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Mr. Gompers on Government Operation of the Railways....

Cartoons of the Week
The Morgan Collection.
Mr. Barnard's Lincoln

The President's Address...

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The War Aims of the Nations..
Experiments in Reorganization: Building
Over the War Department Machinery 91
The Spirit of Japan: A Vindication of
Japan's Foreign Policy by Marquis Okuma 92
An Interview by Gregory Mason

Heroes of Aviation.



By Laurence La Tourette Driggs "The Origin and Evolution of Life:" A Notice of Henry Fairfield Osborn's Book 97 By Theodore Roosevelt

Knoll Papers: The Children of the Church 99 By Lyman Abbott


By Donal Hamilton Haines

Government Operation of the Railways: Has It Come to Stay ? The Larger View. The Probable Effect upon the Value of Railway Securities...

By Theodore H. Price



Current Events Illustrated..


Paul Kaplan: An East Side Portrait 108 By Henry Moskowitz


A Munition Plant in Every Back Yard. 109 By Charles Lathrop Pack

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The Fires (Poem)..

By Jean Brooke Burt

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A course of forty lessons in the history, form, structure and writing of the Short-Story taught by Dr. J. Berg Esen wein, for years Editor of Lippincott's. 250-p. catalog free. Please address The Home Correspondence School Dept. 68, Springfield, Mass.

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The Lady Jane Grey School for Girls admits to

Vassar, Smith, Wellesley, Mount Holyoke. General Courses
Special courses for High School graduates. Music and
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St. John's Riverside Hospital Training
School for Nurses

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Important to

When you notify The
Outlook of a change
in your address, both
the old and
and the new
address should be given.
Kindly write, if possible,
two weeks before the

New York City change is to take effect.

How Germany Will Be Beaten

At the end of 1916 Germany realized that she was weakening. Something desperate had to be done. Hardly had 1917 dawned, when unrestricted submarine warfare was declared. It was thought that in 60 days England would be starved-brought to her knees. But instead of eliminating England, the Central Powers added the United States to their list of enemies. When the full force of America's resources and fighting power is brought home to Germany she will realize that her submarine warfare was the most colossal blunder in all military history.

At present, Roulers, which is 12 miles from Ypres and 57 miles from Waterloo, is the "solar plexus" of German control over the seacoast of Belgium. By next summer it seems certain that artillery and infantry, pressure will beat down German resistance in this sector.

With the fall of Roulers will come a vast Teutonic retreat, the surrender of the submarine bases

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at Ostend and Zeebrugge, the beginning of the collapse of German power in Belgium.

As the battle line struggles forward from day to day it is interesting to know why the Allies manœuvre for positions south of Dixmude, why they fight so bitterly around Lens and prepare so craftily to drive east on Lille, and north on Rheims. It is to sweep the Germans out of Belgium! Once out of Belgium, Germany's cause is as lost as a penny at the ocean's bottom. And no one knows this better than the Kaiser.

But the war will end, and end quickly, when Germany is compelled to vacate the Lorraine and the Metz Valley. Germany's greatest source of iron is the mines of Lorraine. Without these mines she would not have sufficient iron for her needs. Her supply of shells would commence to dwindle, her railroads go to pieces so that transportation would fail, her guns would soon wear out and could not be replaced.

The Value of Maps

In order to follow the battle lines intelligently, in order to appreciate fully the significance of every move of the armies, in order to see clearly what your newspaper reports mean, it is necessary to have a complete set of world maps. Nothing is so discouraging as to read of towns we know nothing about-have no idea of their position in relation to other towns or the battles being fought. To meet the present emergency for a complete set of world maps, Doubleday, Page & Co. is now offering a new War Atlas, containing 240 pages of maps-political, economic, geographic, vegetation, population, language, racial, physical, historical. This remarkable Atlas shows the history of the world by maps, and enables one to understand the racial prejudices that caused the present war. It answers every question you can ask about the world and its making. No home-especially where there are children-should be without this Atlas. To those who purchase the Atlas now, a complete set of After-theWar Maps will also be sent, without charge.

$1 Map of Western Front Free

As an added inducement for prompt action, purchasers of the Atlas will receive a new map of the Western Front, showing over 7,000 places, completely indexed.. In addition to 7,000 towns, cities, and hamlets, this map gives all woods, fortresses, fortified towns, naval arsenals, forts, redoubts, batteries, aircraft depots, wireless stations, and railways. This remarkable map measures 28 x 36 inches, but folds into a convenient cover 5% x 7%1⁄2 inches, just right to carry conveniently in the pocket for frequent consultation. Over twenty-five thousand of these maps have been sold at $1.00 each.

