous to the countries which bound the Mediterranean Sea, and to the islands situated near those coasts. It was introduced from the south of Europe in the reign of Henry the Eighth. There are several entries respecting artichokes, in the privy-purse expenses of this sovereign. One of them is the following: "Paied to a servant of Maister Tresorer in rewarde for bringing archecokks to the King's grace, to Yorke place, iiijs. iiijd." A treatise still preserved in the Harleian library, explains "the best settynge and keepynge of artichokes." This was written in the reign of Queen Mary.

The roots of the plant are fleshy and fibrous, producing a head of erect winged leaves. From these rises an upright stem two or three feet high, bearing a roundish flower-head, inclosed by a rigid fence of scales or leaves. These scales are placed in alternate order, one over the other, somewhat resembling the way in which tiles are laid on the roof of a use. It is the immature head of the plant that is used in cookery, before the flowers open. But the flowers themselves are never eaten; indeed they, with the seed-down, having the appearance of bristles, are called the choke, and are removed in order to get at the receptacle or bottom, which is the only part eaten.

vour. This plant is propagated by rooted suckers, which are annually afforded by the parent plants. These are slipped off in March, or early in April, when they are about eight or ten inches in height. They are planted in an open compartment, where the soil is rich and rather moist, and has been well manured. The young plants are set in rows, two feet apart, the rows being about four feet distant from each other. Water is given abundantly until they have taken root. No further attention is required, except that of keeping them free from weeds by means of a hoe, which also keeps the surface in a healthy state.

In August and September of the same season, the young plants produce a crop of fruit, and continue bearing until November, at which time the plants receive their winter dressing, which Johnson directs to be as follows. The old leaves being cut away without injuring the shoots, the ground is dug over, and a moderate ridge of mould heaped against each row, close about the plants, but leaving the hearts clear. In severe weather the plants are also covered with long litter, or pea haulm. Stable dung is sometimes put over the plants, before earthing them up; but this is a bad plan, and conduces to their decay. Early in February all covering of this description is removed; and in March, as soon as the shoots are four or five inches above ground, the ridges thrown up in the winter are levelled, and all the earth removed from about the stock to below the part whence the young shoots spring. All of these but two, or at the most three, of the straightest and most vigorous, are then removed, care being taken to leave the finest of those which spring from the under part of the stock, not those which proceed from its crown, and which have hard woody stems; such being productive of indifferent heads. Not only are all superfluous shoots and suckers removed from the stock, but every bud is rubbed off, otherwise more shoots will be produced, and the principal ones injured thereby. After this has been done the mould is returned to the stocks, which are covered with it to the height of two inches above the crown.

Artichokes are frequently introduced in the raw state as salads, both in France and Italy, but they are much more wholesome and agreeable either simply boiled, or stewed in gravy. Artichoke bottoms may be dried in the sun for winter use, forming an agreeable side dish throughout that season. This vegetable possesses little nourishment, and cannot at the present day be regarded as valuable in a medicinal point of view, although it has been spoken of by ancient physicians as a certain cure for jaundice. The flowers of this plant have the property of curdling milk. The eatable portion of the plant is so trifling, compared with the parts that are rejected, that the artichoke will probably always remain among the luxuries of the higher classes, and will not come into general cultivation. Yet the moisture of our climate is so suitable to the plant, that it has greatly improved in size and flavour since its introduction into this country; so much so, that the Italians sent to England for artichoke plants, supposing them to be a different variety from their own. They were, however, soon satisfied that the English plants are identical with their own, for they returned to their original size and flavour as soon as they were again raised in their native soil.

There are two varieties of artichoke in cultivation in our gardens; the Globe, so called from the globular shape of the flower-head; and the French, which is of an oval form. The latter is a hardy and prolific variety, and deserves cultivation; but the globe artichoke is ( much larger and more fleshy, and has a much finer fla

In a suitable soil the artichoke is a perennial, yet, after a few years, the heads become smaller and drier; the beds are therefore broken up every four or five years, and fresh ones formed. When the spring-planted artichokes fail to produce heads the first year, the leaves are tied together in autumn, and covered with earth, leaving only the tops visible. Soils in which there is a mixture of some saline or alkaline matter are recommended for the production of this vegetable; for like sea-kale it is naturally a maritime plant. It is stated that artichokes are raised in greater perfection in the Orkneys than elsewhere, and that this successful culture is owing to the plentiful dressing of sea-weed with which the ground is annually supplied.

