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hension of the very plain sentences of the lesson books." The state of the schools at Greenwich was at that time altogether unsatisfactory, therefore we do not lay particular stress on this instance; but if we follow the same clear-sighted and able Inspector in his tour through the counties of Norfolk and Suffolk, we find renewed testimony of deficiency in reading in schools where writing, arithmetic, and geography were making progress, and where the pupils had the advantage of superior guidance and superintendence. In one of these schools "the monitors, four of whom had acted two years, and three one year in that capacity, were unable to read with accuracy, or to show that they understood the words they were reading, or to give an intelligent account of what had recently been the subject of their lessons, whether of Bible History, or general information. Their ages were from ten to fourteen." A benevolent manufacturer at Norwich, who has done much at his own expense for the education of the poor, had made a regulation, that no one should be admitted to work for him who could not read decently, that is, in such a manner as to show that the art of reading is accompanied with a certain degree of understanding in proportion to the age. "At a recent period," says Mr. Tremenheere, "when many hundred children of weavers were out of employ, this manufacturer was during several months in want of hands, and although the fact was well known, yet no children of the age required, (between eleven and fifteen,) who were able to satisfy the test, applied to him for work. This fact may, perhaps, be taken as a proof, that among the class of children in question the qualifications were comparatively rare; and also that the children who were best instructed, were able to find work or to retain their places, while those of the lower degrees of cultivation were the first to be thrown out of employ." The state of education among the agricultural labourers of Norfolk is far worse. The very little that is communicated to them in the way of instruction in reading, is in most instances so imperfectly done that they lose it all in a few years. "A large proportion of the young persons of both sexes, from twenty to thirty years of age, had not only forgotten the little they ever knew of reading and writing, but also much of whatever scriptural or catechetical instruction they had once acquired."

It is well known that the lower classes of Scotland are better educated than those of England, and therefore in examining Mr. Gibson's Report on the state of the schools of Aberdeen, &c., we were prepared to find a satisfactory account. With respect to most of the parochial schools it is highly They are conducted by accomplished men, eight of whom are preachers in the church of Scotland, five, students of divinity, and the remaining three, persons who have gone through a complete course of study at the University of Aberdeen. These gentlemen pursue the explanatory method of teaching, and meet with corresponding success. The sessional schools are also admirably taught. In the more advanced classes a searching examination is instituted into the meanings, and occasionally the derivations of words. Yet with all this attention and success,

in certain schools, the initiatory steps in the majority of schools are complained of as very unmethodical, especially in reading. "All that was aimed at," says Mr. Gibson, "in most of the schools, was to enable the pupils to read with facility and fluency; no effort had been made to correct provincial barbarisms and peculiarities of pronunciations, or to give the pupils the power of reading with a fair amount of propriety and intelligence. It was generally done in a monotonous, drawling manner; pauses were neglected, emphasis unmarked, and no expression given to the sense. In no respects were the results of the application of the explanatory method more satisfactory than in the

distinctive features which it gave to this branch. Although even in those schools where this method was practised, no approach to elegant and tasteful reading was made, yet it was generally characterized by distinctness of enunciation, by a proper degree of loudness and firmness of tone, and by

a considerable share of intelligence, proper accentuation, and emphasis." Spelling was taught in the various schools, with different degrees of skill. In most cases it was regarded as a mere exercise of memory; but in some of the best schools attempts were made to render it more interesting. In Bon Accord sessional school, by a proper classification of words, and a judicious application of the simultaneous method, good results were obtained. The monitors, after having heard each pupil in his turn spell his word, required the whole class to repeat it in a low tone, and simultaneously; and instead of passing immediately to the following word, the pupils were exercised in others resembling it in sound; thus, if "land" was the word given, the pupils were requested to spell bland, band, brand, sand, strand, stand, &c.

