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forced to do anything that offers-make mortar, sweep the streets, saw wood, take up the hod, dig ditches, and the like.

But such occupations are very precarious. There is not always work to do of this character. There are rainy days, snowy days and days of frost, but he and his family must eat on these days as well as others, and he either goes in debt or endeavors to live by his wits. He engages in unlawful practices or associates with idlers, or hangs around drinking places, and the station-house, the jail, the penitentiary and the gallows close his history. What is the remedy? Law? Do not wait for a law. Let every father who reads this determine at once to use all the authority he has, if he designs to make a mechanic of his son, in compelling that son to become as much a master of his calling as can possibly be done by the time he arrives at the age of twenty-one years, and if not perfect in his business then pay him as liberal wages as circumstances will allow to induce him to remain until he is master of his calling; the result will be that employers will feel a greater confidence that work will be well done, and with this will come higher wages, a more liberal remuneration and more work; for many a man is prevented from making improvements or having repairs done because of the almost utter impossibility of having them. done honestly and well. Thus it is that the great mass of mechanics are doomed to poverty for life; are doomed to live from hand to mouth; must live on each day's labor and without that labor must stint or cheat or hunger. On the other hand, go to any first-rate workman in any branch any day in the year in a large city like New York, and you will never fail to find him "forehanded." He always has work to do and you are compelled to wait your turn."

P. N. HOPPIN.

CONTROLLING TEMPER.

Fools, lunarians, the weak-minded and the ignorant are irascible, impatient, and of ungovernable temper; great hearts and wise are calm, forgiving and serene.

The most imperturbable and the ablest disputer of his age was the Scotchman, Henderson. When a glass of water was thrown in his face by the ungovernable rage into which an antagonist had allowed himself to be thrown by the anticipation of inevitable defeat, the Scotchman calmly wiped his dripping cheeks and remarked, with a

smile: "That is a diversion; let us proceed with the argument." It is said of one of the ablest men of the last century, that, having completed the manuscript of a work which he had been preparing for several years, he left his room for a few moments to find, on returning, that a favorite little dog had, in his absence, turned over the candle, and reduced his writings to ashes. On observing it, he exclaimed: "Oh! Diamond, little dost thou know the injury thou hast done," and immediately set about the reparation of the damages.

Philip the Second, after having sat up to a late hour in the night to complete some important state papers, waked up one of his drowsy secretaries, who was so flurried at this breach of duty, that he dashed the contents of the inkstand over the manuscript, instead of the sand box. "It would have been better to have used the sand," was royalty's remark, on sitting down to the reproduction of the document.

Washington, when high in command, provoked a man to knock him down. The next day he sent for the person to appear at his headquarters and asked his pardon! For in reviewing the incidents of the case, he found that he was himself at fault. A magnanimity only possible to a truly great mind; but it is a magnanimity, a self-control, a mastery of temper which it is a nobility to strive for.

JAMES HARRISON, M.D.

OUR DAUGHTERS.

As this country grows older, the necessity increases of each individual being able to earn a living. Hitherto, we could afford, in a measure, to allow our sons to grow up without the knowledge of any profession or trade, as there were other avenues for employment; but already has it become important, in cities and large towns, that the daughters of a family should be able to earn something for the general assistance of the household. Some give lessons in music, others teach school, most, too many, are driven to the heart-crushing, healthdestroying and life-wasting stitch, stitch, stitch.

There are evidences of some repugnance against putting our daughters in public places in shops, stores and the like; and, as for making nurses and chambermaids and waiters and cooks of them, it is not to be thought of, yet awhile.

But we must come to it at last. Other nations will cease to be able to supply us with hewers of wood and drawers of water, with carriage drivers and menials for the household. The older nations fill these

stations with their own poor; there is no sufficient reason why we should not do the same.

That we should submit that our children should be nursed in their earlier years by those of a different religion can only be accounted for in the existence of a false pride. The true wisdom of any denomination of Christians is in giving the instruction and care of their children to those of a like faith with themselves.

In France, three-fifths of the females grown are under the necessity of doing something towards earning a livelihood. It is very certain that the consciousness of not being able to make a support casts many a girl on the street, compels others to marriages of policy, and takes from all that independence of feeling, of character, and that selfreliance, which, of themselves, elevate, energize and ennoble. Every year it is becoming less and less possible, even for the half of our daughters, to marry men who can afford that they should do nothing towards earning a dollar.

Hence it is true, a wise and a high humanity, to study out ways and means by which young girls can be placed in circumstances by which they can sustain themselves-something to fall back upon, in case of being thrown on their own resources, by orphanage, widowhood, or unfortunate marriages.

