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Copyright, 1918, by The Outlook Company
THE OUTLOOK IS PUBLISHED WEEKLY BY THE OUTLOOK COMPANY,
Restoration, Reparation, and World Security 5
Prohibition in Canada and Temperance in
Why is La Follette Still in the Senate ?.. 7
Cartoons of the Week.
The Ears of the DEAF Must Be Stirred To Activity
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In Public Schools
"As a result of competitive tests, Paragon Shorthand was unanimously adopted as the exclusive system for the Atlanta High Schools. The classes we have already graduated in Paragon are by far the best we have turned out during my twelve years' connection with the schools.". W. C. LowE, Head of the Shorthand Departments, 18 Avery Drive, Atlanta, Ga.
Paragon is also being taught in the High Schools of Alton, Ill., Lafayette, Ind., Johnstown, Pa., and elsewhere.
OU know how often you have wished that you could write shorthand. You realized what it meant to busy executives and to business beginners-in efficiency, advancement and increased earning power.
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Thousands of young, ambitious men and women who have failed to learn the old, complicated forms of shorthand have learned Paragon with ease. They have since become court stenographers, reporters, assistants to business heads and in many cases executives of prominent concerns and institutions. Thousands of grateful letters now in our files attest these facts. Those printed at the left are typical.
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You have reached the point where you must know shorthand to do yourself justice and compete with others—as a busy executive or as a beginner in business.
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Shorthand Writers Wanted
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are demanded of the shorthand writer by presentday business. With Paragon you can write without mental friction-no complicated rules to remember, no "lines" to watch, no heavy and light "shading," only 26 simple word-signs, no tedious memorizing, no confusion of meanings through the old elimination of vowels. Paragon notes never get "cold"; they are just as easy to read after 10 years as after 10 minutes. Our records show that in addition to the thousands of young men and women who need shorthand as a help in their business careers, other thousands-business men, professional men, students, clergymen and literary folk-would like to know Paragon Shorthand as a time-saving convenience. Still others-fathers and mothers-would like to give their sons and daughters this wonderful advantage in order that they may be able to be self-supporting any time it may be necessary.
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PARAGON INSTITUTE HOME STUDY DEPARTMENT 119 West Fortieth Street, New York City
PARAGON INSTITUTE HOME STUDY DEPARTMENT, 119 West 40th Street, New York City
JANUARY 2, 1918
Offices, 381 Fourth Avenue, New York
On account of the war and the consequent delays in the mails, both in New York City and on the railways, this copy of The Outlook may reach the subscriber late. The publishers are doing everything in their power to facilitate deliveries
THE PEACE OF VASSALAGE
It is increasingly evident that if peace between Germany and Russia comes from the conference at Brest-Litovsk, it will be a peace of serfdom. Russia, which more than a generation ago abolished serfdom among its own people, must not become the serf of a foreign autocracy. If it is to escape this fate, it is equally imperative that the Russian people throw off the yoke of anarchism under which, so far as Petrograd and Moscow are concerned, it now rests.
There is hope of this and strong hope-as will be seen from an article elsewhere in this issue of The Outlook by a Russian writer. Just what is developing behind the scenes, so to speak, we cannot tell positively, because our news comes almost entirely through the Lenine faction. There are, however, indications from day to day that the "anti-counterrevolution" is gaining force. General Kaledines and other Russian officers are certainly at the head of troops oppposed to the Bolsheviki. The great country of the Ukraine, with its twenty million inhabitants and its great cities of Odessa and Kiev, has declared its independence. This, of course, is precisely what the Bolshevik Government theoretically approves, but evidently it regards with great distrust the probability that the Ukraine may join forces with the enemies of Lenine.
The peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, now going on, are attended by delegates from Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria, and Turkey, as well as from Russia and Germany. A peculiarly pro-German rule has been made under which the delegates are to speak on any given subject in the alphabetical order of the names of their countries. Thus Austria, Bulgaria, and Germany will all be heard before Russia has a chance to speak. The proceedings were opened by a long speech from the German Foreign Minister, Dr. von Kühlmann. He talked long, but said nothing. Up to December 26 no agreement was reached between the irreconcilable proposals made before the conference met by Russia and Germany. Trotsky, the so-called Russian Foreign Minister, before the conference spoke very boldly of his determination not to bow the knee (he used that phrase) to the Kaiser. This was after Germany indicated its intention to hold the Russian territory it now occupies, to establish a Lithuania and a Poland which should be nominally free but really German, to take Russia's wheat, and to establish free trade for German goods for fifteen years. No wonder that Trotsky balked! He seems now to be again under Germany's influence. If he expects that Germany will adopt, approve, or tolerate the anarchistic absurdities advocated by him, his eyes will soon be opened.
