Imágenes de páginas

Climax, or Amplification, a series of ideas rising in strength:

'Still in that breast thy country held her throne,
Thy hope, thy prayer, thy fear, were hers alone,
Thy last faint effort hers, and hers thy parting groan.'
'What man-what hero-what god?'

Anticlimax, the reverse of Climax, when the ideas become less striking at the close. It is generally used to produce a ridiculous effect:

In the name of the prophet-figs!'

'And thou, Dalhousie, the great god of war,
Lieutenant-General to the Earl of Mar.'

Litotes expresses less than is meant, the rest being implied: 'This is not altogether the safest road by which you could travel.' 'Chicken are bad gardeners.'

Antonomasia puts a proper for a common name, or vice versa, as when a patriot is called a Hampden:

'Some village Hampden, who with dauntless breast.' Catachresis is the use of a word in a new sense.

Anadiplosis, or Reduplication, the repeating the same word: 'Arm, arm, ye heavens, against these perjured kings.'

The above are sometimes called Figures of Rhetoric; and under the head of Figures of Speech there are also classed Figures of Syntax and Figures of Orthography.

The Figures of Syntax are:

Ellipsis, the omission of a word:

'One sun by day, by night ten thousand (suns) shine.' 'He lives near St. Paul's (church).'

'The man (whom) you esteem most.'

"This (being) done, proceed.'

Pleonasm, the use of superfluous words:

'The deck it was their field of fame.'

'First of all, see if it rains.'

Enallage is the use of one part of speech for another.

Hyperbaton is the transposition of words:

'Stands Scotland where it did?'

'Great is Diana of the Ephesians.'

The Figures of Orthography are:

Aphaeresis, cutting off a letter or syllable from the beginning of a word, as 'gins, 'gainst, 'tis :

"Gins to pale his ineffectual fire.'

Prothesis, adding a letter or syllable to the beginning of a word; as, disannul, unloose, arise, entreat.

Syncope, cutting out a letter or syllable from the middle of a word; as, lov'd, se'nnight.

Apocope, cutting off a letter or syllable from the end of a word:

'Like a worm i' the bud.'

6 Whether to deck with clouds th' uncoloured sky.'

Diaeresis, the separation of two vowels which would otherwise form one sound; as, zoölogy, aëronaut.

Synaeresis, the contraction of two vowels or syllables into one. This occurs in Greek, but not often in English.

Tmesis, the division of a compound word into two, by inserting a word between; as, 'to-God-ward.' It is uncommon in English.


Clarendon Press Series.

Now Ready.

1. A Treatise on Natural Philosophy. Volume I. By Sir W. THOMSON, LL.D., D.C.L., F.R.S., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Glasgow, and P. G. TAIT, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh; formerly Fellows of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. (Demy 8vo., cloth, price 258.)

"Our object is twofold: to give a tolerably complete account of what is now known of Natural Philosophy, in language adapted to the nonmathematical reader; and to furnish, to those who have the privilege which high mathematical acquirements confer, a connected outline of the analytical process by which the greater part of that knowledge has been extended into regions as yet unexplored by experiment. -Authors' Preface.

"The attentive student will gather from its careful perusal more insight into true scientific principles, more excellent precept, bettered by still more excellent example respecting the method of modern physics, than from any other with which we are acquainted."-Educational Times.

"We recommend the study of this magnum opus to the attention of high-class students; let them study it, and when they have thoroughly mastered the first volume let us hope that another may be at their service."—Engineer.

2. An Elementary Treatise on Quaternions.

By P. G. TAIT, M.A., Professor of Natural Philosophy in the University of Edinburgh; formerly Fellow of St. Peter's College, Cambridge. (Demy 8vo., price 12s. 6d.)

"We are of opinion that Professor Tait has succeeded in producing a really simple exposition of the principles and application of Quaternions. The Delegates of the Oxford Press are, we think, doing a great service to mathematical students by the publication of such works as this."-Educational Times.

3. Descriptive Astronomy. A Handbook for

the General Reader, and also for practical Observatory work. With 224 illustrations and numerous tables. By G. F. CHAMBERS, F. R. A. S., Barrister-at-Law. (Demy 8vo., cloth, 856 pp., price 218.)

The aim of this work, briefly expressed, is general usefulness, whether in the hands of the student, the general reader, or the pro



fessional observer. Great pains have been taken to present the latest information on all branches of the science. The development of Astronomy is now so rapid that unless an author exercises constant vigilance his book must fall behindhand: and it is believed that this volume not only contains the most recent discoveries and deductions, but that in it will also be found information hitherto to be met with only in the publications of learned Societies, difficult of access and inconvenient for reference even to the Astronomer, and absolutely out of the reach of the general reader.