The tubers of the Jerusalem artichoke are now taken up for preservation in sand. This vegetable is propagated like the potato, by cuttings of the large tubers, in each of which one or two " eyes" are preserved. This is altogether a different plant from the artichoke last described, and has received the same name, merely on account of a resemblance in flavour between its tuberous roots when boiled, and the artichoke bottoms. From its property of turning to the sun the Italians called it girasole, or sunflower, which is said to have been corrupted by the English into Jerusalem. The botanical name is Helianthus, which also means a sunflower. This root is a native of the Brazils, in South America. It rarely blooms in this country, and the seeds never come to perfection. There is scarcely another culinary vegetable which requires so little culture as this; the smallest offset, when once rooted, will soon multiply into hundreds. There are often from thirty to fifty tubers attached to one stem. It has been justly said that "this root seems to meet

with undue neglect in our gardens, for it is an excellent winter vegetable, which may be grown at very little cost; it is wholesome, nutritious, and savoury; and either boiled or stewed, affords an agreeable variety for the table." The tubers are generally fit for use in September; in November they may be taken up for a winter supply. The Jerusalem artichoke will probably be considered by many persons too watery in its nature to be placed in competition with the potato, which in its tuberous nature it much resembles. Indeed it must be owned that a little of the cook's art is required to make these underground artichokes very savoury. They are therefore frequently boiled till tender, and afterwards peeled and stewed in butter, with a little wine. They were formerly baked in pies, with marrow, dates, ginger, sack, raisins, &c.

Gardeners who are anxious to raise the seed of cabbages free from any mixture of crossing, transplant, at this season, one or two of the best cabbages, setting them into the ground up to the head: these yield abundance of seed the following summer. A few of the soundest and most productive cabbage-stalks, furnished with sprouts, will answer the same end. Some of the best roots of parsnip, carrot, and beet, may also now be transplanted for seed; being set in a convenient spot, apart from the varieties of the species. The roots just mentioned, together with a portion of celery, may also be removed to a dry cellar, or buried in sand for winter

use.

At this time we may begin to make provision for the earliest spring crops of peas, by sowing a few drills of the early sorts in a warm sheltered border. These may come in by May or June; though it is of course very uncertain. The mazagan bean may also be sown in a warm border, fully facing the sun. The most certain method, however, is to select a small spot of ground in a good situation, and when the soil has been worked to the proper fineness, to sow the beans within a space that may be covered by a two-light hot-bed frame, in severe weather. In February or March, the crop can be transplanted to the open ground. A sowing may be made of the common taper-rooted radish, for an early crop: the short-topped variety is the best. The bed may be covered with straw to the depth of several inches.

The transplantation of the August-sown cabbages and the earthing up of brocoli, cauliflower, and cabbage plants are continued during the month. Cape brocoli, and autumnal cauliflower, if not already removed to a place of safety, may now be placed in an outhouse immersed in sand to the lower extremities of the flowerstems, where they ramify from the stalk. By such means, these vegetables may be had in the depth of winter.

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in clear soft water for an hour or two; then boil them quickly for about twenty minutes, using plenty of water. When tender, take them up, drain them well, and place them in a stew-pan with cream or with a little fresh butter thickened with flour. Season them with pepper and salt, stir them till thoroughly hot, then serve them up with a little tomato vinegar, which greatly heightens their flavour.