We now turn to a Report by Seymour Tremenheere, Esq., of sixty-six schools, situated in and near London, and conducted on the principles of the British and Foreign School Society. Among these schools there were some which met with the warm commendation of the Inspector; but the greater number were in various stages of mediocrity, yet not from neglect or inattention on the part of the masters. One great cause of the unsatisfactory state of the schools is the want of a reasonable remuneration for the master. Being obliged to look either chiefly or exclusively to the weekly payments of the children, he is induced to take a greater number than he can possibly superintend with effect. The frequent changes among the pupils, and the neglect and indifference of their parents, also operate most unfavourably. There is another evil: the time occupied in the lower classes before the pupil is able to read is so great, that by the time he has reached the upper division, (if he ever arrives there at all,) he is about to leave the school, and therefore loses the benefit of the more immediate teaching of the master. "For the time thus unduly occupied in getting through the merest rudiments, the parent is taxed to the amount of the school fees, and the child suffers by being launched into the employments of life with less preparation than it ought to have received, considering the period of its attendance at school."

The exercises for the lower division of these schools

consist in spelling, reading, writing, and ciphering. Upon the spelling boards are rows of unconnected words, supposed to be explained and illustrated by the monitors, sometimes aided by sentences written out by the master. "It did not seem that a process, naturally irksome to a child's mind, was much facilitated by this method. . . . The very slight degree of comprehension of meaning usually exhibited in these lower divisions, even by children who could pronounce the words fluently, seemed to indicate a habit of mere mechanical reading without effort to associate the sense. When the early lessons are thus hopelessly difficult, when they are selected solely from scripture subjects, and given in a manner little adapted to the tender capacity of childhood, ministering little to its curiosity, and having little reference to the opening world around it, the process must necessarily be repugnant as conveying fragmentary ideas or none at all, and the progress slow in proportion."

The above extracts will be sufficient to show that in a

large proportion of schools, much time is unnecessarily wasted, and many evil results follow from the tedious process of teaching to read, on the plan usually adopted. Many intelligent masters of schools are perfectly aware of the evils of the spelling method, and are anxiously awaiting the introduction of some better system; by means of which the lower classes in schools might be more speedily advanced, and thus come at an earlier period under their own management and direction, instead of leaving the school, as many of their members of the principal. It is of the utmost importance that do, without ever deriving benefit from the teaching children should be taught to read well in the shortest possible space of time, and should also understand what they read. Schoolmasters themselves are among the

first to confess that nearly the whole of our primers and spelling-books are so constructed as to cause much unnecessary toil both to teacher and learner. Every teacher must observe that the progress of his pupils mainly depends on his observance of two important principles of education; namely, first, that the pupil be conducted by very gentle gradations from the simplest and easiest lessons, to those which are more difficult; and secondly, that each succeeding lesson be grounded on the experience acquired in former lessons. But how are these conditions fulfilled in the A B C method of teaching to read? The child first commits to memory the names of a number of symbols, called the letters of the alphabet, but when he comes to spell words, the names he has learned are worse than useless to him, because the name of the letter is generally very different from the sound it has in a word. Where, for instance, can we find a sound like that which we give to the letter h, which we call aitch? If a child were to pronounce the little pronoun he, according to the names he has been taught to give to the letters of the alphabet, he would of course call it aitchee. Then why do we begin by teaching children names which are of no use in helping them to the sounds of words? By this plan we indeed tax their memories to a great extent; but surely, where there is so much to learn on which memory might be more profitably exercised, it is a pity to make unnecessary calls on the infant mind. Year after year, in the case of dull children, is frequently employed in the most laborious manner in endeavouring to master the difficulties of the spelling-book, and perhaps an unconquerable dislike of all books is then acquired, which is observable in many persons, and which operates most unfavourably on their whole character. It is no just reply to this, to say that numbers of clever children get through the task without any difficulty, and may almost be said to teach themselves to read. In taking a wide view of the subject, it is not fair to argue by the example of the clever and the educated: we must observe the effect of different methods on large masses of the people, and see whether dull and ignorant and neglected children, which form the majority in most schools, are helped, or hindered by them. In setting such children to read the words brought, fright, plough, &c., what possible help can they derive from pronouncing each letter separately, and giving it a name which has nothing to do with the sound of the whole word? After spelling the word, the child is just as much at a loss as before, and it is only after the teacher or monitor has repeatedly given the sound, that it becomes at last connected, in the memory of the child, with the assemblage of letters used to express it. Thus by slow and tedious steps, and by continual repetitions, the dull and ignorant scholar gets his memory loaded with a sufficient number of words to enable him to read a little; but the knowledge he has gained is extremely small, and, without practice in reading, he probably shares the fate of the agricultural labourers of Norfolk above described, and loses it all before he has attained

