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English 'to' is omitted; as, 'Your journey homeward,
Romeward, heavenward.'

'Toward' is also an adjective, opposed to 'froward,' but
more common in the negative untoward '-'This
untoward accident.'



There is no such place under the sun. Movements
under the earth. He was certainly not under fifty.
Under the sway of Caesar. Under the rank of
lieutenant-general. To sit under a preacher. Under
pretence. (In old English, under colour.') Under
the head of casual expenses. Under water. Under-
hand dealings. The upper and under portions of
the building (adjective).
Under way.
Under sail.

Underneath this marble hearse. The mole is busy underneath the ground. A mine was being sprung underneath (adverb).

Up the street. Up the ladder. 'Up' is generally an adverb; as—

Up hill.

Up above the world. When the sun was up. Up

and down.

'Up' as an adverb is very frequent in composition with verbs. It stands after the verb, and often denotes completion-

Eat up, drink up,

To get up, go up, hang up, nail up.
use up. To put up a candidate.
To put up a
guest. To put up with an affront (adverb).
make up an account; make up a story; make up a
quarrel; make up a bed. He was done up. He


was set up in business. He was set up by too much prosperity. To tie up, roll up, fold up, tear up, break up, crumple up, throw up, bring up, light up, whip up, tuck up, grind up, cut up, chop up, wind up, add up, count up; cast up a sum; score up (i. e. inscribe), wash up, plough up, post up. To bear up a weight (transitive).


As adverb

To bear up under affliction (intransitive).


champagne is up. He was strung up to the next tree. 'Up!' is also an exclamation—‘Up, guards, and at them!' 'Up' is used as an adjective in the phrases-'The up journey,' 'The up train.'

The comparative 'upper' is very frequent as an adjective; as, 'The upper regions,' 'The upper classes.' 'Upper' is not used either as a preposition or adverb.

With. 1. Companionship: Come with me.


He agrees with me, disagrees with me. One with another. is angry with her, in love with her. He compared Corfu with Naples. His hair is mingled with grey. He found fault with me. Why do you deal with me thus ? I have nothing to do with you. On

a par with one another.
Let me speak with you.
Caoutchouc is the same

I will be even with him.

Do not meddle with him. with india-rubber.


withal it was very dear (with all, i. e. 'moreover.' This word is also used in old English for 'with' after its noun; as, 'Weapons to fight withal.')

2. Instrument or manner: Frantic with grief. He built his house with stones. I shall begin with you. Go on with your work. The hills are adorned with forests.


Within the ramparts.

Within bowshot. Within

three days. Within a mile. The orange was

crimson within (adverb).

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Without. Do not go without me.

mission. Without doubt.

He acted without per

Without cause. Without

the city walls (i. e. outside). He is waiting without (adverb). Do not go without I tell you (conjunction).



Conjunctions are of two kinds, Adverbial and Proper.

The following are Adverbial Conjunctions, being in fact adverbs used to connect words or phrases :
















[These six are Disjunctive Conjunctions, because though they connect clauses (or words) they disjoin the sense.]

Conjunctions Proper are always joined with verbs, and stand in the same relation to the verb in mood that the preposition does to the noun in case :

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And also all the relative pronouns and relative adverbs, which

have all a conjunctive force.

Is it true that you are leaving us? I assured him that I would.

'That' is often omitted; as-

It is true I am leaving you.

I told him I would.

For the use of these words, see under Prepositions.

lest I should be mistaken.

I will not say this, because I am not sure. I will not say this, If you are afraid, do not try it. If you think it best, do it. Though I find no fault, I cannot praise him. Although not brilliant, he has good abilities. Though he talks a great deal, there is not much in what he says. Albeit I know it to be true, yet for charity I will not say it again. It may be blue, though I confess by this light it looks green. I care not whether I go or not. I have not finished it, but I will now. It is not perfect, still I do not despair of its becoming It is like; nevertheless it is not a good likeness. It will be of no use; however, I will go. However wise he may be,


he may be mistaken (relative adverb).


Interjections admit of no grammatical construction, and are not properly parts of speech. The use of the more common ones is shown in the following phrases :-

Ah, do not say so! Ab me!

Alas! my hat is blown off. (poetical). Ob me! Dear me! (i. e. Dear God, save me. e.) Goodness! (Goodness protect me). What! Indeed! Strange! that I should have dreamt of him. Tush! (old English). Pshaw! has the same sense as 'tush' in modern English: expressive of contempt. Fie! for shame! Avaunt (French, avant), begone! Huzza! burra! expressive of joy. Welcome! (i. e. 'You are welcome'). Hail, all bail! (old English or poetical). Hush!


COMPOSITION is a wide term, and may mean many things. The intention of the present treatise is to try and throw a little light on the study and use of language; to explain what language is; to give some rules for reading with judgment; and by so doing to draw attention to the style of writing, and lead on to the few and simple principles on which all sentences are framed. In a word, how to wield language is the object proposed. This is quite a different thing from a technical knowledge of terms. As far as learning to wield language is concerned, there is not the slightest use in having all the terminology of metaphor, simile, hyperbole, trope, synecdoche, &c., at the fingers' ends; they have no more to do with learning to compose than anatomical terms have with being a good walker. These terms of compositionanatomy are given and explained separately, for those who want to use them; but they are not introduced here, as having nothing to do with the power of wielding language; which is a thing of life. Moreover, general terms, like labelled doors, too often close in and hide all behind them; and the owner, who never enters the room, thinks he knows all about it, because he can rattle off the label glibly. Neither is this a treatise on Rhetoric. Rhetoric deals with the order and arrangement of thought, and the treatment of the subject, rather than with words and expression and language. Whereas the power of language, and the wielding language, is what we are now going to deal with. It may add some interest to the subject to consider what language is, and the value of it, and its connexion with other things. It seems perhaps a dreary matter to be learning verbs and nouns, and analysing sentences. It is not

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