The war must be won or lost in France and Belgium. It is there that are found the great bulk of the contending forces of the most powerful belligerents, and a decision can be gained only by the defeat of one of this group. It may

aid a decision to defeat minor proportions of forces in a subsidiary field. But the object of war is the elimination of armies, and as long as the bulk of an army is still in the field as an effective fighting force, a decision has not been reached. Therefore, as the fighting on the western front goes, so goes the war. Conclusions logically drawn and based on known conditions on this front may then be considered to apply to the war situation as a whole. The importance of a complete map of the Western Front can, therefore, be clearly seen.

No Money in Advance

While the first edition lasts, you may secure the NEW Doubleday-Page War Atlas at an amazingly low price and on free examination. Send no


money now. Merely mail
the coupon, and the Atlas,
together with the large
Map of the Western
Front, and index of 7,000
places, will be sent pre-
paid. Then, after ex-
amination, if you decide
not to keep them, re-
turn them and you
will owe nothing.
But, if you feel that
they will help you to
a true understanding of

the war situation from day

to day, send only 50c. after ex-
amination and only $1 a month for

5 months. You cannot afford-no
American can afford-not to know what is
going on every day. Only maps make the
facts clear. At least send for this new
Atlas and Map of the Western Front
for free examination. Send the
coupon or write a letter now.

Dept. 11
Garden City, L.I.

N. Y.

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Dept. 11

Garden City, New York Send me, all charges prepaid, Doubleday, Page & Co.'s New Atlas, measuring 10x13 inchesbound in fine, silk cloth, stamped in gold. If it is not satisfactory, I will return it within 10 days, at your expense. Otherwise, I will send you 50 cents at once and $1.00 a month for 5 months. (If you prefer you may send $5.00 with this coupon.) It is understood that I am to receive the large dollar map of the Western Front at once, and a complete set of After-theWar Maps free if I decide to keep the Atlas after examination.



For rich limp leather binding, change coupon to 7 months instead of 5-$7 cash instead of $5.

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A Gorham Resolution
for 1918

A this season of the year when Good
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Gorham Sterling Silverware

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JANUARY 16, 1918

Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York

On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of
The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries

"The best articles on our new army camps that I have yet seen." So speaks one of our readers in a personal letter about Dr. Joseph H. Odell's four articles already published in The Outlook dealing with the life and conditions of our American camps and cantonments.

A fifth article, bearing the title "The Miracle of Democracy," will appear next week in The Outlook (issue of January 23).

What is this miracle? Dr. Odell puts it in a few words. "The cantonments are probably the most contented and cheerful spots in America, where laughter, cheers, and songs ripple or ring through the air a hundred times a day." The article gives a lively, entertaining, and eminently optimistic view of the men and the camps. of the relation of the soldiers to one another and to the country.



The result of the reclassification of the men who are registered under the Selective Draft Law will not be definitely known for several weeks. It is interesting, however, to record General Crowder's estimate of the number of men who will be put in Class 1, and passed as physically fit. This number General Crowder sets as close to one million, and states his belief that this number will be large enough for any call in present prospect.

General Crowder advocates adding to those now liable under the Draft Law men who are arriving at the age of twenty-one, and estimates that this would result in a yearly increment of at least seven hundred thousand men. With such an increment, he says, "there is certainly no immediate necessity of going beyond Class 1 in future drafts. This is a consummation most to be desired. It removes from consideration the most troublesome problems of the draft, and places us in a most enviable position among belligerent nations."

We believe that General Crowder is right both in his recommendation and in his statement that this is a consummation to Le desired, but we believe that the country should not lose sight of the fact that this desire may not be realized. When we think of the depletion of man strength in England and France, we should be slow to prophesy that the war will be over before we are called upon to make a similar sacrifice, even though it may seem unlikely that the United States will have to draw as heavily on its men as France or England has done. This is not a counsel of pessimism, but a counsel of caution.

General Crowder also gives some interesting figures concerning the workings of the Draft Law. Half of the men called under the law claimed exemption, and seventy-eight per cent of these claims were granted, showing that a comparatively small per cent of fraudulent or inadequate claims were filed. Seventyfour per cent of those released were released on the ground of having dependent relatives, twenty per cent because of alien birth, and six per cent on vocational grounds.


