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the effect of the changing lights as we rounded the pier-speare Tunnel, which is constructed with a double archway, head and stood along to Sandgate, about three miles to the the openings having an appearance, from Folkstone, like west. It stands prettily, but the accommodation is evi- two black figures against the chalk cliff. This tunnel, dently very limited. The whole coast, however, presents which is 4000 feet long, was constructed with two parallel that varied appearance of broken ground and sea-beach lines and lofty Gothic arches, in the vain hope that the which may well tempt a townsman to exchange for it his partition wall of chalk between would stand without buildcity haunts in the dog days. Here one may feel as if ing. It ended with the whole being cased in brick. It is shaking hands with our opposite neighbours, not only from a very fine work, and we were enabled to examine it with the appearance of the Company's servants with Interprête great care, the engine being made to go slow, and blue Français on their collars, and the crowd of foreigners lights burned. Thus we see that above two miles out of leaving the steamer, which only two hours ago was made the six are actually tunnelled; and besides, the immense fast to the French shore, but from the distinct view sea wall, and the cliff broken down soon after issuing obtained of the Cape Gris Nez and a considerable stretch from the Shakspeare Tunnel, as if to exhaust every species of coast. The effect produced by the good-humoured of difficulty in this extraordinary work, the road is carried mixture of all classes on the railways cannot be overvalued. along the face of the cliff upon a gallery, with the sea There is something in the facilities they afford compared rolling beneath for a long space, till at length it enters the with the old modes of travelling, the perfect respectability terminus through one of the bastions of the outworks, of the whole management, and the civility of their ser- which was tunnelled. The station is of enormous extent vants, that not only inspire confidence, but promote a and extremely well arranged. It approaches very near to feeling of ease and cheerfulness, in strong contrast to the the Docks, which we inspected. Here.too the want of a anxiety and constant attitude of self-defence, which was low-water pier is much felt. The harbour is besides liable the natural position of every traveller under the old regime. to be filled up by the immense quantities of gravel which This effect is now carried a step further by the facilities the sea, in a westerly wind, transports to its entrance, for intercourse with our continental neighbours, which the forming a bar very inconvenient for shipping. Mr. Walker, railways have so materially promoted. Whatever may be the engineer, was consulted about removing this obstructhe difference of character, sufficient points of sympathy tion, and advised, what appears to be successful, a dock near exist when the salient angles are a little rubbed off, and the mouth of the harbour, which keeps back every tide a our strangest mutual prejudices subdued. It is certainly supply of water to be let out with a rush through sluices. most undesirable that we should import indiscriminately This has proved very useful in clearing the harbour at small every novelty we see on the other side of the water, but expense. The appearance of the place is picturesque, surthe danger of this is greatly exaggerated, and at all events rounded on three sides with irregular hills, the sea forming its greatest force existed on the first opening of the conti- a little bay sheltered from the west. nent, and is now much diminished, because the natural impulse of national character has resumed its power, and discrimination is certainly not deficient to assist our judgment. But we have many mouths to feed and many hands to employ at home, and every little opening must be seized to extend our acquaintance and form connections. Every mile per hour that our steamers gain by modern improvements, every pound of fuel that can be economized, contributes to extend our market, and if we can but push these accessions of power fast enough and far enough, in increasing our production of food at home and bringing nearer to us our colonial and foreign correspondents, no fear that even our enormous production will not find outlets for our industry. To revert to our journey, after the return of the steamer, we again took our places in the omnibus in order to regain the Folkstone station, from which point we commenced the six miles towards Dover. Looking at the white wall which extends in continuous cliffs along the coast in that direction, and the admirable accommodations at Folkstone, one can scarcely help feeling that every useful object was gained by the completion of the line thus far, and a good turnpike road might have been sufficient to Dover, while a part of the enormous outlay of £100,000 per mile for the last portion might have been spent in improving Folkstone harbour; but the public demand for the extension could not be resisted, and though the authorities at Dover appear to have given very little encouragement, (except the Government, who afforded every facility as far as the necessary interference with the fortifications was concerned,) the benefit to the town and harbour must be very great.

