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Another important result of the inquiries of the Education Committee, over which Mr. Brougham presided, was the appointment of a Commission by 'the Crown, to inquire into the management of charitable endowments. The commissioners are twenty in number, ten of them stipendiary, and are divided into boards, each board, by examinations on the spot, investigating the charities of a parish, district or corporation. The universities and public schools, charities having special visiters or officers appointed by the founders, and charities supported principally by voluntary subscriptions, are exempt from the inquiries of the commissioners. Their labours are annually reported to parliament, and a voluminous mass of details have accumulated proceedings have been instituted in the Court of Chancery against some of the grosser cases of abuse: but though the revenue appertaining to the poor has been ascertained to be of immense amount, no legislative measure has yet been introduced to improve its future administration. The powers of the commissioners, unless further continued, expire at the end of the next session of parliament.

A. D. 1819. Mr. Robert Owen attracts atten→ tion by the zeal with which he endeavours to promote his Rational System of Society. The leading idea of this gentleman is, that the character of man is not formed by him but for him, either by natural organization or the external circumstances to which he has been subjected from birth. Hence, Mr. Owen concludes, that by improving the circum

stances, which surround an individual in his early years, the individual himself may be improved, and in place of an inferior may be made a very superior being. In this doctrine there is much truth, and the errors probably of Mr. Owen do not consist sò much in its adoption as in the measures he has suggested for reducing it to practice. The influence of early impressions, in other words of education, on the formation of character, has never been denied ; men have only differed about the best mode of applying the principle. It has been well observed, "That at least all differences which exist between classes or bodies of men is the effect of education; it is the cause of difference between a Turk and an Englishman, the wildest savage, and an European. Whatever is made of any class of men, we may then be sure is possible to be made of the whole human race. What a field for exertion! what a prize to be won!"-Sup. Ency. Brit., art. Education.

A. D. 1820. On the 28th of June, Mr. Brougham, in an elaborate address to the House of Commons, comprising a vast mass of information relative to the state of education in England, unfolds his plan of popular instruction. The leading feature of this project was to render national education a part of, and subordinate to the national ecclesiastical establishment. Parochial schools were to be established, and partly maintained by a school-rate, levied on housekeepers, and partly by a trifling weekly payment by the scholars. The schoolmaster

to be a member of the church of England, to be chosen by the school-rate payers, subject to the approval of the parson, who also was to be authorized to enter the school at all times and examine the children. The expense of erecting schools, it was estimated, would amount to half a million, and the annual charge of their maintenance to 150,000l. Mr. Brougham's bill was read a first time, July 11th, and not afterwards proceeded in.

A. D. 1823. A sum of money, voted by parliament, to effect the removal of a number of persons from the south of Ireland to the Cape of Good Hope and to Upper Canada. It is intended merely as an experiment to try the practicability of emigration as a mean of relief for the unemployed poor. The emigration to the Cape consisted of artisans and labourers, with their families, to the number of about 350, under the direction of Mr. Ingram. The emigration to Upper Canada consisted of 586 persons, under the direction of Mr. Robinson. The emigrants to America were conveyed to the Bathurst district, in Canada, where portions of uncleared land were allotted to the heads of families, implements of husbandry and building furnished, and supplies of provisions allowed, until they could raise subsistence from the soil. The success of the first experiment led to a second grant from parliament in 1825, and 2024 of the destitute Irish were conveyed to the Newcastle district in Upper Canada. sequent accounts, received from Messrs. Robinson,

Richards, and Captain Basil Hall, spoke favourably of the success of these attempts at colonization.

A. D. 1823. The London Mechanics' Institution established under the auspices of Dr. Birkbeck and others, principally for the diffusion, by lectures, the formation of a library and reading-rooms of those branches of science most appropriate to the avocations ofthe industrious classes. Institutions on similar principles had previously existed at Birmingham and in Scotland, but the example of the metropolis led to their establishment in all the chief towns of the kingdom.

A. D. 1824. This and the following year formed an important period of legislation with respect to the working classes; all the old statutes, from the 33d Edward I., amounting to upwards of thirty, relative to combinations of workmen, were repealed, so far as they relate to combinations to fix the rate of wages, or hours of work, or the mode of conducting any business or manufacture. The repeal of these acts has swept out of the statute-book nearly the last remnants of interference with the rights of operative industry. The injustice had long been glaring of allowing masters to fix, in concert, the price of their commodities, and interdicting to workmen an equal liberty in fixing the price of their labour. But the liberty guaranteed by the law must be exercised without abridging the liberty of others. Workmen may voluntarily unite to set what price they think fit on their labour, and frame what regulations they please for their own observance; but they are

liable, by 6 Geo. IV. c. 129, to punishment, if by violence, threats, molesting, or obstruction, they endeavour to force any workman to leave his employer or to prevent him from being employed; or to belong to any club, or to contribute to any fund; or to alter the mode of carrying on any manufacture; or to limit the number of apprentices.

The laws were also repealed by 4 Geo. IV. c. 97, which impose penalties on persons who seduce artificers engaged in the cotton, linen, woollen, and other manufactures, to settle in foreign countries. These enactments were framed with the view of preventing the communication of our inventions and discoveries to other nations. Experience proved that such precautions were futile or pernicious.

A. D. 1827. A Society established for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge, consisting chiefly of public characters of eminence, and individuals distinguished by their literary and scientific attainments. The proceedings of the society were ushered in by A Discourse of the Objects, Advantages, and Pleasures of Science, ascribed to Mr. Brougham. In the announcement of the society it is stated, that the object of the association is strictly limited to "the imparting useful information to all classes of the community, particularly to such as are unable to avail themselves of experienced teachers, or may prefer learning by themselves." The plan proposed for the attainment of this end is, the periodical publication, under the sanction of a superintending committee, of treatises on science, meta

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