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retain him with the queen and royal family, as hostages at Vincennes, in case the foreign troops, which had just entered France, should press their march on Paris.

Pethion, the mayor, who had resorted to the palace as a place of security, was alarmed at the sound of the tocsin, and expressed a wish to retire. Some of the national guards resisted, and sought to keep him as a hostage. The king ordered Baron Rodolph de Salis Zitzers, the Swiss adjutantmajor, to escort him, and in order to re-assure the trembling magistrate, this nobleman gave him a most comfortable pledge. "Be composed Monsieur Pethion, for I promise you, that the first who kills you shall instantly lose his life." Sir Thomas More, if we recollect right, when a plot had been discovered against his life, thanked Henry the Eighth for the assurance that if it had succeeded he would, on the moment, have beheaded every one of the conspirators." Your Majesty's intentions are most kind, yet I doubt, after all," he added, "whether any of these gentlemen's heads would fit my shoulders."

The infuriated populace was gathering during the whole night; about six in the morning the king, leading the dauphin by the hand passed through the Royal Court, before the Na tional Guard and the Swiss, and was received with shouts ofð Vive le Roi. As he was returning to the palace a deputation from the National Assembly invited him to place himself under its protection, Unhappily, in spite of the remon strances of the queen, this offer was accepted. At the mous ment in which Louis repaired to the hall of the assembly, the national guard abandoned the Swiss troops; part joined" the assassins, and the remainder dispersed itself through the city.

A hollow square formed the escort of the royal family; as crossed the garden of the Tuilleries a band of ruffians," bearing the head of Monsieur Mandat on a pike, forced the gate of the terrace, and approached the king. Monsieur Mandat had, in his possession, the order signed by Pethion, to repel force by force. Early in the morning he had been sent for to the municipality, and was murdered on the steps of the Hotel de Ville, in order to prevent this document from becoming public. The troops halted, and their position awed the blood-hounds into retreat.

It was impossible to defend the courts of the Tuilleries, after the desertion of the National Guard; and the Swiss were ordered to retire into the palace. Six pieces of ordnance were left in the court, by a strange inadvertence, and the







troops were disposed on the stair-case and the several great apartments. The king's porter opened the gate to the Marsellois, who advanced waving their hats, and making signs to the Swiss to join them. One of them fired a pistol in at a window, and numerous insults were offered to the soldiers, and endured with the utmost patience.

"At the commencement of the combat, the following was the state of things:-seven hundred and fifty Swiss soldiers were distributed to fill twenty different military posts; two hundred noblemen, or gentlemen of the chamber, without appropriate arms; and a few of the National Guard who had remained faithful; the whole, without a commander-in-chief, without ammunition, and without cannon, attacked on all sides by an infuriate mob, amounting to one hundred thousand men, having in their possession fifty pieces of artillery, visibly encouraged by the members of the legislative body, and having the municipality at their command. The band commanded by Santerre began by a discharge of musketry, which wounded several soldiers. The grenadiers of the Filles St. Thomas answered, and were followed by the Swiss. The Marseillois next made a general discharge of artillery and musketry, which made great havock. Mr. Philip De Glütz, lieutenant of grenadiers, lost his life, and Monsieur De Castleberg, who had his ankle-bone broken, was afterwards massacred on the steps of the great stairs, but, in the act of expiring, fatally wounded a Marseillois in the head with his broad sword. The action became general, and was soon decided in favour of the Swiss; for the fire from the windows and from Captain De Durler's corps of reserve did great execution, so that, in a short time, the court-yard was evacuated by the assailants, strewed over with the dead, the dying, and the wounded." P. 24.

A vigorous sally, headed by Messrs. de Durlen and Pfyffer, recovered the royal gate; but all the efforts of the soldiery were unable to silence a discharge of canister-shot from a battery placed on the little terrace opposite the guardhouse, which played into the court with murderous effect. The Swiss, however, remained masters of the field. But their ammunition was fast failing, latterly indeed they had derived all their cartridges from the pouches of the dead.

At this moment, amid a brisk fire of cannon and musketry, a messenger summoned the main body to attend the king's person, in the National Assembly. About two hundred collected for the purpose; to cover their retreat two pieces of loaded cannon were pointed against the vestibule, and a sentinel placed by each, with orders to discharge then by firing his musket over the touch-hole in case of pursuit. The preparation for the march, and the march itself,

through the garden, was attended with severe loss. On their arrival at the hall of the Assembly, one of the members desired the commanding officer to order his men to lay down their arms, the request was refused; when the king addressing Captain de Durlen, said, "You must deposit your arms in the hands of the national guard: such brave men as you are must not perish;" and delivered a written order to this effect, of which a fac simile, with the royal signature, is annexed to this volume. "Le Roi ordonne aux Suisses de deposer à l'instant leurs armes, et de se retirer à leurs casernes" The order was received with astonishment and consternation, but implicitly obeyed; the officers were placed in the hall of the inspectors, the privates in the Church of the Feuillans; towards evening a few of them were enabled to escape in disguise, by the generous assistance of well-affected individuals. Various stratagems were resorted to for their preservation: among others,

Monsieur Dusault, who was principal surgeon of the Hotel Dieu, received several wounded soldiers, with others, who had escaped, and concealed them in the beds of the patients; when a mob of furious wretches assailed the hospital, demanding that they should be delivered up to them, I have already had a dozen of them thrown out of the window,' said Monsieur Dusault, and I will treat all who attempt to come here in the same manner. This declaration was not contradicted by any of the assistant surẻ geons who were present, and the Marseillois retired." P. 35.