On leaving the station at Folkstone, we begin almost immediately to enter the lower chalk hills, and after a long eut with very steep sides, pass through the Martello Tunnel, so called from having one of those towers above it, forming a part of the range of forts erected, during the last war, along the line of this coast. This tunnel extends to 1848 feet, and immediately on leaving it we enter the Abbott's Cliff, 5685 feet long. Beyond this tunnel that extraordinary operation, the blasting of the cliff, took place. As described by an eye-witness, the scene must have been imposing in the highest degree. The cliff is several hundred feet high at this point, and so deeply was the mine sunk that the signal gun was the loudest report they heard. There was a violent tremor of the earth, and the tremendous mass reft from the mountain side by the force of the gunpowder, (of which 18,000lbs. are said to have been used,) sunk with majestic deliberation into the sea, the flag-staff still standing upright on the top. It is perhaps to be regretted that the rough masses have all been smoothed, and the black stain on the face of the cliff was of course speedily obliterated by the weather. Beyond this point a sea wall of 4533 feet has been erected as a barrier, and we enter the Shak

The castle has a good effect on the heights. The Marine Terrace, the fashionable residence, encircles a part of the beach with very handsome houses, much resorted to now at the best season. The probable result of the rivalry between the two ports of Dover and Folkstone will be, that the latter will retain almost all the traffic to Paris, especially after the railway is carried from thence to Boulogne, while Dover will attract from London almost all the passengers going by Calais and Ostend to the Northern parts of Europe. Already the arrangements enable you to reach Brussels in one day from London, where you can pay the whole fare beforehand, as well as to Cologne, &c. We remained on the pier some time enjoying the sea breeze, and watching the bustle of the port, which gives it an interest that Brighton and most other places of the kind along the coast cannot command. But, besides the views and the constant variety of a sea-port, Dover retains many curious relics of the Roman power in Britain, which are well worthy of the attention of the antiquary, and although Shakspeare's mistake in describing the gathering of samphire on these cliffs has been perpetuated by giving his name to them, his admirable description of the bold bluff promontory renders that interesting object not unworthy of such an appellation. Returning to the train, and passing again through the wonderful works which render this line one of the most striking instances of perseverance and scientific power, we reached London at an early hour in the evening, in a glorious sunset,....St. Paul's glittering like burnished gold,....after a day full of variety and interest, such as could alone be enjoyed in the present age, and is undoubtedly one of its most curious characteristics.

THE DEAD.

[From the German of KLOPSTOCK.]
How they so softly rest,
All, all the holy dead,
Unto whose dwelling-place
Now doth my soul draw near!
How they so softly rest,
All in their silent graves,
Deep to corruption
Slowly down-sinking!
And they no longer weep,
Here, where complaint is still!
And they no longer feel,

Here, where all gladness flies
And, by the cypresses
Softly o'ershadowed,
Until the Angel

Calls them, they slumber!-LONGFELLOW.

JOHN W. PARKPR, PUBLISHER, WEST STRAND, LONDON

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Another mean device to which Rembrandt is said to have resorted, to promote the sale of his productions, was to set on foot the report that he was about to qui his native land: sometimes pretending that he was preparing for England; at other times, about to take up his abode in some part of the north of Europe; and that his return to Holland was quite uncertain. The effect of these rumours was, that enormous prices were offered for his works. His celebrated print of "Christ healing the Sick," was commonly called the "Hundred Guilder Print," that being the sum (about eight guineas) which Rembrandt asked for it. By such means, in addition to the intrinsic merits of his works, they were so much esteemed to obtain them, it was necessary, according to the Dutch and sought after, that, as Houbraken observes, in order proverb, to use "both payment and prayers;" and, he also remarks, that this spirit for the acquisition of his works continued for a succession of years.