The effects of frost, from which we are obliged to protect so many of our vegetables, are absolutely useful in improving the flavour of others. Brussels sprouts, for instance, are always the more tender and sweet for being slightly "frosted." Of this well-known vegetable there is but one variety, and that is supposed to have originated from the savoy. It is a great favourite in the town from whence it derives its name, as well as in all parts of Flanders. Van Mons says: "We contrive to supply ourselves in Belgium with this delicious vegetable full ten months in the year, that is, from the end of July to the end of May." Brussels sprouts are so hardy that they will stand twenty degrees of frost, and thus form a valuable winter supply. This plant produces a stem three feet in height, from which shoots out a number of sprouts, having small green heads like diminitive cabbages. The crown of the plant resembles a savoy, and is cut off for use before the rest of the sprouts. A gentleman long resident in Brussels has recommended the following mode of cooking this wholesome vegetable:-After the sprouts have been frosted, gather those that are the most compact, immerse them

Brussels sprouts are raised from seed sown in March or April; the seedlings being afterwards transplanted out, eighteen inches apart. By about Christmas the sprouts will probably be all cut, when the plant will remain nearly torpid till the advancing sun causes it to start into new vegetation. A little manure added at this time will increase the productiveness of the plants, in which the young heads will soon begin to form again at the axils of the leaves, and will yield a new supply for many weeks in succession. The author of the English Garden says of this vegetable:—" The plant that has generally had this name given to it in England, is a thing quite different from the real Brussels sprouts. If you mean to save seed, you must cut off the crown, and let the seed-stems and flowers come out nowhere but from the little cabbages themselves. It is most likely owing to negligence in this respect that we hardly ever see such a thing as real Brussels sprouts in England; and it is said that it is pretty nearly the same in France, the proper care being taken nowhere, apparently, but in the neighbourhood of Brussels."

In conducting the improvements or alterations which may probably be required in the form and arrangement of the kitchen garden, and for which the present is a good season, new paths will doubtless be needed in some quarters. In forming these, if the position be a principal one, there is doubtless nothing so good for the upper surface as gravel. But for outer paths coal ashes form the best material which can be employed as a substitute. Such walks are first to be dug out thoroughly, so that the surface-soil may be employed in deepening the fruitborders. The foundation may then be made of stones, pebbles, lime-core, semi-vitrified cinders, &c.; these materials being carefully rolled and cemented together, a sufficiently good surface would be produced by three or four inches of coal ashes. Forsyth says, "I give the preference to sea-coal ashes, which, in my opinion, make the best walks for a kitchen garden, and they are easier kept than any others, being firm and dry, and cleaner to walk upon than sand, especially after frost." As an edging to such paths, nothing looks so well or is so easily kept neat and in order, as box. This may be planted as soon as the paths are formed. It must be kept quite perpendicular, and ought to stand, when planted and cut off, about four inches high. The best time for transplanting box is in October; but it may be removed at almost any time, except the height of summer, if it be taken up with a good ball of earth.

Order and neatness being provided for by such operations as the foregoing, little more remains to be done in the kitchen garden during the present month.

THE PRECURSOR OF IMPROVEMENT.

CATTLE may be justly called the pioneers of emigration ; they discover the best pasture and water; they also serve to drain the soil in marshes; on the banks of rivers their deep tracks are filled up by each successive flood with alluvial deposit, which, being again trampled down by their footsteps, becomes hard, which raises the banks of the stream so high that they ultimately confine it within its proper bed which is deepened daily until it becomes of sufficient depth to carry off the water: they also improve the quality of both soil and grass.-Six Years' Residence in Australia.

He who can take advice is sometimes superior to him who can give it.-VAN KNIBEL.

JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON.

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II.

SECTION 4. ANCIENT FESTIVITIES.

THE Inns of Court were celebrated in former times as much for their shows, and masques, and revels, as for their good cheer. The principal holidays and festivals were kept with great splendour; their entertainments being frequently honoured with the presence of the nobility, and sometimes with that of royalty. The following notice of these festivities relates to the Temple, and may serve to illustrate similar proceedings in the other inns of court, which were enacted, probably, on a somewhat smaller scale.

One of these Christmas festivals is minutely and quaintly detailed by Gerard Leigh, in his Accidence of Armory, which, with some slight abridgments, we extract. The hero on this occasion was Dudley, earl of Leicester, who with the romance of his mistress, Queen Elizabeth, styled himself Palaphilos, prince of Sophie. He was entertained by a person representing a sovereign prince, and had for his officers the lords chancellor, privy-seal, treasurer; several of the judges and other dignitaries of the law, and upwards of fourscore of the guard. Our author begins :-"After I had travelled through the east parts of the unknown world to understand of deedes of arms, and so arriving in the fair river of Thames, I landed within half a league from the fair VOL. XXV.