On the departure of this body Santerre and his followers rushed into the palace, and a general carnage took place jumong the wounded. A small party of Swiss still remained in occupation of the apartments, having been unable to join the detachment which withdrew to the assembly. As the Marsellois entered the palace this little band descended the stair-case, and profiting by the two pieces of cannon which Captain de Durler had left loaded, under their discharge reached the garden. Showers of musketry and cannon-balls pursued them; and as they approached the National Assembly they were met by a volley in that direction. Having gained the Place of Louis XV. they were attacked by the horse gendarmerie, and the greater part were overwhelmed by numbers, and slain.

...Small straggling parties were still scattered in different posts of the Tailleries, ignorant of the order to retreat. Few of them escaped, for few attempted to fly; all who fell sold their lives most dearly. Eighty, who were killed to a man, on the great stair-case, after a contest of twenty minutes, are

said to have dispatched four hundred of their assailants. A fact not easily to be verified in a case in which the slaughter was promiscuous, and in which not one of the vanquished survived.

The officers who accompanied the king to the National Assembly were confined in the Abbaye and the Concergerie, and given up to the mob on the equally bloody 2d of September. Baron Bachman alone, the major of the corps, perished on the scaffold.

Such was the tragedy of the 10th of August, in which little less than 700 brave men fell victims to popular fury, and were inhumanly butchered by a blood-thirsty mob. A false tenderness for the lives by which their own were sought, forbade them to resist at the moment in which resistance might have availed. But we acknowledge no principle which excludes the soldier, as such, from the universal right of self-defence; and in transactions with the ferocious and ungovernable rabble of a great city, we are convinced that vigour in the outset is mercy in the end.

VIII. A General View of the Doctrine of Regeneration in Baptism. By Christopher Bethell, D.D. Dean of Chi chester. 8vo. pp. 282. Rivingtons. 1821.

THE learned author of this treatise has already distinguished himself as a controversial writer. In an early stage of that warm and prolonged discussion of the doctrine of Regeneration, which occupied so unusual a portion of the public attention, he published two pamphlets, which, though confined, in great measure, to the particular question in agitation, sufficiently proved his competency for the task he has now undertaken; and after a careful perusal of the volume before us, we have no hesitation in saying, that the cause of truth would have been deprived of a valuable advocate, bad he been deterred from communicating to the world the result of his inquiry into this important doctrine, by the apprehension under which he seems to have laboured, that, by so doing, he might expose himself to the charge of "attempting to revive the sleeping embers of an unprofitable dispute." That the dispute was unprofitable, few will be disposed to admit, who can appreciate the learning and ability which it called forth in defence of the truth. And though the principal comba

tants have retired from the conflict, and the interest which it excited, has in great measure subsided, to the persous who feel it their duty to watch the ever varying features of theological opinion, it will be manifest, that much remains to be done, before the generality of those who venture to write and speak upon the subject, will attain any correct or comprehensive knowledge of its real bearings. The question, as at first discussed, was comprehended within comparatively narrow limits. The disputants, on both sides, professed an equal readiness to acquiesce in the authorized doctrine of the Church of England on the subject, while they differed in their interpretation of her language. One party contended, that she views Regeneration, strictly speaking, as the inward and spiritual grace of Baptism: the other party denied that such was the true meaning of her authoritative declarations, and her Baptismal Offices; endeavouring to establish this negative, by bringing forward evidence that the authors of these formularies held different opinions themselves on the subject, and therefore could not be supposed to have designed to inculcate such a doctrine. When then a critical examination of the phraseology adopted by the Church in her Liturgy and Articles showed, that they explicitly teach the doctrine of Baptismal Regeneration; and the appeal which was made to the writings of our leading Reformers only tended to prove that their private opinions were strictly conformed to the public forms which they jointly framed, the question, as originally mooted, might fairly be considered to be decided; and it remained with those persons, who had unhappily taken the opposite side to consider, how far, as members and ministers of the Church of England, bound, as such, to maintain and teach her doctrines, they could conscientiously adhere to any private interpretation of her language which affixed a sense to it, not only different from, but totally irreconcileable with its real meaning. Thus reduced to the necessity of either resisting the decisions of the Church, or submitting their own opinions to her standard, they have unhappily chosen the former alternative: some, indeed, confessing, that they felt the choice which they had thus virtually made a burden upon their consciences; and others, with less reserve, appealing from the Church as the interpreter of Scripture, to the Scriptures themselves; and thus, (in effect, renouncing that obligation by which, as churchmen, they had bound themselves,) they have obliged her defenders to prove what, in any argument with them, might otherwise have been taken for granted, that she has the certain warrant of the word of God for the doctrines which she holds. The question then is far from

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