It may be readily supposed that Rembrandt, thus occupying so large a share of public attention, was more occupied than all the other artists in Amsterdam; and besides this, his pupils were exceedingly profitable. He made them pay dearly for his instruction; and besides this, according to Sandrart, he realized an annual income of nearly 2500 florins from the sale of their copies of his works.

THE SATURDAY MAGAZINE.

REMBRANDT AND HIS WORKS.

II.

THE year 1640 is referred to as the commencement of
the "golden age" of Rembrandt, in which his works
exhibit an accomplished style of execution, increased
strength of expression, and richer hues of colouring.
One of his most remarkable pictures is called "The
Its size is thirteen
Night Watch." It is dated 1642.
feet by fourteen feet six inches. Mr. Smith, in his
Catalogue Raisonné, notices this picture in the follow-
ing terms:-

This extraordinary work of art exhibits a composition of about twenty figures, of the size of life, assembled in a lofty hall. Conspicuous in the centre stands the captain of the watch, Francis Banning Kok, Lord of Purmerland, and d'Ilpendam, habited in black, relieved by a full lace ruff and a red scarf, and having on his head a hat decked with feathers; his animated countenance and gestures indicate him to be addressing the surrounding guard. On his left is a short man, dressed in a yellow jerkin, splendidly embroidered with gold, having on a hat of the same colour decked with white feathers, a white sash, and buff boots; he holds Another in his hands a partisan studded with brass nails. of the party is on the right, and somewhat nearer the front, wearing a scarlet dress, with a hat and feathers of the same colour; he is in the act of loading his arquebuse. A little retired from this person is a girl in a yellow dress, with some dead poultry attached to her girdle. On the left is a drummer, who appears to be beating a rattat-too, at the sound of which the whole body is put in motion, and the number in the rear is in some measure indicated by the spears and banners which glitter above the heads of the front ranks. The dresses of the various officers are of the

richest materials and the most fanciful style; these, toge-
ther with the arms, armour, and military implements, and
other necessaries, were doubtless furnished from the artist's
cabinet of antiquities (as he so called it), and produce in the
whole a most gorgeous and highly picturesque effect. The
subject is illumined by the vivid rays of the evening sun,
admitted through some aperture; and the brilliant light
which falls on the centre of the picture is conducted by the
most tender gradations and beautiful reflexes throughout
the composition, exhibiting such a wonderful display of the
chiaro-scuro as is nowhere seen in an equal degree in any
other work of art. The colouring is also of the most glow-
ing description; and in reference to the execution, the term
masterly is insufficient to express the ingenious dexterity
by which the more prominent objects are made to assume
the natural quality and texture of the thing represented.
The date, 1642, shews that the artist was thirty-six years
of
age when he painted it. There is an indifferent engrav-
ing from it by Claessens.

Rembrandt seems to have been aware of his own weakness, without endeavouring to correct it; nay, he is even said to have commonly allowed others to jest with him on the subject. It was a common trick among his pupils to paint pieces of card to represent money, and then scattering them about the house, to enjoy the disappointment of their master on picking them up. His habits were very inexpensive: he would frequently dine off a red herring, or a slice of bread and cheese. He lived constantly among the lower orders, with people far below himself; and when he visited the houses of the wealthy to sell his productions, he was always ill at ease. As soon as he had dispatched his business, he retired; and when pressed to sit and enjoy himself among his friends and patrons, he would say something about his love of liberty, his hatred of restraint, &c., and retire to some obscure public-house to indulge his peculiar

It is difficult, says Mr. Smith, to put a value on a work so unique both in size and quality; but if it were offered for sale, there are speculators who would probably give five or six thousand pounds for it. This splendid picture formerly adorned the Stadt House at Amsterdam, and is now in the Musée of that city.