LEDCE, IT IS NOT CO

OCTOBER, 1844.

LINCOLN'S INN HALL AND CHAPEL.

PRICE ONE PENNY.

SOME ACCOUNT OF THE

ORIGIN, HISTORY, AND ANTIQUITIES OF THE INNS OF COURT.

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city of London, which was, as I conjecture, in December last; and drawing neer the city, suddainly heard the shot of double canons, in so great a number, and so terrible, that it darkened the whole ayr; wherewith, although I was in my native country, yet stood I amazed, not knowing what it meant. Thus, as I abode in despair, either to return or continue my former purpose, I chanced to see coming toward me an honest citizen, clothed in a long garment, keping the highway, seeming to walk for his recreation, which prognosticated rather peace than peril; of whom I demanded the cause of this great shot, who friendly answered, "It is (quoth he,) a warning shot to the Constable Marshal of the Inner Temple to prepare to dinner.' 'Why (said I,) what, is he of that estate, that seeketh no other means to warn his officers than with so terrible shot in so peaceable a country? Marry (saith he,) he uttereth himself the better to be that officer whose name he beareth.'

"I then demanded what province did he govern, that needeth such an officer. He answered me, "The province was not great in quantity, but ancient in true nobility. A place (said he) privileged by the most excellent princess, the high governor of the whole island, wherein are store of gentlemen of the whole realm, that repair thither to learn to rule and obey by law, to yield their fleece to their prince and common-v n-weal, as also to use all other exercises of body

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and mind whereunto nature most aptly serveth to adorn, by speaking, countenance, gesture, and use of apparel, the person of a gentleman. And after he had told me thus much of honour of the place, I commended in mine own conceit the policy of the governor; for that the best of their people, from tender years trained up in precepts of justice, it could not choose but yield forth a profitable people to a wise common

weal.

"The next day I thought for my pastime, to walk to this Temple, and entering in at the gates, I found the building nothing costly, but many comely gentlemen of face and person and thereto very courteous, saw I pass to and fro, so as it seemed a prince's post to be at hand; and, passing forward, entered into a church of ancient building, wherein were many monuments of noble personages, armed in knightlie habit, with their coats depainted in ancient shields, whereat I took pleasure to behold. Thus gazing as one bereft with the rare sight, there came unto me an herehaught, by name Palaphilos, a king of armes, who courteously saluted me, saying, for that I was a stranger, and seeming by my demeanour a lover of honour, I was his guest of right, whose courtesy (as reason was,) I obeyed, answering, I was at his commandement. Then sayeth he, "Ye shall go to mine own lodging, here within the palace, where we will have such cheer as the time and country will yield us,' where I assure you, I was so entertained as no where met I with better cheer or company."

The herald then led him into his office of arms, which is described, and to beguile the time related a tale, in which the virtues and vices are personified according to the taste of the age: this being ended, "there happened such a noise of shot as if it had been at the battrie of Bulloine, whereat I marvelled, thinking myself not in safety. Fear not,' quoth Palaphilos, for it is the master of the ordinance that scoureth his shot, to try their level, to be in readiness when the prince shall command.' 'Well,' quoth I, 'it is well foreseen in peace to provide for war.

"Thus talking we entered the prince's hall, where anon we heard the noise of drum and fife. What meaneth this drum?' said I. Quoth he, 'This is to warn gentlemen of household to repair to the dresser, wherefore come on with me, and ye shall stand where ye may best see the hall served;' and so from thence brought me into a long gallery, that stretcheth itself along the hall, near the prince's table, where I saw the prince sit, a man of tall personage, of manly countenance, somewhat brown of visage, strongly featured, and thereto comely proportioned in all lineaments of body. At the nether end of the same table were placed the ambassadors of divers princes. Before him stood the carver, sewer, and cup-bearer, with great number of gentlemen waiters attending his person, the ushers making place to strangers of sundry regions that came to behold the honour of this mighty captain. After the placing of these honourable guests, the lords steward, treasurer, and keeper of Pallas seal, with divers honourable personages of that nobility, were placed at a side-table, near adjoining the prince on the right hand; and at another table, on the left side, were placed the treasurer of the household, secretary, the prince's serjeant of law, the four masters of the revells, the king of arms, the dean of the chapel, and divers gentlemen-pensioners to furnish the same. At another table, on the other side, were set the master of the game and his chief ranger, masters of household, clerks of the green cloth and check, with divers other strangers to furnish the same. On the other side against them began the table, the lieutenant of the Tower, accompanied with divers captains of foot-bands and shot. At the nether end of the hall began the table, the high butler and panter, clerks of the kitchen, master-cook of the privy kitchen, furnished throughout with the soldiers and guard of the prince; all with number of inferior officers placed and served in the hall, besides the great resort of strangers I spare to write.

