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heretical pravity, called Joan Bocher, or Joan of CHA P. Kent, who was fo pertinacious, that the commiffioners could make no impreffion upon her. Her doctrine was, "That Chrift was not truly "incarnate of the virgin, whofe flefh, being "the outward man, was finfully begotten and "born in fin; and confequently, he could take none of it: But the word, by the confent of "the inward man of the virgin, was made. "flefh"." This opinion, it would feem, is not orthodox; and there was a neceffity for delivering the woman to the flames for maintaining it. But the young king, though in fuch tender years, had more fenfe than all his counfellors and preceptors; and he long refused to fign the warrant for her execution. Cranmer was employed to perfuade him to compliance; and he faid, that there was a great difference between errors in other points of divinity, and those which were in direct contradiction on the Apoftles creed: These latter were impieties against God, which the prince, being God's deputy, ought to reprefs; in like manner, as inferior magiftrates were bound to punish offences against the king's perfon. Edward, overcome by importunity, at laft fubmitted, though with tears in his eyes, and he told Cranmer, that, if any wrong were done, the guilt fhould lie entirely on his head. The primate, after making a new effort to reclaim the woman from her errors, and finding her obstinate against all his arguments,

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Burnet, vol. ii. coll. 35. Strype's Mem. Cranm. p. 181.

XXXIV. 1549.

CHAP. at laft committed her to the flames. Some time after, a Dutchman, called Van Paris, accused of the herefy, which has received the name of Arianifm, was condemned to the fame punishment. He fuffered with fo much fatisfaction, that he hugged and careffed the faggots, that were confuming him; a fpecies of frenzy, of which there is more than one inftance among the martyrs of that age


THESE rigorous methods of proceeding foon brought the whole nation to a conformity, feeming or real, with the new doctrine and the new liturgy. The lady Mary alone continued to adhere to the mafs, and refufed to admit the eftablifhed modes of worship. When preffed and menaced on this head, fhe applied to the emperor; who, ufing his intereft with Sir Philip Hobby, the English ambaffador, procured her a temporary connivance from the council "3.



Burnet, vol. ii p. 112. Strype's Mem. Cranm. p. 181.
Heylin, p. 102.


Difcontents of the people-Iufurrections-Conduct of the war with Scotland-with France-Factions in the council-Confpiracy against Somerset-Somerset refigns the protectorship-A parliament-Peace with France and Scotland - Boulogne furrendered-Perfecution of Gardiner-Varwic created duke of Northumberland -His ambition-Trial of Somerfet-His executionA Parliament-A new parliament-Succeffion changed -The king's fickness and death.

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1549. Discontents

of the peo

THERE HERE is no abufe fo great, in civil fociety, CHA P. as not to be attended with a variety of beneficial confequences; and in the beginnings of reformation, the lofs of these advantages is always felt very fenfibly, while the benefit, refulting from ple. the change, is the flow effect of time, and is feldom perceived by the bulk of a nation. Scarce any inftitution can be imagined less favorable, in the main, to the interefts of mankind than that of monks and friars; yet was it followed by many good effects, which, having ceafed by the fuppreffion of monafteries, were much regretted by the people of England. The monks, always refiding in their convents, in the centre of their eftates, fpent their money in the provinces and among their tenants, afforded a ready market for commodities, were a fure refource to the poor


CHAP. and indigent; and though their hofpitality and charity gave but too much encouragement to 1549. idlenefs, and prevented the increase of public riches, yet did it provide, to many, a relief from the extreme preffures of want and neceffity. It is alfo obfervable, that, as the friars were limited, by the rules of their inftitution, to a certain mode of living, they had not equal motives for extortion with other men; and they were acknowledged to have been in England, as they ftill are in Roman catholic countries, the best and most indulgent landlords. The abbots and priors were permitted to give leafes at an under-value, and to receive, in return, a large prefent from the tenant; in the fame manner as is ftill practifed by the bishops and colleges. But when the abbeylands were distributed among the principal nobility and courtiers, they fell under a different management: The rents of farms were raised, while the tenants found not the fame facility in difpofing of the produce; the money was often spent in the capital; and the farmers, living at a diftance, were exposed to oppreffion from their new mafters, or to the still greater rapacity of the stewards.

THESE grievances of the common people were at that time heightened by other caufes. The arts of manufacture were much more advanced in other European countries than in England; and even in England thefe arts had made greater progress than the knowledge of agriculture; a profeffion, which, of all mechanical employments, requires the most reflection and experience. A

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great demand arose for wool both abroad and at cHA P. home Pafturage was found more profitable than unfkilful tillage: Whole eftates were laid waste by enclosures: The tenants regarded as a useless burden, were expelled their habitations: Even the cottagers, deprived of the commons, which they formerly fed their cattle, were reduced to misery And a decay of people, as well as a diminution of the former plenty, was remarked in the kingdom. This grievance was now of an old date; and Sir Thomas More, alluding to it, obferves in his Utopia, that a fheep had become in England a more ravenous animal than a lion or wolf, and devoured whole villages cities, and provinces.

THE general increase also of gold and filver in Europe, after the discovery of the Weft Indies, had a tendency to inflame these complaints. The growing demand in the more commercial countries, had heightened every where the price of commodities, which could easily be tranfported thither; but in England, the labor of men, who could not so easily change their habitation, ftill remained nearly at the ancient rates; and the poor complained that they could no longer gain a fubfiftence by their induftry. It was by an addition alone of toil and application they were enabled to procure a maintenance; and though this increase of industry was at laft the effect of the prefent fituation, and an effect beneficial to

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