That a man of genius is not superior to weaknesses or vices, which are, unfortunately, but too common among meaner men, is proved by the example of Rembrandt. In proportion to his success in his art, appeared to be his love of money; and to gratify this ruling passion, he scrupled not to resort to the meanest artifices. At one time he concealed himself, and caused his wife to spread a report that he was dead, in order to sell his etchings at an advanced price. On another occasion he sent out his son to sell secretly his prints, with an insinuation that the youth had purloined them. He exhibited his etchings in public, and attended in person in He seems also to have order to enhance their value. exerted his ingenuity to increase the number of impressions from his plates; many of them were struck in a half-finished state; the plates were then finished, and the impressions sold as new productions; and when the plate was worn, or the subject had become stale, he made a few alterations or additions and thus had a third set of impressions at disposal.

humours.

The reader will naturally suppose that, thus patronized, with such inexpensive habits, and with such an evident fondness for gain, Rembrandt must have amassed a princely fortune; but, strange to say, he died poor, if not insolvent; and, stranger still, the means by which he disposed of his large income is still a mystery.

The history of Rembrandt's pecuniary embarrassments, as far as it is known, is derived from authentic documents which have recently been published. The following is a brief summary thereof:

It is supposed that Rembrandt, finding himself in prosperous circumstances, was induced to purchase a appears. freehold house in the Sint Anthonis Bree straat, now known as the Jews' quarter of Amsterdam. It however, that this house was soon mortgaged for the sum of 4180 guilders, to Mr. Cornelis Witsen; but it is doubtful whether the money was raised to enable Certain it is, that in the year Rembrandt to complete his purchase, or to meet some other embarrassment. 1655, his affairs became so embarrassed that he was totally unable to meet his engagements with the mortgagee; and, in consequence, on the 25th and 26th of July, in the following year, the whole of his effects were taken in execution and sold by auction, the proceeds of which amounted to 4964 guilders and 4 stuivers. Mr. Smith gives a copy of the catalogue of sale "deposited in the office of the administration of insolvent estates at Amsterdam, anno 1656;" together with several extracts from the minutes of the fourteenth register in the chamber of insolvent estates at Amsterdam, by which it appears that "the secretary of the city was authorised

by the commissioners to pay to the said Cornelis Witsen, burgomaster, the sum of 4180 guilders, out of the proceeds of the sale of the insolvent's effects, in liquiquidation of a mortgage." This order is dated January 30th, 1658; and on the 22nd of February following, the said sum was paid by the chamber of insolvent estates, according to a receipt there deposited. further appears by a memorandum in the said registry, that a moiety of two pictures which were sold in the sale, belonged to the artist's friend Peter de la Taube, and the sum of 32 guilders 5 stuivers, was paid him by the court, as his share, and for which a receipt in his own hand was also deposited.

It

among the first in the management of financial affairs." Whether Rembrandt's misfortunes were caused by political disturbances, or by his own misconduct in some speculation, is doubtful: but a suggestion made to Mr. Smith will, if it be true, explain away all difficulties in accounting for the artist's embarrassments. It was suggested that the intimacy of Rembrandt with Manasseh Ben Israel and Ephraim Bonus may have tempted him to part with his money for alchemical pursuits, for both these persons were long engaged in attempts to discover the art of transmuting the baser metals into gold, and the former wrote a book on the cabalistic art.

From other documents in the same registry, it appears that during the seizure and sale of the artist's effects, he .odged with a M. Berent Jansen Scheurman, from the 4th of December, till the 22nd, for which a charge of 58 guilders 12 stuivers, was made, and also 5 guilders per week for the room; and a further claim of 20 guilders for a continuance of the same accommodation, was made after the sale. Nine other items for similar disbursements were also entered, making in the whole, 130 guilders 2 stuivers; this sum was not paid until the 3rd of March, 1660.