man's estate.

substitute easy sentences which the child is taught to read off at sight according to the dictation of the teacher, who also encourages the pupils to seek for similar words elsewhere. Various other modes have been tried in private teaching, and even in schools there have been some attempts to get rid of what is felt to be a great burden. In the volumes previously alluded to, there is abundant evidence that teachers are disposed to attempt some better mode than that which they have proved to be so inefficient. It is therefore with much pleasure that we are about to trace the rise aud progress of a system of teaching which is based upon the sounds of letters only, and which discards all arbitrary names and modes of classification. The history of this system, and the claims it has to be generally introduced, will occupy our notice in succeeding articles. But we may here remark that it is entirely opposed to mere mechanical teaching and learning, and therefore offers a decided contrast to the senseless spelling method by which teacher and scholars have so long vexed themselves, and prolonged their labours without any satisfactory result.

It is a serious defect of the spelling method that the knowledge which a child has already acquired is not brought sufficiently into use at every lesson to help him onwards. He has little pleasure in his lessons, because he does not feel his own progress. What he has gained to-day does not appear to make to-morrow's task more easy. The child's powers are indeed unfairly taxed, and the memory has to bear a cumbrous load which weakens instead of strengthening the mind.

The defects in the common method of teaching reading are now becoming evident, not only to intelligent schoolmasters who have had the best opportunities of judging in this matter, but also to parents and teachers generally. Accordingly we find in various quarters an attempt to get rid of the spelling lesson entirely, and to

THE wisdom and goodness of God, in the providential arrangements which He is pleased to make for the benefit of his fallen creatures, may be thwarted or impeded for a time, and in particular instances, by their perverseness or folly; but the arrangements themselves are not on that account the less wise or good.-BISHOP BLOMFIELd.

WE bought little except a supply of lentiles, or small beans, which are common in Egypt and Syria under the for which Esau sold his birthright. We found them very name of 'Adas, the same from which the pottage was made palatable, and could well conceive that to a weary hunter, faint with hunger, they might be quite a dainty.-ROBINson's Palestine.

THE solid materials of which the earth is composed, from the surface inhabited by man to the greatest depths within the reach of his observation, consist of minerals and fossils. Minerals are inorganic substances formed by natural operations, and are the product of chemical or electro-chemical action. Fossils are the remains of animals and vegetables which have been imbedded in the strata by natural causes in remote periods, originally elaborated from inorganic matter by that marvellous principle, termed vitality, and subsequently more or less altered in structure and composition by the influence of those physical forces, by which the inert substances of the mineral kingdom are subjected table and animal organisms rapidly decay after death; but to perpetual change. soft and delicate parts of vegethe firmer and denser structures, such as the bones and teeth of the latter, and the woody fibre of the former, possess considerable durability, and under certain conditions will resist decay for many years, or even centuries. And when deeply imbedded in the earth, protected from atmospheric influences, and subjected to the conservative effects of various mineral solutions, the decomposition of even the tion, transformed into stone, may be preserved for incalmost perishable tissues is often arrested, and their organisaculable periods of time. Certain animal structures are even more permanent than even those of vegetables, and the shells and cases of innumerable species of animalcules being composed of lime and silex, or flint, are so indestructible, and occur in such inconceivable quantities, that the belief of some eminent naturalists of the last century, that every grain of flint, lime, and iron, may have been elaborated by the energies of vitality, can no longer be regarded as an extravagant hypothesis. Nor has the contribution of the vegetable kingdom to the solid crust of the earth been unimportant. Immense tracts of country are almost wholly composed of plants in the state of anthracite, coal, lignite, and brown coal; of submerged forests and peat morasses; and of layers of trees and plants transmuted into siliceous or calcareous rock.—MANTELL'S Medals of Creation.