The Supreme Court of the United States has unanimously affirmed the constitutionality of the Draft or Conscription Act requiring citizens to render their country military service in time of need. The Constitution of the United States provides that Congress has power "to declare war, . . . to raise and support armies, . . . to make rules for the government and regulation of the land and naval forces, . . . to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers." The contention that Congress has no


power to exact enforced military duty by the citizen under this clause gets but scant respect from the Court. It says:

This but challenges the existence of all power, for governmental power which has no sanction to it and which can only be exercised provided the citizen consents is in no substantial sense such a power. It is argued, however, that, although this is abstractly true, it is not concretely so because, as compelled military service is repugnant to a free government and in conflict with all the great guarantees of the Constitution as to individual liberty, it must be assumed that the authority to raise armies was intended to be limited to the right to call an army into existence, counting alone upon the willingness of the citizen to do his duty in time of public need-that is, in time of war. But the premise of this proposition is so devoid of foundation that it leaves not even a shadow of ground upon which to base the conclusion. It may not be doubted that the very conception of a just government and its duty to the citizen includes the reciprocal obligation of the citizen to render military service in case of need and the right to compel it. To do more than state the proposition is absolutely unnecessary in view of the practical illustration afforded by the almost universal legislation to that effect now in force.

The Court finds in the history of England, the American colonies, and the Confederate States of America illustrations of and support for this fundamental right of the Government, which is indeed essential to its preservation. The illustration from the Confederate States is interesting because they carried the doctrine of political individualism to its extreme. Nevertheless :

The seceding States wrote into the Constitution, which was adopted to regulate the Government which they sought to establish, in identical words the provision of the Constitution of the United States. And when the right to enforce that instrument, a selective draft law which was enacted not differing in principle from the one here in question, was challenged, its validity was upheld, evidently after great consideration, by the courts of Virginia, of Georgia, of Texas, of Alabama, of Mississippi, and of North Carolina, the opinions in some of the cases copiously and critically reviewing the whole grounds which we have stated.

The official report of this decision has not reached us as we go to press, and our quotations are taken from the newspaper reports of the decision. It is difficult for us to conceive how any other view could ever have been seriously argued by any one familiar with Constitutional law or the Anglo-Saxon principles

of free institutions.


A clause in the Federal Constitution, taken from the Articles of Confederation, reads: "No Person holding any Office

of Profit or Trust under them [the United States] shall, without the consent of the Congress, accept of any present, Emolument, Office or Title, of any kind whatever, from any King, Prince or foreign State." Whatever right the American colonies, a century and a half ago, had to feel as they did has certainly been changed by existing events. Those (not "persons holding any office of profit or trust under them") who have been in the American Ambulance Service in France report the exceeding benefit not only to those who receive but to those who bestow the medals conferred by the French Government. We quote from a recent letter:

"The General commanding the 120th Division of Infantry cites, at the order of the division: —, American Volunteer of S. S. U. 29, has given proof, in the course of operations at Hill 304, of great devotion; he particularly distinguished himself on the 1st and 2d of August, 1917, in carrying out his duties as driver of an ambulance evacuating a large number of wounded over a road in view of the enemy and incessantly bombarded."

Yes, this is a citation, and in consequence yesterday, in view of the entire 38th regiment 3,000 men-I with five other Americans and several Frenchmen had the famous Croix de Guerre, with a little silver star on the ribbon, pinned on my chest. Mine was the second one awarded of the six, following the sous chef, and our lieutenant tells me I got the best citation. I suppose this sounds a bit egotistical to say the least, but it means a great deal to me, as it marks the culmination of a hope which began even before I sailed. . . . I hope it can mean as much to you all as it does to me.

I think I shall never forget yesterday-it will always stand out as a red-letter day in my memory. After the decorations they gave us a most signal honor, as the General ordered a special salvo of the "Marseillaise" by the regimental band for us, and then allowed us to stand beside him and review the entire regiment in full equipment. I think we were about the first representatives of the Field Service to be so honored, as such procedure is practically never followed except for decorations with the Legion of Honor or the Médaille Militaire. . .