By a document, dated September 9th, 1665, it appears that a sum of 6952 guilders 1 stuiver, remained, as the balance of accounts, after every claim was satisfied; and this sum was paid in full to Titus van Rhyn, the only surviving child of Rembrandt Van Rhyn, and Saskia Van Uylenburg, under a protest, and two securities, in the presence of three magistrates. ment purports that the sum above named was the balance of the proceeds of the sale of the house and ground sold under execution, by order of the commissioners of the court of insolvents.

This docu

Thus it appears that the difficulties into which the artist was plunged arose from his chief creditor, Cornelis Witsen, foreclosing the mortgage, and taking the usual proceedings to recover his money, while the debtor sought, by various subterfuges, which the law afforded to put off the day of payment; for according to a general statement of the account, in G of the register, the suit was commenced in 1657, and continued annually until 1665, by which an expense for law was incurred amounting to the sum of 4724 guilders, so that it is quite clear that the artist was at no time in an absolutely insolvent state, and had time been given he would in all probability have paid his debts, seeing a balance of upwards of 600l. was paid over to his son after his decease, which is supposed to have taken place in 1664, and not, as is stated by Houbraken, and repeated by others, in 1674." Mr. Smith justly remarks, that the payment of balance of property to the son of the artist in 1665, together with the circumstance that no picture is recorded bearing a later date than 1664, seems amply to confirm this statement.

It is further interesting to notice that the house concerning which all these law proceedings originated, was, a few years ago, taken down, and a new one built on its site, in the year 1831, on which occasion, Mr. Albertus Brundgeest, an ardent admirer of Rembrandt's works, and an excellent amateur artist, desirous of preserving the memory of the site rendered sacred to the arts, obtained permission to insert, at his own expense, in the front of the new house, a black marble tablet, on which is simply inscribed REMBRANDT. At the same time, he purchased a memento of the old house, namely, a tablet, with a figure in bas-relief of a gardener holding a spade in his hand, which adorned its centre pier; on another tablet was the date 1655, the period of its erection. This house covered a much larger extent of ground than the present one; it had also out-buildings, and extended back to the gardens of the Trippenhuis or Museum.

The pecuniary embarrassments of Rembrandt afford "an affecting instance that talents, however brilliant, are not always attended by good fortune; true it is that of the various professions that of the artist is not always

The frontispiece to the present notice is commonly known by the name of "Rembrandt's Father." It represents a full-length figure, seated, holding a staff in one hand, and resting the other on the elbow of the chair. He has on a high cap and wears a fur mantle. His attention seems to be suddenly excited by the approach of some one.

Ar the village of Hayis we found Ishiyah, bishop of Berrewi, with his attendants, waiting for us. Although an old man he had walked from his residence at Duri, a dis tance of nine miles, to meet us. This first specimen of chief dignitary of the Chaldean church was highly favourable. I had expected a bishop with a dagger and sword,perhaps, as it was time of war, with a coat of mail; but, instead of that, we saw an aged man, of spare habit, with much repose and dignity in his manners, and a very benevolent and intelligent aspect; his hair and beard nearly silver-white, his forehead ample and unclouded, and his countenance, from never eating meat, uncommonly clear and fair. Welcoming us in the most urbane manner, he held his hand to be kissed, a custom common in this country, and regard. The bishop wished to walk back, but we offered accompanied the ceremony by expressions of civility and him the use of a horse. I was not fatigued, and preferred walking; but he had never been accustomed to ride, and it was with some difficulty that we got him to mount a loaded mule, where he could sit safe between the bags. We then started, Kasha Mandu, and a poorly-dressed man carrying a hooked stick, walking ceremoniously before.