Meanwhile the much-talked-of German "proposals for peace" have not appeared. Probably no careful student of the situation expected that they would. It is not the first time that German agents have put forth loose talk about forthcoming peace proposals, while official Germany has kept quiet and hoped to profit by such talk. The so-called basis for possible peace reported in despatches, but not emanating from any official source or made over any responsible name, was cleverly worded so as to leave for consideration later everything of vital importance to Germany, and in all other points to give Germany the advantage. Every one will agree with the official statement of our Secretary of War, Mr. Baker, that "the various reports of immediate peace proposals by the Germans on seemingly favorable terms should not for a moment induce us to slacken our preparations for war."
RESTORATION, REPARATION, AND
The British Prime Minister, in a plain, frank statement before the House of Commons on December 20, relaxed in no particular his former declarations as to England's war aims. Now, as before, our great ally stands for restoration of Germany's plunder, reparation for ravaged and devastated countries, and a world security based on the extinction of Prussia's aim of forceful world domination.
Specific declarations that brought out immense enthusiasm were that England did not seek to acquire more territory; that the German colonies might be disposed of by the peace congress, but that Jerusalem never would be restored to the Turks.
Mr. Lloyd George recognized fully the injurious effect of the Russian collapse, and expressed the opinion that if the Russian armies had held firm "by this time the pride of the German military power would have been completely humbled." The need to help Italy called for renewed effort to increase the British armies. As for peace by negotiation, said the Prime Minister, it should always be remembered that a league of nations in which Germany was represented by triumphant militarism would be a hollow farce. Ships were urgently needed. On the other hand, he said, German soldiers and workmen were deteriorating in quality, British permanent losses were only onefourth or one-fifth of German losses, the losses from submarines had decreased, and ship-building was increasing. He acknowledged that General Byng's splendid dash toward Cambrai had been only a temporary victory, and that there the Germans had their one and only success by surprise; yet the Germans had lost this year on the western line 100,000 prisoners, valuable positions, and hundreds of guns.
There was no note of despondency in Mr. Lloyd George's address. He said that while one great Power (Russia) had gone out, and another (America) had not fully come in, America's advent would loom large in the future. Until then, he said, England and France can and will stand squarely facing the foe.
THE SUGAR SITUATION
Mr. Hoover, the head of the Food Administration, has been criticised by witnesses before a Congressional committee for his handling of the sugar situation. The Outlook reported this fact in its issue of December 26, but voiced the hope that its readers would withhold their decision as to the justification for this criticism until Mr. Hoover himself had had an opportunity to present his own defense.
The Congressional committee investigating the sugar situation is headed by Senator Reed, of Missouri. Mr. Hoover's chief critic has been Mr. Spreckels, a sugar refiner of considerable prominence. Mr. Spreckels has charged that the sugar situation has been dominated to the detriment of the public interests by men representing the American Sugar Refining Company who were closely co-operating with the Food Administration. Mr. Spreckels stated that the price fixed by the Food Administration for unrefined Cuban sugar would necessitate a price to the consumer of ten cents a pound for granulated sugar, a price entirely unjustified by the condition of the sugar market. On more than one occasion during the progress of Mr. Spreckels's testimony the Food Administration requested an opportunity of presenting its own view of the situation. In each instance the request was denied, on the ground that the
This hostility.to the Food Administration so obviously manifested by Seirator Reed resulted in the publication, on December 26, of an official statement by Mr. Hoover, with the sanction of the President himself, embodying the facts which the Chairman of the Senate Committee, Senator Reed, refused to publish after its submission to his committee.
It seems to us that Mr. Hoover's statement proves clearly that the shortage of sugar in this country is due, not to any manipulation for the benefit of any private interest, but to the overwhelming demand on this country by its allies for every ounce of sugar at our disposal. Mr. Hoover gives the figures concerning the shipments abroad, and clearly indicates that the country must prepare to limit its consumption of sugar more stringently in the future if it desires to support its allies in a way in which every obligation of necessity and honor demands. Mr. Hoover stated that "there are no sugar stocks in this country which are not in course of distribution.'
Under the present circumstances he showed that there is no other way to prevent profiteering except by the policy which the Food Administration has pursued, namely, the system of voluntary agreement among producers and refiners. The only alternative to limiting our present consumption is to cut down the meager supplies of our allies or to divert shipping now in our transport service to bringing sugar from the distant Java markets. Mr. Hoover stated that if our greed and gluttony forced our allies to reduce their rations or to send ships to distant Java, we will have damaged seriously the war-making powers of the United States.