"The prince was so served with tender meats, sweet fruits, and dainty delicacies, confectioned with curious cookery, that it seemed to wonder the world to observe the provision; and at every course the trumpets sounded the courageous blast of deadly war, with noise of drum and fife, with the sweet harmony of violins, sackbuts, recorders, and cornets, with other instruments of music, as it seemed Apollo's harp had tuned their stroke.

"Thus the hall was served after the most ancient order of the island; in commendation whereof, I say I have also seen the service of great princes in solemn seasons and times of triumph, yet the order hereof was not inferior to any. But to proceed.

"This herehaught, Palaphilos, even before the second course came in, standing at the high table, said in this manner,-"The mighty Palaphilos, prince of Sophie, high constable, marshal of the Knights Templars, patron of the honourable order of Pegasus,' and therewith crieth a largess. The prince praising the herald, bountifully rewarded him

with a chain to the value of an hundred talents.

"I assure you I languish for want of cunning ripely to utter that I saw so orderly handled, appertaining to service; wherefore I cease and return to my purpose.

"The supper ended, and tables taken up, the highconstable rose, and awhile stood under the place of honour, where his atchievement was beautifully embroidered, and devised of sundry matters with the embassadors of foreign nations as he thought good, till Palaphilos, king of armes, came in, his herehaught, marshall, and pursuivant before him, and after followed his messenger and caligate knight; who putting off his coronal, made his humble obeysance to the prince, by whom he was commanded to draw near, and understand his pleasure; saying to him in few words to this effect: Palaphilos, seeing it hath pleased the high Pallas to think me to demerit the office of this place, and thereto this night past vouchsafed to descend from heavens to increase my further honour, by creating me knight of her order of Pegasus; as also commanded me to join in the same society such valiant gentlemen, throughout her province, whose living honour hath best deserved the same, the choice whereof most aptly belongeth to your skill, being the watchman of their doings and register of their deserts; I will ye choose, as well throughout our whole armies, as elsewhere, of such special gentlemen, as the gods hath appointed, the number of xxiiii, and the names of them present us; commanding, also, those chosen persons to appear in our presence in knightly habit, that, with conveniency, we may proceed in our purpose.' This done, Palaphilos, obeying his prince's commandment, departed; after a while returned, accompanied with xxiiii valient knights, all apparelled in long white vestures, with each man a scarf of Pallas' colours, and then presented with their names to the prince, who allowed well his choice, and commended him to do his office, who, after his duty to the prince, bowed toward these worthy personages, standing every man in his ancienty, as he had borne arms in the field, and began to show his prince's pleasure, with the honour of the order." These grand Christmases lasted several days, and on each day the ceremony differed. The proceedings were regulated by a parliament, expressly summoned, on the eve of St. Thomas the Apostle, who having entered into "solempne consultation," their decisions were communicated to the other members of the house by one of the senior benchers. The eldest butler was directed to publish the names of the various officers appointed for the occasion, and then "the oldest bencher delivered a speech, and then, in token of joy and good-liking, the bench and company pass beneath the harth and sing a caroll, and so to boyer." "The steward was then ordered to provide "five fat brawns, flesh, fowl, and all manner of spices, and other cates for the kitchen." The butler was to prepare "a rich cupboard of plate, silver and parcel gilt, seven dozen of silver and gilt spoons, twelve pair of salt-sellers, likewise silver and gilt; twenty candlesticks of the like; twelve fine large table-cloths, of damask and diaper; twenty dozen of napkins, suitable at the least; three dozen of fair large towels, which the gentlemen sewers and butlers of the house were to have every of them, one at meal-times during their attendance." He was likewise to provide carving-knives; twenty dozen of white cups and green pots; a carving-table; torches, bread, beer, and ale. The chief butler was to give attendance at the highest table in the hall, with wine, ale, and beer, and the other butlers to attend at the other tables.

