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tion still more fully. Meanwhile, from what has been advanced, we conceive we are fully justified in asserting that "the undevout philosopher is mad;" and we sincerely rejoice that men of mind, and of learning, in every department of knowledge, now fully recognize the truth of the assertion, and all-with the eminent Galen of old-all acknowledge that reason is a source of theology.

THE VEGETABLE KINGDOM.-No. 2.

TOBACCO.

(Continued.)

The various tobacco-plants belong to the genus Nicotiana, which includes about thirty species. Of these, the most remarkable is the Nicotiana Tabacum, or Virginian tobacco, a native of the United States, but now generally cultivated throughout the world. It is an annual herbaceous plant, sometimes attaining the height of nine feet, and furnished with large pale green leaves, the lowest being about twenty inches in length. The flowers, which are of a delicate rose-colour, grow in clusters at the extremities of the stem and branches, and are succeeded by capsules, containing upwards of 1000 small brown seeds, so that the produce of a single plant is estimated at 35,000.

The Nicotiana Rustica, (common green tobacco) is likewise frequently grown, and is said to yield a milder product than the preceding. According to Parkinson, it was preferred by Sir W. Raleigh "to make good tobacco, which he knew so rightly to

cure.'

In Virginia, the seed is sown in beds about March or April. A month afterwards the young sprouts are planted out, and henceforward demand unremitting attention in weeding and removing superfluous shoots; but above all, in defending them against the ravages of the tobacco-worm, a horned insect, which frequently causes the destruction of an entire crop. When they have acquired eight or nine leaves, and are about to put forth a stem, the upper portion must be pinched off, in order to promote the development of foliage; and as soon as the edges of the leaves begin to fade, the plants are cut down, and after a short exposure to the sun carried to the curing-house, where they remain suspended for about five weeks. The leaves are then detached from the stalks, and made up into small bundles, which are heaped together for the purpose of undergoing a slight fermentation, previous to being packed in hogsheads for exportation. The three principal varieties of the herb that occur in commerce, are-the Virginian, distinguished by its deep brown colour, unctuous surface, and rank odour, which renders it unfit for cigars; the Maryland, of a paler colour and weaker flavour than the preceding;-and the Havannah, which is met with in dark brown leaves spotted with yellow, and characterized by an agreeable aroma that causes it to be so highly esteemed for smoking. Besides these, the Oronoko, Cuba, Carolina, Amersfoort, (from Holland) Manilla, and innumerable other kinds might be described, but it would only lead to tedious and uninteresting detail.

When the tobacco reaches the manufacturer, he commences by freeing it from damaged portions and all extraneous substances; he then waters it with a solution of sea-salt, which serves to moderate the fermentation that ensues, and afterwards removes the mid-rib from each leaf. Then, if smoking-tobacco is to be produced the leaves are moistened, compressed into a cake, and reduced to shreds by means of knife-edged chopping stamps. "Shag" is prepared from the darkest coloured leaves; "returns,' on the contrary, from those of a lighter tint. "Oronoko" and "Kanaster," are manufactured from Havannah tobacco, the former being cut into finer filaments than the latter. "Birds'-eye" acquires its peculiar appearance from the mid-rib being shredded with the leaf.

Roll or twist tobaccos, such as negro-head, pig-tail, Irish twist, &c., usually consist of cylindrical coils of rope manufactured from tobacco leaf, moistened, and subjected to great pressure; they are principally employed for chewing, though occasionally for smoking.

But of late years smokers have generally preferred inhaling "the precious stink" through the medium of cigars, which are now extensively manufactured in the metropolis. They are formed simply by enveloping a few fragments of tobacco in a portion of leaf, and securing the whole by means of a narrow slip rolled spirally around it. Sheroots resemble cigars, but are distinguished by their truncated extremities.

Snuffs are prepared by first fermenting the tobacco in heaps, and then grinding it to powder. Amongst the dry kinds, the chief are "Lundyfoot," "Welsh," and the "Scotch" and "Irish," which are formed for the most part from the mid-ribs. The moist snuffs, or rappees, on the other hand, are made almost entirely from the soft parts of the leaf; they may be divided into simple, mixed, and scented varieties.

Tobacco, in its various manufactured forms, is frequently adulterated to a great extent, as must be evident from the fact of its being sometimes ticketed at 2s. 6d. per lb., the duty alone exceeding 3s. That which is used for pipes is said to be often mixed with safflower, chopped cabbage, rhubarb, lettuce, dock leaves,

&c. These, however, are readily detected by the disagreeable odour they exhale when ignited, and likewise by burning with a black ash instead of a white one. Some dealers moisten the tobacco with a solution of saltpetre, which causes it not only to consume with greater rapidity, but also to retain a considerable amount of moisture. When this is the case, the inhalation of the nitric oxide that is continually given off must prove extremely injurious. The substances employed in the sophistication of snuff are, in like manner, chiefly derived from the vegetable kingdom; but lime, pearl-ash, sal-ammoniac, and other salts, are not unfrequently added, with the object, either of keeping it moist, or of increasing its pungency.