EASY LESSONS IN CHESS.

XXIV.

THE EVANS GAMBIT.

many

THIS highly ingenious variation of the King's Knight's Game was introduced to the chess world about the year 1833, by Captain W. D. Evans of Milford, and soon became celebrated for the novelty of its situations, and the opportunities afforded for bold and brilliant play. This game was conducted with remarkable skill by Mr. M'Donnell, in whose contests with M. de la Bourdonnais beautiful examples occur. When the French champion arrived in England, this game, having been but recently introduced, was unknown to him.. It was introduced at the commencement of the second match by Mr. M'Donnell, who, of course, won the game; whereupon the Frenchman, as he afterwards admitted to Mr. Walker, "purposely declined playing again for two or three days, during which time he sedulously analyzed the novel debût, and made up his mind upon its merits, both as to its strength and weakness."

WHITE.

BLACK.

1 K. P. two.

2 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

4 Q. Kt. P. two.

This move constitutes "Captain Evans's Game," as it is familiarly called.

By the sacrifice of this Pawn, which is a less valuable one than the K. B. P. sacrificed in the King's Gambits, you acquire much scope for attack. You are enabled to plant your Q. B. on Q. Kt. second, or Q. R. third square, both very attracting moves, and you are also enabled to advance K. B. P. two squares much sooner, in consequence of the Black K. B. being drawn out of the diagonal, which he so advantageously occupies at the third move.

5 Q. B. P. one.

6 Castles.

7 Q. P. two.

8 P. takes P.

Black's best move is to capture the P. with the B. If he take it with the Kt. it would be bad play to capture his K. P. with your Kt., because by moving his Q. to K. B. third, he gains an immediate advantage.

Whether he take the P. with the Kt. or the B. you must advance Q. B. P. one square.

1 K. P. two.

2 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

10 K. P. one.
11 Q. to Q. Kt. third.
12 P. takes P.

4 K. B. takes Q. Kt. P.

5 B. to Q. R. fourth.

6 B. to Q. Kt. third.

7 P. takes P.

8 Q. P. one.

Your object is to prevent him from castling, and also to form a powerful attack upon his King s side.

13 P. takes Kt.

14 K. R. to K. sq. checking.

15 Q. B. to K. seventh, chg. 16 P. takes K. Kt. P.

9 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

10 P. takes P.

11 Q. to Q. second.

12 Q. Kt. to Q. R. fourth.

Black thus threatens to charge off one of your attacking pieces, and to prevent the threatened capture of his K. B. P., but by a calculation remarkable for its boldness and precision, White allows his Q. to be taken, foreseeing that he can recover her or effect mate.

13 Q. Kt. takes Q.

14 K. to Q.

15 K. to K. sq.

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In the following example, Black has the move, and conducts the attack in a different manner to that given above.

BLACK.

1 K. P. two.

2 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.
4 Q. Kt. P. two.
5 Q. B. P. one.
6 Castles.

7 K. Kt. to K. Kt. fifth.
8 Q. P. two,

9 P. takes P.
10 K. B. P. two.

11 Kt. takes K. B. P

12 B. takes R. checking.
13 Q. to Q. Kt. third, checking.

16 Q. takes K. B.

17 K. to R.

20 K. to K. Kt.
21 K. takes Kt.

1 K. P. two.

2 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

The capture of the K. B. P. by Black at the eleventh at the last move, is in the best style of chess play; you move was premature. Your advance of the Q. P. one gain time by it to form a counter attack, and to break up the formidable breast of pawns in the centre.

