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am I to take this?

shall I get dinner?

Wherewith shall I beat him? Wherewithal
Wherefore do you treat me so?


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a off

a on or upon.
opposite ad
out of

a over

over against


a c since

a through

Notice the following phrases:—


a throughout

c till or until

a to or unto


toward or towards ad
under ad

a underneath

a up ad

a within

a c without.

Above a hundred men. Above forty years old. Over and above the quantity required. They shot their arrows from above (adverb).

About. The towns about Capua. What are you about? About a week. About a mile. What do you think about it? I am about to die.

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Amidst, or Amid, means 'in the middle of.' Amidst the storm they sang. Amid the breakers.


('Amid' is generally poetical.) Stood in the midst of them. Alone among crowds. Out from among the most degraded.








Around the ruined column.
Look round, or around (adverb).

What are you aiming at?
the appointed signal, he fired.
He ran at full speed.

bottom of a well.

him at his word.

Good at cricket.

Round the world.

What are you at?


He rose at sunrise. He was at supper. At the

Begin at the beginning.


At first;

At an end;

He valued it at fifty pounds. At school; at home; at sea; at Rome. (We generally say 'in London.') at last; at least; at most; at the most. at hand; at present; at once. At one; at variance; at odds; at all. At my request; at my expense. At leisure; at work. At sight; at your peril.

Twelve at a shot. At them!

is poetical, and means 'across.' Athwart the darkness. And clenched the ear-rings endlong and athwart with claws of griffin grasp (adverb).


Before my face. Before my time. Before Alex-
Death before dishonour. I never saw him
before (adverb). The day before (adverb). The
day before he was killed (conjunction).

Behind the rest of the procession. Behind the hill.
Behind Cicero in oratory.
Behind in everything


Below the surface of the earth. Below the rank
of squire.
The passengers went below (adverb).

What is written below (adverb).

Beneath my roof. This is altogether beneath you. ('Beneath' is more common in poetry, 'below' in prose.)

Beside. He sat beside the river.

Besides. Besides other reasons.

there (adverb).

And besides, he was not

(In old English, 'beside' is used for 'besides' as a preposition; as, 'Oxen and sheep, beside harts and roebucks.')

Between the

A space was

Between. The sea flows between England and her enemies.
War between Prussia and Austria.
Queen and the prisoner at the bar.
left between (adverb).

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By. Locative: The cottage by the brook.

wood. Stand by your friends.

To go beyond any

What is there

Hard by yon

'By' is joined with the agent of a passive verb—
It was not said by me.

Instrumental: To go by train.

To learn by heart.


name; by profession; by nature.

By no means.

By all you hold

Other phrases: Older by two years.
sacred. By myself. By the way. One by one.
By next year. By day. By night (either 1, in the
night; or 2, before night).
He lived hard by (adverb).

Concerning is originally a participle.


concerning this affair.

He sat by (adverb).

Tell me all you know

Down the river. Down the gulf of time.

'Down' is generally an adverb; as

To put down, hang down, sit down, &c.

Up and

down. Upside down. He is downright honest. Consols are down to ninety.


During the reign of Elizabeth.


Ere the day, three hundred horse had met.
the sun set (conjunction).


'Ere' is poetical. ('Ere' is a different word from e'er, and is not, like the latter, a contraction of ever.)


Except, Excepting, are originally the imperative and participle. No one was there, except the king and queen. escaped, excepting two of the crew.


The use of 'except' as a conjunction is only found in books in old English, but it is still allowable colloquially-Do not speak except I speak to you.


'But' is apparently used in the sense of 'except;' as-
None were present but the parties concerned.
but you?

It is however really an adverb; as

There were but three. Out of all the number but one returned. But for me you would have been


That peach is not for you. Which party are you
for? I will give it you for three shillings. I will
come for you (to fetch you). I will go for you
(instead of you). What have you got for breakfast?
He was angry with me for saying so.
speak for laughing.
As for you.

For my sake.
He could not

Pretty well for you.
wait for; long for.

know this for certain.

For all that.

Look for;

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For fear you should be disappointed.

But for you

I should have died. I am sorry for you.
'For' is sometimes omitted; as, 'Pick me a plum.'
For once. For ever. For the present.

most part.

For example. for word.

For three years. For years.

You dare not for your life.

For the

For miles.


For as much as you have promised.

('For,' preposition joined with 'much.' 'As,' relative
adverb. 'Much,' adjective, agreeing with 'reason'
understood. 'As,' relative pronoun.)

The use of 'for' as a conjunction is very frequent-
For what is glory, but the people's praise.

Cause: The brook will be swollen, for it rained last night.
Inference: It must have rained last night, for the brook
is swollen. (Whately.)

When prepositions are used as adverbs, there has been originally something omitted in the expression; as, 'He was left behind,' i. e. behind his companions.

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