I wish you could feel the thrill of the great French anthem and see hundreds and hundreds of men marching by. The latter you have seen in the movies, equipped in their regalia and steel helmets, but the real thing is many, many more times inspiring. Surely France and our other allies would feel more than ever drawn to us if by conferring decorations upon our actual soldiers in the field they might thus give expression to their gratitude for what we are doing for them. And, on our side, we might as well realize that it is sometimes as fine a thing to accept as to bestow. We would inevitably be drawn to our allies more than ever by their quick courtesy in conferring a decoration on our men where due.

For these reasons we are glad that Senator Lodge's bill allowing American soldiers in this war to accept medals and decorations from foreign governments has been reintroduced. It passed the Senate at the recent session. It should pass the House at this session and become law.


The campaign to raise a million dollars for the use of the Library War Service of the American Library Association is an event recent enough to make the account of what is being done in one particular military encampment in the direction of providing reading matter for the soldiers of particular interest. At Camp Sherman, in Chillicothe, Ohio, there has been established in every Y. M. C. A. and Knights of Columbus building a library of from five hundred to a thousand books, managed just as any library would be, with a catalogue and a charging system, though, of course, of the simplest kind. There is a good supply of periodicals in each of these buildings-there are nine branch libraries in the cantonment-and copies of every newspaper published in Ohio and western Pennsylvania, so that the men have access at all times to news from home.

The library work at Camp Sherman has been in charge of Mr. Burton E. Stevenson, Librarian of the Chillicothe Public Library. His chief assistant has been the daughter of the major-general commanding the camp. Work was started in developing a library system in June, when the first troops arrived. At the present time there are over ten thousand books in the branch libraries, and as many more in the main Amer

ican Library Association building, which has recently been opened and which is the center of the whole camp library


Of the books desired by the soldiers Mr. Stevenson says:

When I started this work in June, I had some very plausible theories about the kind of books the men would want, but I soon discarded them. We have had requests here for every sort of book from "some books by Gene Stratton-Porter" to Boswell's "Life of Johnson" and Bergson's Creative Evolution." We have had requests for Ibsen's plays, for books on the valuation of public utilities, on conservation, on sewage disposal; we had so many requests for " A Message to Garcia " that I had a supply mimeographed. In one building there were so many requests for books on religion and ethics that we set up a small reference collection there.

Broadly speaking, of course, most of the men read fiction; and most of them prefer exciting, red-blooded fiction-detective stories, adventure stories, and so on. But there is also a steady demand for Conrad and Wells and Hardy and Meredith. Poetry is also in demand, and good books of travel go well. The only kind of books we don't want are the salacious, risqué kind -they have no place in our camp libraries. And we don't care for unattractive, cheap editions, with yellow, muddy paper and flimsy binding. We want attractive books-nice, clean copies of good editions--and the more of these we get the better service we can give the men.

Mr. Stevenson recently conducted a test to determine the names of periodicals with the widest popular appeal for the soldiers. He posted a list of periodicals in each library building with the following note of instruction: Place one tally after those you would like to have in this building. Please play fair and do not tally more than twenty magazines." Thirty-one periodicals under this test received more than twenty-five votes apiece. Those that received more than forty votes, as arranged in alphabetical order, and including as nearly as possible half the list, are:

The "American Magazine," the "Army and Navy Journal," "Collier's Weekly," "Everybody's," "Judge."" Leslie's Weekly." "Life," the "Literary Digest," the "Metropolitan Magazine," "The Outlook," "Physical Culture," "Puck," "Review of Reviews," "Saturday Evening Post," "Scientific American," and "The World's Work."

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Bridgeport, Connecticut, has since the outbreak of the great war been confronted by a housing problem of tremendous proportions. Thirty thousand or forty thousand people were added to the population of that city within a few months. Today, according to a report by the National Housing Association, not another laborer can be accommodated in that city. Yet on January 1 a new munitions plant, for which the United States Government has provided two millions and a half for the housing of its machinery, was expected to begin work. Unless additional housing is provided for the men of the new plant, the only way in which it can be operated is by taking men out of existing plants which are already working below capacity.

This is but a typical instance of the need of the adoption of an intelligent housing policy by our Government, a matter which has already received the serious attention of the Council of National Defense, but which has not yet passed beyond the stage of an official report.

The National Housing Association rightly believes that the situation demands immediate action, and definitely recommends that certain specific things be done. It advocates the establishment of a Housing Administration by the Federal Government, and the placing of this Administration in direct charge of the housing of all workers in the war industries of the country. It recommends that Congress empower the President to loan

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