The constable-marshal was to provide himself with "a fair gilt compleat harneys, (suit of armour,) with a nest of feathers in the helm; a fair pole-axe to bear in his hand, in order to be chevalrously ordered on Christmass day and the other different days."

There was a grand dinner on Christmas eve, for which the tables were arranged with much ceremony by the marshal, and the company placed according to their several degrees. The first course was brought in preceded by the minstrels sounding their instruments. The steward and marshal followed, and after them the gentleman sewer; and then came the meat. These three officers were to make all together three "solempne curtesies," at three several times, between the screen and the upper table, the first at the end of the benchers' table, the second about the midst, and the

third at the other end, and then withdrawing on one side, the sewer performed his office.

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When dinner was over, the musicians sang a song at the highest table, and then the officers were to address themselves, every one in his office, "to avoid the tables in fair and decent manner, beginning at the clerk's table," and thence proceeding to the next, and thence to all the others, "till the highest table be solempnly avoided." All this time the musicians were to stand "right above the hearth side with the noise of their music, their faces direct towards the highest table; and that done to return into the buttery with their music sounding." The second course was similarly

served.

Dinner concluded with revels, during which, and also at dinner, the porters were to view all persons going in and out; and for this service they were allowed "a cast of bread and a candle nightly after supper." The revels and dancing were continued during the twelve days of Christmas; and every day after dinner and supper, the senior master of the revers sang a "caroll or song: and commanded other gentlemen then there present to sing with him and the company," which was "very decently performed."

On Christmas day, after hearing divine service at the Temple church, the gentlemen breakfasted in the hall "with brawn, mustard, and malmsey." At dinner on this day, the first course was "a fair and large bore's-head upon a silver platter, with minstrelsye." At supper two gentlemen in gowns attended, bearing two fair torches of wax next before the musicians and trumpeters, and stood above the fire with the music till the whole first course was served in, which being done, they returned with the music into the buttery; and this same order was observed during the whole Christmas festival.

But the grandest ceremony was on St. Stephen's day, which is thus described by Dugdale.

"This day the sewer, carver, and cup-bearer are to serve as afore. After the first course served in, the constablemarshall cometh into the hall, arrayed with a fair, rich, compleat harneys, white and bright, and gilt, with a nest of fethers of all colours upon his crest or helm, and a gilt pole-axe in his hand; to whom is associate the lieutenant of the Tower, armed with a fair white armour, a nest of fethers in his helm, and a like pole-axe in his hand, and with them sixteen trumpetters; four drums and fifes going in rank before them, and with them attendeth four men in white harneys, from the middle upwards, and halberds in their hands, bearing on their shoulders the Tower; which persons, with the drums, trumpets, and music, go three times about the fire. Then the constable-marshall, after two or three curtesies made, kneeleth down before the lord chancellor; behind him the lieutenant, and they kneeling, the constable-marshall pronounceth an oration of a quarter of an hour's length, thereby declaring the purpose of his coming, and that his purpose is to be admitted into his lordship's service. The lord chancellor saith he will take further advice therein.

"Then the constable-marshall, standing up in submissive manner, delivereth his naked sword to the steward, who giveth it to the lord chancellour; and thereupon the lord chancellor willeth the marshall to place the constablemarshall in his seat; and so he doth, with the lieutenant also in his seat or place. During this ceremony the Tower is placed beneath the fire.

Then cometh in the master of the game, apparelled in green velvet; and the ranger of the forest, also in a green suit of satten, bearing in his hand a green bow and divers arrows, with either of them a hunting-horn about their necks: blowing together three blasts of venery, they pace round about the fire three times. Then the master of the game maketh three curtesies as aforesaid, and kneeleth down before the lord chancellour, declaring the cause of his coming, and desireth to be admitted into his service, &c. All this time the ranger of the forest standeth directly behind him; then the master of the game standeth up.