14 K. P. one square.

14 Q. Kt. takes Q. P.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

4 Q. Kt. P. two.

This is also a good move, and is, indeed, a consequence of the thirteenth. In chess, as in life, we nearly always find that one good move leads to another.

15 Q. to Q. R. fourth.

15 K. Kt. to K. fifth.

If Black capture Q. Kt. he loses his Q.; therefore
16 Q. Kt. to K. seventh, checking.
17 Q. to K. R. fifth.

Threatening to mate with K. Kt. at K. Kt. sixth.

18 Q. takes

B. P. checking.

18 K. to K. B.

19 K. Kt. P. one.

To make an opening for his K.

5 Q. B. P. one.

6 Castles.

WHITE.

1 K. P. two.

2 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.
4 B. takes P.

7 Q. P. two.

8 P. takes P

9 Q. P. one sq.

5 B. to Q. R. fourth.

6 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

7 Castles.

8 P. takes P.

9 Q. P. one.

It is not unusual at this

point to play the Kt. to K.

9 Q. B. to Q. R. third.

The advance of this P. is necessary at this point to second, with the intention of transferring him afterenable him to play out K. Kt. wards to K. Kt. third. It would be bad play to move him to K. fourth, because you would exchange Knights, and by drawing the Q. P. on to the King's file prevent Black from castling, and get a powerful attack on your Queen's side. In the present position the Black Kt. is as it were put out of the game; it is true that he forces your K. B. to move, but as your Q. P. masks the attack on Black's K. B. P., you vary the attack so as not to lose the services of the K. B., so important in most gambit attacks.

10 K. B. to Q. third.

11 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

12 K. R. P. one.

10 Q. B. to K. Kt. fifth.

11 R. takes Kt.

12 K. takes B.
13 Q. P. one.

The following games, which occurred in the match between De la Bourdonnais and M'Donnell, are selected for the purpose of illustrating the great variety and beauty of this opening. The first game was opened by the French champion.

14 K. Kt. to Q. second.

15 Q. to K.

19 Q. Kt. takes K. Kt. P. chg. 20 Kt. takes R.

21 Q. MATES.

1 K. P. iwo.

2 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

4 B. takes Kt. P.

5 B. to Q. B. fourth.

6 Q. P. one.

7 P. takes P.

8 K. B. to Q. Kt. third.

9 Kt. to Q. R. fourth.

10 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

11 Castles.

12 K. R. P. one.

The object on both sides is to prevent the Q. B. from being posted at K. Kt. fifth.

13 K. to R. second.

Your object is to be prepared to advance K. B. P two, and to place your K. in a safe retreat, which is frequently furnished by the obstructed Pawns of your adversary; such for example as his Q. P. in the present instance.

13 Q. B. P. two,

His object is to get room for his pieces, and to prevent you from taking up a strong attacking position; but by your next move you not only prevent the advance of his Q. B. P. but liberate your own K. B. P.

14 Q. B. to Q. second.

Your intention is to play Q. to K. Kt. third, or to R. fourth, after having moved K. B. P. two.

15 K. Kt. P. two.

This move does not by any means improve Black's game, for it presently exposes his K. to an attack, which is conceived and conducted with the ingenuity and spirit whicn so eminently marked the play of De la Bourdonnais. It is difficult, however, in the present loose as well as confined position of Black to point out a move which would retrieve his game.

[blocks in formation]

28 Q. takes Q.

29 B. takes B. checking.

30 Kt. CHECKMATES.

If he take the Kt., Q. mates; therefore

& Castles.