The happy moral influence of Christianity could not be more plainly manifested, than in the change of manners immediately observable in the country we had now entered into, and which presented itself with the more force, from its contrast with the sullen ferocity of the Mohammedans. The kind, cordial manners of the people, and the great respect paid to their clergy, were among the first fruits of that influence which showed themselves. Nothing can be more gratifying to us, after a long residence among proud Mohammedans, than to observe on this, our little procession, the peasants running from the villages, even a mile distant, and flocking to kiss the hand of the benevolent whitehaired dignitary. This was done with the head bare, a practice unknown among the Christians of Turkey in Asia; and so great was the anxiety to perform this act of kindly reverence, that little children were held up in the arms of ing testimonies of respect mingled with love were exhibited. their fathers to partake in it. Everywhere the same pleasWe were received at the bishop's house upon the roof, the most agreeable place at this season of the year, and pleasantly overshadowed in the day-time by large mulberry-trees. We joined in evening prayer, the bishop officiating. It was now that I first found out that the person whose clothes were all tattered and torn, whose aspect bespoke the greatest poverty, and who on the journey had always marched before the bishop, carrying a stick with a certain degree of pomp, was no other than the bishop's chaplain. After prayers came meals, the bishop and ourselves eating first, then the chaplain, the priest Mandu, Daoud, and other chiefs of the group, and, lastly, the servants went to work with a general scramble. At night the roof of the house presented a happy scene of patriarchal simplicity,-two peasants and their wives, two cradles and their noisy tenants, two deacons, the chaplain, ourselves, muleteers, servants, &c. were all picturesquely distributed over a place of about twelve yards by six.AINSWORTH'S Travels in Asia Minor, Chaldea, &c.

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THE ART OF READING.

II.

THE SPELLING METHOD, AND ITS RESULTS. Two methods of imparting instruction in reading have been already alluded to. The first is that, which being the universal and established one, scarcely needs to be described. It is based on the names of the letters of the alphabet, and as soon as these are learned, it proceeds to their different combinations in words of one, two, three, &c. syllables, which form spelling lessons. The best way, perhaps, of judging of this, or any other system, is by its results. These, as it respects the common method, may at first sight appear to be satisfactory. Among the educated classes, reading is generally accomplished by children in a manner more or less creditable, at a very early age; and in many schools for the lower classes, the elder pupils are put forward to exhibit a mechanical sort of expertness in this art. But if an attentive examination is given to the matter, it will generally appear that a great amount of labour has been gone through both by teacher and pupil, in order to produce the desired result; and that in the larger proportion of instances the credit belongs not to the system, but to the skill of the teacher or the talent of the pupil in overcoming the formidable obstacles which it presents. The records of school-rooms, whether public or private, abound with instances of the miseries and punishments connected with the spelling lesson; and great is the address of the teacher who can make that lesson agreeable and profitable to his pupils. By proper classification of words, by short lessons, and questions on the meanings of words, many of the objections to the spelling method may be softened, but they cannot be overcome; for even if all teachers were disposed and qualified for such a mode of procedure, how would it be possible to carry it out in large schools?

In order to get a general view of the state of schools for the lower classes throughout the kingdom, we have examined the Reports rendered to Government by Her Majesty's Inspectors of Schools, and annually published, and have selected a few of the notices which especially relate to the point in question. These will form an appropriate introduction to some further remarks on the spelling method. In September, 1840, one hundred and fifty schools in the mining districts of Durham and Northumberland were inspected by the Rev. John Allen. Speaking of the parochial schools, he says:-"In most the system of mutual instruction is strictly adhered to, the masters making, as far as I could learn, few attempts to teach the children to exercise their mental faculties, by requiring written answers to written questions, or by resorting to ellipses, or the suggestive method of instruction. The children were usually found to be orderly in their demeanour; and in the better schools, both parochial, and those under no superintendence, writing seemed to be fairly, and arithmetic very successfully, taught. Children of the age of twelve were not unfrequently to be found solving problems in mensuration, and many in both classes of schools were found learning practical land-surveying. The reading was, in almost all cases, indifferent, and in nearly every instance in which the experiment was tried, an attempt to get the meaning of the words read failed. All the parochial schools were opened and closed with prayer, and the Church Catechism was repeated with tolerable accuracy; but in schools even of the better class little or no meaning seemed to be attached to the more difficult words. In some cases, indeed, the explanation furnished in the glossary attached to the broken catechism was readily given; but this, as far as I could judge, was as much a matter of rote as the rest." Thus it appears that there was a great disproportion between the reading and the other acquirements of these scholars; so that while the latter were very creditable to the pupils, the former was ill-performed, and mere learning by rote.