"This ceremony also performed, a huntsman cometh into the hall with a fox and a purse-net, with a cat, both bound at the end of a staff, and with them nine or ten couple of hounds, with the blowing of hunting-hornes, and the fox and cat are by the hounds set upon and killed beneath the fire. This sport finished, the marshall placeth them in their several appointed places.

highest table, how necessary a thing it is to have officers at this present, the constable-marshall and master of the game, for the better honour and reputation of the commonwealth, and wisheth thein to be received, &c.

"Then proceedeth the second course; which done, and served out, the common serjeant delivereth a plausible speech to the lord chancellour and his company at the

"Then the king's serjeant-at-law declareth and inferreth the necessity; which heard, the lord chancellor desireth respite of further advice. Then the antientest of the masters of the revels singeth a song, with assistance of others there present.

"At supper the hall is to be served in all solempnity as upon Christmas day, both the first and second course to the highest table. Supper ended the constable-marshall presenteth himself, with drums afore him, mounted upon a scaffold, born by four men; and goeth three times round about the harthe, crying out aloud a lord! a lord! &c.; then he descendeth, and goeth to dance, &c., and after he calleth his court, every one by name, one by one in this manner. "Sir Francis Flatterer, of Fowleshurst, in the county of Buckingham.-Sir Randle Rackabite, of Rascall Hall, in the county of Rakehell.-Sir Morgan Mumchance, of Much Monkery, in the county of Mad Mopery.-Sir Bartholomew Baldbreech, of Buttocksbury, in the county of Brekeneck. "This done the Lord of Misrule addresseth himself to the banquet, which ended with some minstrelsye, mirth and dancing, every man departeth to rest.

"At every mess is a pot of wine allowed. Every repast is 6d."

On St. John's day, the lord of misrule was again abroad, and "if he lack any officer or attendant, he repaireth to their chambers, and compelleth them to attend in person upon him, after service in the church, to breakfast with brawn, mustard, and malmsey. After breakfast ended, his lordship's power is in suspense, until his personal presence at night, and then his power is most potent."

During these events defaulters were to be committed to the custody of the lieutenant; but, if they could make their escape to the buttery, and bring into the hall "a manchet upon the point of knife," they were free; "for the buttery in that case is a sanctuary." On the 66 grand banquetting night," the inns of chancery were invited to see a play and masque. The hall was furnished" with scaffolds to sit on, for ladies to behold the sports," which being ended, the ladies partook of a sumptuous banquet in the library.

SECTION 5.

ARMORIAL BEARINGS OF THE TWO TEMPLES. Towards the close of the last century the two Temples became involved in a dispute about precedence, founded on their respective armorial bearings; in consequence whereof the Hon. Daines Barrington instituted an inquiry into the origin of such bearings, and in 1788 communicated the result to the Society of Antiquaries, who published his paper in their Archeologia, from which we select the following par

ticulars.

The Templars originally styled themselves "Pauperes commilitones Christi et Templi Salomonis," and consisted at first of only nine; the two principal of which were so poor that they were obliged to ride both on one horse, which was, moreover, fixed upon as a proper device for their seal. But when they increased in number and riches, they abandoned their original device in favour of another, which they probably deemed more honourable.

In the fifth year of Elizabeth the Inner Temple assumed arms and a seal, by the suggestion of Master Gerard Leigh, who was a member of this inn of court. The device was "a Pegasus, Luna, on a field argent." And, considering that the societies of the law had been so long and so honourably established, the herald emblasoned their device by precious stones and planets, as being "truly honourable societies according to their present style."

The object of Leigh in proposing these singular arms, was to imply that the knowledge acquired at this learned seminary would raise the professors of the law to the greatest honours; hence he added the motto Volat ad æthera virtus. "Nor did he decline alluding to their progress in what are generally esteemed more liberal sciences, and therefore thought that Pegasus forming the fountain of Hippocrene by striking his hoof against a rock, was a proper emblem of the lawyers even becoming poets.

Here it may not be improper to observe that the two fathers of English poets, Chaucer and Gower, were both of the Inner Temple. Nor should it be forgot that this inn of court employed Sir James Thornhill (in Queen Anne's time) to decorate the east end of their hall with Pegasus

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