Mr. Hoover's statement is a convincing one. It shows up in unpleasant relief the manner and methods which Senator Reed and his majority associates have employed in their investigation of Mr. Hoover's activities. The conduct of the sugar investigation is in unpleasant contrast with that of the investigation into the work done by the Ordnance Bureau and the Quartermaster's Department.
THE GREAT QUESTIONNAIRE
Nearly ten million men during the current weeks will answer a questionnaire designed to make the Draft Law a real selective service measure.
It is the duty of every registered man, even if he does not receive his copy of the questionnaire, and even if he has been already exempted, to go to his local draft board and find out what is expected of him.
On the basis of this questionnaire the men who have registered under the Draft Law will be divided into five general classes. The first class will include, roughly, single men without dependents, dependent married men, married men not usefully engaged, unskilled laborers, and all not otherwise classified. The second class includes married men with wives or children not wholly dependent upon their labor for support, and married men whose wives are skilled in some special class of work which they are physically able to perform and in which they are either employed or in which they can easily obtain employment and support themselves without suffering or hardship. Necessary skilled farm laborers and skilled industrial laborers are also included in this class, provided they are engaged in necessar enterprises.
The third class includes those upon whom rests the responsibility of caring for helpless dependents, such as children, infirm parents, or helpless brothers and sisters, highly trained firenten or policemen, certain necessary employees of the Federal Government, managers or assistant managers of necessary agricultural or industrial enterprises, and technical or mechanical experts whose services are also of vital necessity.
In the fourth class are to be found men whose wives or children are mainly dependent on their labor for support, mariners
actually employed in sea service, and the necessary sole directing head of necessary agricultural or industrial enterprises. Class five includes the legislative, executive, or judicial officers of the United States, the individual States, the Territories, and the District of Columbia. It includes ordained ministers, certain divinity students, those already in the military or naval service of the United States, and men permanently unfit for military service because of mental or physical disabilities. It also includes licensed pilots actively employed and members of a well-recognized religious sect or organization whose creed forbids its members to participate in any way in war.
This fifth class is obviously intended to include all those whom the Government desires absolutely to exempt from the provisions of the Draft Law, even though the fifth class is not classified as exempt, but merely in the class whose call will be longest deferred. The curious juxtaposition of ministers and those morally or mentally unfit for military service affords an interesting commentary on the legal provision which practically exempts clergymen from all kinds of military service. It would perhaps have been wiser if the Government had treated ministers as it has treated doctors and medical students, that is, provided that their talents might be used in a way to help the Government to the best possible advantage. Many young ministers would make, as many are making, the best kind of workers in the Y. M. C. A. shacks here and abroad. Why exempt these trained men from all service, while at the same time we require medical students and doctors either to join the Medical Reserve or to serve in the army?
The individual questions by which the exhaustive classification will be determined require the most careful attention on the part of those who must answer them, but the questions are all reasonable, and should provide the Government with exactly the information it desires. A typical example of the care with which this questionnaire has been developed is afforded by the group of questions dealing with agricultural labor. These questions are expected to indicate whether a farm laborer is necessary to the farm where he works, and whether his work itself is useful or merely devoted to the upkeep of some non-productive country estate; and further, in case such an estate is worked as a farm, whether it represents an agricultural enterprise of value to the country.
The operation of the Selective Draft Law under the present regulations will protect the country from the misuse of its skilled labor so far as the draft registrants are concerned. No effort has been made, so far as we know, however, to prevent skilled laborers, such as shipbuilders and mechanics, from volunteering for the war in either the Army or the Navy. It is perhaps unfortunate that the same tests now being applied to the selected men could not also have been applied to the volunteers.
THE RED CROSS DRIVE
When the American Red Cross announced that it would increase its membership from five to ten millions, and hoped to reach a maximum of fifteen millions, there was some doubt felt by those who realized the magnitude of the task and did not realize the zeal of the vast number of volunteer campaigners ready to work for success under ingenious and efficient plans. The effort was even larger than at first appears, because it included renewals of membership and payment of the annual fee of one dollar by most of the five million persons already members. Thus, to take an actual example, one chapter in a town of 5,00 people had about 1,100 members before the drive; when on Christmas Day it had recorded 2,900 members, the statement meant that 2,900 people (new members and old) had paid each a dollar or more for a year's membership, beginning at once. And the "drive" was to continue until New Year's.
As with the small town, so with the city and the country. On Christmas Day it was estimated that about 9,000,000 new members and 4,000,000 renewals had been registered. With this total of 13.000.000 it would seem probable that the mark of 15,000,000 would be reached by New Year's Day, and certain that the campaign as been successful in a most gratifying manner. The baner region has been the Lakes Division, which, with a quota of 1,063,000, reported an enrollment of 2,000,000. One interesting feature of the campaign has been the number