during two months of the same summer (1840). This gentleman's exertions in the cause of education were not conducted in the official capacity of Inspector, but were volunteered to the Lords of the Committee of Council, and by them sanctioned and accepted. From the interesting and important contents of Mr. Noel's Report we can only extract the following, as directly relating to instruction in reading. It is necessary to state, that only reading, writing, and arithmetic were taught in. the schools here refered to. "But, unhappily," says Mr. Noel, "many of the schools were very unsuccessful in teaching what they profess to teach. In several of those which I examined, many children of the highest classes were unable to read fluently, even in the New Testament; words were often mistaken, stops were misplaced, small words were omitted, so as to destroy the sense; and many of the children were unable to spell even short and common words occurring in the lesson. But it was in their understanding of the Scriptures, daily read, that I regretted to find the most advanced children of the national schools so extremely defective. Not only were they often ignorant of the principal facts recorded in the Bible, but they could not answer had most recently read. Nor was their religious ignorance even the simplest questions upon the chapters which they lessened by their knowledge of the Catechism. I several times examined the first classes upon a portion of the Catechism, and I never once found them to comprehend it. Both in reading the Scriptures to the monitors, and in repeating the Catechism, the children showed a marked inattention and weariness, occasionally varied, when the master's eye was not upon them, by tokens of a roguish adopted the system of the National School Society have, in merriment. With the very best intentions, those who have many cases, admitted into their schools nothing for the elder children except the Bible, small volumes of extracts from it, and the Catechism. All the books on subjects with which children are most familiar being excluded from the school, that thirst for variety which, for the wisest purchildren, finding no gratification, their faculties are stunted poses, has been implanted by the Creator in the minds of Nothing can exceed the contrast between the eagerness of in their growth, and they sink into an inert listlessness. the children in a well-taught school, and the apathy manifested in most of these national schools. But this is not the worst effect of making the Bible the only class-book. Being thus made the medium through which reading and spelling are taught, it becomes associated in their minds with all the rebukes and punishments to which bad reading, or false spelling, or inattention in class exposes them; and do not become permanently the symbol of all that is irkit is well if, being thus used for purposes never designed, it some and repulsive."

The next published Report is that of the Hon. and Rev. B. W. Noel, who visited one hundred and ninetyfive schools in the principal towns of the cotton district,

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The next Report from which extracts on the subjects of reading lessons can be made, is that of Seymour Tremenheere, Esq., who in September, 1840, examined the state of the schools connected with Greenwich Hospital, with a view to an alteration in the system of education, discipline, &c. The monitors in these schools could read and write decently, but their knowledge of the meaning of words was very imperfect, and they otherwise than in the mere mechanical process of readwere found quite incapable of assisting the master, ing. The sixth, seventh, and eighth classes consisted partly of boys who had joined the school since the vacation, and partly of boys who had been at school from four to six months. They were all engaged in learning to read small words on the spelling cards, and to copy them on their slates, and in beginning to learn the arithmetic tables. The slightest possible progress had been made even by those boys who had been from four to six months in the classes. It was urged, that during the greater portion of that time they had been without the aid of the assistant master, whose duties are confined to the lower part of the school. In the second, third, fourth, and fifth classes, however, the boys of which had been at the school from one to three years, the progress was in all respects very unsatisfactory. In reading, none of those examined in the second class were capable of giving any explanation of the meaning of the words which they read." In the classes below this, "with few exceptions, there appeared to` be an entire absence of the power to understand the meaning of some of the commonest words, or to show a compre

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