7 Q. P. two.

8 P. takes P.

9 K. R. P. one.

10 Q. B. to Q. Kt. second,

16 P. takes P.

17 Q. B. P. one.

If at the twenty-seventh move, Black had played Q. to K. B. third, the mate would have been equally forced; for example,

11 K. P. one.

12 Q. P. one,

13 K. Kt. takes K. P.

18 K. B. to Q. fifth.

19 K. B. takes Q. Kt.

20 Kt. to K. R. fourth.

14 Q. P. one.
15 K. B. takes K. B. P. checking.

21 K. Kt. to Kt. second,

22 K. B. P. one.

23 K. takes B.

24 K. B. P. takes P.

The next game was opened by M'Donnell.

i K. P. two.

2 K. Kt. to K. B. third.

3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth.

4 Q. Kt. P. two.

5 Q. B. P. one.

SIR ASTLEY COOPER frequently related the following anecdote, as one of the most remarkable instances of acuteness of perception in the organs of taste which had ever occurred to his notice:-Upon an occasion of the Athlete meeting at Mr. Coleman's, at the Veterinary College, he promised Mr. Norris, who was a gourmand, that he would give him a joint of beef from Markham's, the most celebrated butcher of the day. To secure this treat, Mr. Coleman went himself to Markham's, and ordered his finest specimen of a sirloin to be sent to him on the appointed day. The party met, and dinner being announced, the promised beef soon made its appearance. The host cut for his friend Norris one of the primest slices, and soon, in exultation, inquired if it was not to his heart's content. To this Mr. Norris replied: "The beef is good beef, but it is not my friend Markham's." "Pooh!" says Mr. Coleman, "that I'll swear it is, Norris, for I myself called at his shop, and ordered it, and this morning saw it delivered at my house by his own man ;but," as he would say, whenever he felt quite certain of his own accuracy, "I may be wrong, Norris; however, to decide the matter, if you please, I'll lay you a bet of a dinner for the party, that it is Markham's beef." Mr. Norris at once consented to the wager; and the curious subject of the

By this move you defend K. B.; and he cannot cap- bet, and the equally positive assurance of the two parties, ture the Kt. without losing his Q.

produced such an interest in the rest of the members present, that it was agreed to send off immediately for Mr. Markham, in order that the dispute might be at once decided.

16 K. R. to K.

17 Q. Kt. to Q. R. third.
18 Q. R. to Q. B. checking.
19 Q. R. takes B. checking.
20 K. Kt. to Q. B. fourth.

26 Q. B. to K. B. fourth.
27 B. takes R.

21 Q. B. to K. fifth, checking. 22 Q. to K. B. third, checking. 23 K. B. takes Kt. checking.

24 Q. to K. B. fifth, checking. 25 Q. CHECKMATES.

27 Q. to K. B. third.
28 K. takes R.

29 K. to Kt. sq.

Black seems to have lost the game by this move. K. Kt. to K. B. third would have been better.

1 K. P. two,

2 Q. Kt. to Q. B. third.
3 K. B. to Q. B. fourth
4 B. takes P.

5 K. B. to Q. R. fourth.
6 K. B. to Q. Kt. third.
7 P. takes P.

8 Q. P. one.

9 K. R. P. one.

10 Q. to K. second.

11 P. takes P.

12 Q. Kt. to Q. R. fourth.

Having got an attack, it is quite necessary to tain it. Had Black been allowed to castle he would have retrieved his game.

13 K. Kt. to B. third.
14 P. takes P.

An hour had scarcely elapsed when he arrived. It was main-settled that Mr. Coleman, as master of the house, should put the question: so he said, "Mr. Markham, all I have to ask you is, was the beef your man left here this morning your own meat?" "No, sir, it was not," was the reply. "I have to make a thousand apologies; for, although you yourself gave me the order ten days ago, I never thought of it till I looked in my book this morning, when I knew I had nothing in my shop that would answer your purpose. I therefore went myself to every butcher in the market, and picked out the finest piece I could find, and I hoped it would have proved satisfactory; but the beef was not mine." Norris burst into laughter, delighted at the successful display of his gastronomic faculties, and the whole party joined in the fun against Coleman, who was generally so sagacious in his bets, as to make it quite a novelty when he lost. It may be necessary to say, that this Markham was a butcher