"A bulky, but very interesting book. * * * We gladly welcome it, and only regret that even more information could not be squeezed into its pages-though it is by no means one of those unreadable treatises which bristle with an array of scientific facts so dense as to be indigestible by an ordinary reader. * * The engravings are an admirable feature of this manual, and contribute much to the esteem in which we are disposed to hold it."—John Bull.


4. Chemistry for Students. By A. W.WILLIAMSON, Phil. Doc., F.R.S., Professor of Chemistry, University College, London. (Ext. fcap. 8vo., cloth, price 7s. 6d.)


Also Solutions of the Problems in "Chemistry for Students." By the same Author. (Ext. fcap. 8vo., sewed, price 6d.) "Within less than four hundred pages of a handy little volume, in type not fatiguing to the eye, Professor Williamson here gives to the student an outline of the leading facts and principles of inorganic and organic chemistry. * * This volume is really a too rare example of what a good elementary text-book in any science ought to be: the language brief, simple, exact; the arrangement logical, developing in lucid order principles from facts, and keeping theory always dependent upon observation; a book that keeps the reason of the student active while he strives to master details difficult but never without interest, and that furnishes him with means for practising himself in the right management of each new tool of knowledge that is given to him for his use."-Examiner.

5. An Elementary Treatise on Heat, with numerous Woodcuts and Diagrams. By BALFOUR STEWART, LL.D., F.R.S., Director of the Observatory at Kew. (Ext. fcap. 8vo., cloth, price 7s. 6d.)

"All persons engaged in the teaching or study of experimental philosophy will be glad to have a manual from the pen of a gentleman competent to treat the subject, and bringing his information in it up to the science of the present day. Whilst the book is thoroughly practical and adapted for use in the class-room, Dr. Stewart has not neglected to discuss the interesting relations of heat to other forms of force, and the bearing of the phenomena of heat on the theories of 'conservation of energy' and 'dissipation of energy' in the universe.”—Athenæum.

"Such manuals, so admirable in matter, arrangement, and type, were never before given to the world at the same moderate price. The publication of this manual is exceedingly well timed; it includes within narrow limits the leading facts and principles of this youngest-born of the Sciences, and for the mastery of the greater portion of its contents only requires ordinary intelligence on the part of the reader." Spectator.

"In contrasting this volume with other text-books of similar pretensions, we are struck with its superiority in point of arrangement, and in the manner in which it presents the results of the most recent researches on the subject. It has been successful, too, in mastering another difficulty which besets the writers of text-books, and that is in drawing the line between the merely popular treatise and the dry compendium."-London Review.

6. Greek Verbs, Irregular and Defective; their forms, meaning, and quantity; embracing all the Tenses used by Greek writers, with references to the passages in which they are found. By W. VEITCH. New and revised edition. (Ext. fcap. 8vo., cloth, 616 pp., price 8s. 6d.)

"Mr. Veitch's work on the Irregular and Defective Greek Verbs is as signal a proof as could be furnished that a book designed to assist the learner or the advanced student may be convenient in size and yet exhaustive in treatment, may be quite original in investigation and yet fall readily into the educational channel, may confine itself to the strictest exposition of phenomena, and yet be fresh with the force of character and lively with the humour that belong more or less to all inquiring and independent minds.

"We congratulate Mr. Veitch on the completion, and the Clarendon Press on the publication, of a work which will reinstate our scholarship in that esteem which the Germans have almost ceased to entertain for it since the days of Porson and Elmsley, and which will have the merit not only of purifying the fountain-heads of classical education, but of affording the youthful scholar an example of that moral singleness of purpose and undeviating search for truth which are even rarer than the intellectual gifts that have been lavished on its execution."-Spectator.

"The book before us by Mr. William Veitch is quite a wonderful contribution to critical knowledge of Greek, and has been selected by the Delegates of the Clarendon Press to lead off a new series of educational works. Its great distinction, in the first place, is that it is all derived from original reading. Mr. Veitch has gone with a careful finger through the Greek texts, and the Greek texts in their latest recensions, marking every noticeable form, and checking by his own personal examination the dicta of other critics. * * * * The book is useful, indeed we may say indispensable, to scholars, in the widest sense of the word. It takes a larger range than its mere title would imply; and besides being a supplement to our best Lexicons, such as that of Liddell and Scott, contains touches of fine philology which would have delighted Porson and Elmsley."-Pall Mall Gazette.

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