In addition to woody fibre, gum, colouring matter, and the other ordinary constituents of vegetable substances, tobacco contains two active principles, Nicotin and Nicotianin, both closely resembling one another, and both oily liquids possessing the most powerfully poisonous properties, a drop of the former being sufficient to kill a large dog. When the herb is submitted to destructive distillation, an empyreumatic oil passes over, which, in all probability, contains the two preceding principles, and is therefore exceedingly fatal to animal life. The Hottentots frequently make use of its virulent properties. 'As I was endeavouring," says Barrow, in his African Travels, "to set a snake at liberty, which was about two feet in length, of a blueish colour, and had coiled itself round the body of a lizard, one of the Hottentots took out with the point of a stick, from the short stem of his wooden tobacco-pipe, a small quantity of a thick black matter which he called tobacco-oil. This he applied to the mouth of the snake while darting out its tongue, as those creatures usually

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do when enraged. The effect of the application was instantaneous, almost as that of an electric shock. With a convulsed motion that was momentary, the snake half untwisted itself, and never stirred more; and the muscles were so contracted, that the whole animal felt hard and rigid, as if dried in the sun."

It has been suggested that this empyreumatic oil is "the leperous distilment" referred to in the following passage from Hamlet, (Act 1, Scene 5,) and that this opinion is correct appears to be borne out by the fact, that one of the old names of tobacco was "Henbane of Peru;" and it is probable that in the word "hebenon" the letters have been erroneously transposed, and that it should have been written henebon, i. e. henbane :

-"Sleeping within mine orchard,

My custom always of the afternoon,
Upon my secure hour thy uncle stole,
With juice of cursed hebenon in a vial,
And in the porches of my ear did pour
The leperous distilment."

Now, with reference to the action of tobacco on the animal economy, we have not the slightest intention of treating on its application as a remedy in the hands of the physician; yet, for the sake of humanity, we consider it necessary to enumerate the the symptoms it induces when taken in poisonous doses, and also briefly to point out the proper method to be pursued in such cases of emergency.

The more prominent effects, then, occasioned by the ingestion of large quantities of the herb are-a most distressing sensation of sinking at the pit of the stomach, nausea, vomiting, extreme debility and languor, tremors throughout the whole of the body, intense anxiety, fluttering pulse, faintness, laborious respiration, a death-like pallor of the countenance, cold and clammy sweats, convulsions, palsy, and insensibility, which gradually merges into death. Amongst the numerous cases on record in which it has proved fatal, not the least melancholy is that of the celebrated French wit, Santeuil, "who," says Orfila, "experienced vomitings and horrible pains, amidst which he expired, in consequence of having drunk a glass of wine, into which had been put some Spanish snuff" (Toxicol. Gén.). The first object to be fulfilled, when these symptoms supervene, is to free the stomach from the deleterious substance. This may be effected by emetics, amongst which the best and readiest, perhaps, is a good desert-spoonful of flour of mustard, mixed with a table-spoonful of salt, in half a tumbler of water. Vegetable astringents, such as a decoction of oak-bark, or an infusion of green tea, have been recommended as chemical antidotes, and may be exhibited after the occurrence of free emesis. Brandy, and other stimulants, must likewise be employed for the purpose of counteracting the sedative influence

of the drug. Since it causes death chiefly by paralyzing the heart, it has been proposed by some authors to practise acupuncture (the introduction of needles) on the viscus, as a means of rousing it to renewed action! We are not aware that this suggestion, which, of course, is not intended for popular employment, has ever been carried into effect; it is certainly fitted only for the most desperate cases. Still the operation cannot be so formidable as is generally supposed, for it has been experimentally shown by some French practitioners that needles may be thrust into the most vital organs, without the occurrence of any serious result. M. Brettoneau, for instance, states that he has passed them in all directions through the brain, heart, lungs, and stomach of young puppies, without any bad effect; and Dr. Caraco has even succeeded in resuscitating drowned kittens by introducing a needle into the heart, and considers that it would prove equally successful in similar cases occurring in the human subject.

The ill effects, which we have attempted to describe above, result from the influence of tobacco, in whatever manner it is applied to the system. Mr. Howison, in his " Mr. Howison, in his "Foreign Scenes," has given an excellent account of the injurious action even of its emanations, which seems to have thrown him into a state of trance. It occurred in the cabin of a schooner, where Mr. Howison was to pass the night. On his entry he experienced a feeling of suffocation, but immediately went to bed; soon afterwards he was harrassed by wild and frightful dreams, and suddenly awoke about midnight, bathed in a cold dew, and totally unable to speak or move; however, he retained his senses and recollection, only he could not make the slightest bodily effort. The watch on deck struck four bells, and he counted them, though he did not hear the beats, but received the vibrations through his body. A seaman then entered the cabin, and he tried in vain to attract his attention. Soon afterwards a sky-light was broken, and he saw the fragments falling upon the floor, so that he could not have been dreaming. He felt not the slightest uneasiness, but just as if the principle of life had departed from his frame; at length he became totally insensible, until the increased rolling of the ship awakened him from his trance, and he contrived to get on deck. His memory was totally lost for about a quarter of an hour; he knew that he was in a ship, and nothing more. Whilst in this state he saw a man drawing water from the sea in buckets, and be requested him to pour one on his head; the man did so, and all his faculties were instantly restored, and he acquired a most vivid recollection of ideas and events which appear to have passed through his mind during the time of his supposed insensibility. This singular derangement arose from the inhalation of the fumes of tobacco, for the cabin, as well as the whole ship, was stowed full of packages of this substance. When artisans first commence their labours at the tobacco manufactories, they usually suffer

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