If it is true that the man who rears a son without having him taught the means of earning a living, rears that child to large chances for the penitentiary and the gallows, it is not the less true, and is becoming daily more so, that the daughter who is ushered into womanhood without the knowledge and ability to earn a dollar by honorable means, is raised to the chances of an early death, or degradation worse than death itself. JANE ISADOR BLAIR.

PROPER TRAINING OF THE NERVES.

Delsarte said, drop all useless contractions before you try to express or act. This thought, planned for dramatic training, has been found to be invaluable to all arts, all living. How and why shall be explained.

As we watch the motion of an animal, we shall see that there is no unnecessary use of force. Each muscle contracts just enough to accomplish the action, then instantly drops into relaxation; each nerve directs its relative muscles with perfect adjustment. In man it is not so. A muscle rarely contracts just enough for its action,

but overcontracts, with bad results of different degrees; the nerves directing the action, instead of giving just the help needed, strain in doing what the lightest touch should have accomplished. In consequence of this misuse, we have yearly many cases of nervous exhaustion and ills too numerous to name.

If we should make the tension of a sewing-machine far too great, and then set our machine running at a rapid rate, we should expect it to break. But we do a similar thing when we lead a life of high pressure without using economy of our nerves and muscular forces. We must learn to drop instantly into a state of rest in order to adapt ourselves successfully to the advantages in which we live; in order to make them our servants instead of our masters. One often sees an overworked woman drop asleep for a few minutes, and wake temporarily refreshed. Experience teaches this to many, but all can learn it and much more. For all can learn not only to drop instantly into a state of rest, but to carry their work by such natural principles of low pressure that there will be less tension to drop.

The first step toward this state of balance (action and reaction being so nicely adjusted) is to learn to rest more fully when under good conditions. "A body cannot be perfectly active until he has the power to be perfectly passive." Perfectly passive describes a full state of rest, in which body and mind lay down every occupation and are open to replenishing influences. No muscular contraction must be retained. We must lay down all worry, refrain from nourishing any personal wound or other burden, and be as free as flower and tree, while we rest from everything which belongs to our acting life.

The first technical direction we are given for accomplishing this end is to cultivate a sense of our own weight. An animal at rest gives up its full weight to the ground. Every atom in its body is let down to its full capacity. Contrast this with man's manner of resting. Man often holds himself up in every possible way while yet lying down. We can know this only by examination of ourselves and others. And when the appreciation of what weight is to the body has started, we can practice during quiet exercise, as in walking, sewing, or writing. In these cases one tries to let the parts of the body not in use express their greatest weight.

Weight and contraction are directly opposed, and physicians say half the ills are different forms of contraction. Letting down the full weight of the body, then, has a preventive influence. The next step

toward liberty from nervous disorders is to cultivate a habit of slow breathing. The average woman draws twenty breaths during a minute, when she should draw but ten or twelve. A breath drawn slowly will be a full, deep breath, and, combined with the practice of "weight" and dropping of contraction, will open the system to a freer action in every way. After a general application has been made of these directions, help will be found by making them more particular.

Contract the hand, slowly drawing in the fingers until they are firmly clenched, then slowly relax until the hand is loose and wholly opened. This may be done also with the toes, the eyes, the lips. For the purpose of increasing your sense of weight, think of your arm as very heavy, and, when the thought has become convincing, lift the arm slowly and very quietly from the shoulder, letting it drop as an apple drops from a tree-do not throw it down. The slow dropping of the head upon the chest is an exercise which can be safely practiced. if care is taken to avoid all jerking. The practice of these exercises make one sensitive to the non-practice of the principles which they illustrate, besides having themselves a restful and curative influence. They are curative because they open the system, giving it increased power to assimilate food and oxygen.

Woman is more prone than man to setting herself almost limitless tasks. Nature does not ask apple trees to bloom in January; but women ask a thing equally disorderly when they require of themselves nineteen or twenty hours of labor out of the twenty-four. A woman is, in a way, idolatrous when she says to herself, “Oh, I can do this, I shall not break down," etc., when she should say, "I must stop here, or I cannot wisely do the work of to-morrow." Could we make it an unconscious habit to use a little less power each day than we have accumulated, we should save days and nights of accumulated trouble.

A life in which the action and reactions are balanced is always at lower pressure, and thus better adjusted for its work and its rest. Nature can do fine work with us, then, while we sleep-preparing us involuntarily to fall in line with her laws. The tendency of this sort of living to the minds of women is freeing. Little things look their true size. The focus is changed, and in great trials we find a reserve force ready to help us. We are more in league with big things. Because we have a habit of mental and physical openness we can open to the inflow of strength in proportion to our need.

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