If Black Q. capture B. you win her by taking Q. Kt. who was in the habit of buying stock, much older than checking; therefore,

butchers usually buy, for certain of his most particular customers, and of afterwards feeding it himself in some peculiar manner before bringing it to the slaughter-house. So superior to that of any man of his day was his beef considered, that many persons, of whom Mr. Norris was one, would pay the most exorbitant prices for meat to be sup

By this method White gains time, exposes the Black Q. to the attack of K. R., at the same time compelling him to guard Q. third, where a mate is threatened.

15 K. to Q. square.
16 K. to Q. B. second.
17 Q. R. P. one.

18 K. B. interposes.
19 P. takes R.

PROBLEM XXIX.

20 Q. home.

21 K. to Q. B. third.

22 K. Kt. to Q. fourth.

White moving first is to mate

in two moves.

[graphic]

23 K. to Q. second,
24 home.

WHITE.

The following beautiful little problem was recently invented by Herr Kling, a Professor of Chess, resident plied by him.-Life of Sir Astley Cooper.

in London.

JOHN W. PARKER, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON.

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I.

SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL was permanently established in the year 1512, but a school had been attached to the metropolitan church at a much earlier period. "It appears," says Dugdale, "by the charter of Richard, bishop of London, in the time of King Henry the First, that he granted to one Hugh, the schoolmaster of St. Paul's church, and his successors, the habitation of Durandus, at the corner of the turret or bell-tower, where William, dean of St. Paul's, had placed him by the bishop's command, together with the custody of the library belonging to the church; in which place Hugh succeeded Henry, a canon of the same bishop's, who had been educated under the said Hugh, to whom the bishop, besides the house which Hugh enjoyed, granted a meadow at Fulham, together with the tithes of Ilings and Madeley: and in further augmentation of its revenues, Richard, surnamed Nigel, who sat bishop here in Richard the First's time, gave unto this school all the tithes arising in his demesnes at Fulham and Horsete," &c. The chancellor of St. Paul's had the control of all the schools within the city, whether attached to the church or not; and no persons except the masters of St. Mary le Bow, and St. Martin's le Grand, were allowed, under pain of excommunication, to teach within London without his licence. The chancellor having appointed a master, the dean and chapter gave him possession, and it was their duty to see that he was sober, honest, and learned-a teacher not only of gramVOL. XXV.

28TH, 1844.

OLD SAINT PAUL'S SCHOOL.

PRICE ONE PENNY

[graphic]

mar but of virtue: "Eis non solum grammatices, sed etiam virtutis magister."

The history of this ancient school has not been traced; the present noble establishment was founded by Dr. John Colet, (a sketch of whose useful life has already been given,) who himself furnished a statement of the foundation and rules for the government of the school. From this interesting document we select a few passages, and give an abstract of the rest.

"JOHN COLLET, the sonne of HENRYE COLLETT, dean of PAULES, desiring nothyng more thanne education and bringing uppe children in good maners, and literature, in the yere of our Lorde one thousand fyve hundredth and twelfe, bylded a schole in the estende of Paulis churche, of one hundred and fifty-three to be taught fre in the same. And ordeyned there a maister, and a sur-maister, and a chappelyn, with sufficiente and perpetuale stipendes ever to endure, and sett patrones and defenders, governours and rulers of that same schoole, the most honest and faithful fellowshipe of the MERCERS OF LONDON. And for because nothing can continue longe and endure in good ordre without lawes and statutes, I, the said JOHN, have expressed and showed my minde what I wolde should be truly and diligentlye observed and kepte of the sayde maister, and surmaister, and chapelyn, and of the Mercers, governours of the schole, that in this boke may appere to what intent I founde this schole."

After stating that this grammar school was founded "in the honour of Christe JESU in Pueritia, and of

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