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Acknowledgments

The Bureau of Labor Statistics produced the Handbook under the general guidance and direction of Neal H. Rosenthal, Associate Commissioner for Employment Projections, and Mike Pilot, Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook. Chester C. Levine and Jon Q. Sargent, Managers of Occupational Outlook Studies, provided planning and day-to-day direction.

Supervisors overseeing the research and preparation of material were Theresa Cosca, Mark Mittelhauser, Kristina Shelley, and Carolyn Veneri. Occupational analysts who contributed material were Hall Dillon, Arlene Dohm, Eric B. Figueroa, Chad M. Fleetwood, Jeffrey C. Gruenert, Jonathan Kelinson, R. Sean Kirby, T. Alan Lacey, Kevin M. McCarron, Andrew J. Nelson, Erik A. Savisaar, Terry Schau, Jill Silver, Gary Steinberg, Tiffany T. Stringer, and Patricia A. Tate.

Word processing support was provided by Beverly A. Williams. Cover and other art work were designed by Keith Tapscott.

Note Many trade associations, professional societies, unions, industrial organizations, and government agencies provide career information that is valuable to counselors and jobseekers. For the convenience of Handbook users, some of these organizations and, in some cases, their Internet addresses are listed at the end of each occupational statement. Although these references were carefully compiled, the Bureau of Labor Statistics has neither authority nor facilities for investigating the organizations or the information or publications that may be sent in response to a request and cannot guarantee the accuracy of such information. The listing of an organization, therefore, does not constitute in any way an endorsement or recommendation by the Bureau either of the organization and its activities or of the information it may supply. Each organization has sole responsibility for whatever information it may issue.

The Handbook describes the job outlook over a projected 10year period for occupations across the Nation; consequently, shortterm labor market fluctuations and regional differences in job outlook generally are not discussed. Similarly, the Handbook provides a general, composite description of jobs and cannot be expected to reflect work situations in specific establishments or localities. The Handbook, therefore, is not intended and should not be used as a guide for determining wages, hours, the right of a particular union to represent workers, appropriate bargaining units, or formal job evaluation systems. Nor should earnings data in the Handbook be used to compute future loss of earnings in adjudication proceedings involving work injuries or accidental deaths.

Material in this publication is in the public domain and, with appropriate credit, may be reproduced without permission. Comments about the contents of this publication and suggestions for improving it are welcome. Please address them to Chief, Division of Occupational Outlook, Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Washington, DC 20212. Phone: (202) 691-5700. Fax: (202) 691-5745. E-mail: oohinfo@bls.gov. Additional information is available on the Internet: http://stats.bls.gov/ocohome.htm.

Photograph Credits

The Bureau of Labor Statistics wishes to express its appreciation for the cooperation and assistance of the many government and private sources listed below—that either contributed photographs or made their facilities available to photographers working under contract to the U.S. Department of Labor. Photographs may not be free of every possible safety or health hazard. Depiction of company or trade name in no way constitutes endorsement by the Department of Labor.

Adas Israel Congregation, Washington, DC; Air Traffic Controllers, Dulles International Airport; Allen-Mitchell & Company Machine Shop, Washington, DC; Amaco Refinery, Yorktown, VA; American Association of Retired Persons, Legal Counsel for the Elderly, Washington, DC; American University, including Washington College of Law, Washington, DC; Amtrak, Washington, DC; Animal Disease Center of the State of Illinois, Galesburg, IL; Appalachian Spring; Association of Flight Attendants; Audiophone, Washington, DC; Backyard Boat, Alexandria, VA; Baltimore Specialty Steels, Baltimore, MD; Baltimore Homesteading Program; Behnke Nurseries, Inc., Beltsville, MD; Black Magic Film Company; Brown Honda; Carlotta Joyner and Staff, U.S. General Accounting Office; Children's Hospital, Washington, DC; City Paper, Washington, DC; Columbia Gardens Memorials, Arlington, VA; Craddock-Terry, Farmville, Virginia Plant; Cultural Affairs Program, Arlington, VA; Cumberland Memorial Hospital, Cumberland, MD; Dance Place, Washington, DC; D.C. Vending Company, Washington, DC; Detective Agency, Washington, DC; District Cable of Washington, DC; Dixon's Pest Control Service; D.L. Boyd, Hyattsville, MD; Dr. Bruce L. Lazerow, Sears Optical, White Oak, MD; Dr. David Walls-Kaufman, Capitol Hill Chiropractic, Washington, DC; Dr. Gerald Lipps, D.D.S., Rockville, MD; Fannie Mae; Fire Department of District of Columbia; George Meany Labor Studies Center and Archives, Silver Spring, MD; George Washington University Hospital, Washington, DC; Giant Food Stores, Silver Spring, MD; H. & H. Bindery, Hyattsville, MD; Hospice of Washington, DC; Hurly Company; Industrial Photo, Silver Spring, MD; Iona House for Senior Citizens, Washington, DC; Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD; Jolles Brothers, Inc., Beltsville, MD; Joseph Passonneau, F.A.I.A., A.S.C.E.; Kath Keler; Kevin Hassett, State Farm Insurance, Washington, DC; Knox Veterinary Clinic, Galesburg, IL; Kop-Flex, Inc., Baltimore, MD; La Pierre and Company Design Studio, Alexandria, VA; Legg, Mason, Walker, Wood, Inc.; Litton Systems, Inc., Amecom Division, College Park, MD; Mar, Inc., Naval Engineering Group, Rockville, MD; Marc Rubenstein, Advanced Tool and Machine Service, Washington, DC; Martek Biosciences Corporation, Inc., Columbia, MD; Marriott Corporation; Martha Tabor, Working Images Photographs; Maryann Honakar, D.D.S.; Maryland Semiconductor, Inc., Clarksburg, MD; Maryland State Department of Forestry; Medical Records Corporation, Vienna, VA; Mt. Ranier Police Department, Mt. Ranier, MD; National Weather Service Forecast Office, Washington, DC; National Zoological Park, Washington, DC; Norfolk Naval Base, Norfolk, VA; Northwestern Illinois Research and Demonstration Center, University of Illinois at Champaign-Urbana; Pastor Laureen E. Smith, Western Presbyterian Church, Washington, DC; Population Reference Bureau, Inc., Washington, DC; President's Committee on Employment of People With Disabilities; Providence Opticians, Washington, DC; Rapp Funeral Home, Silver Spring, MD; Red Cross Blood Bank, Baltimore, MD; Riggs National Bank, Dupont Circle Branch, Washington, DC; Robert Schwartz Associates, Architects; Rock Terrace High School, Montgomery County, MD; Sandy Springs Friends School, Sandy Springs, MD; Seely Pine Furniture, Berkeley Springs, WV; Sheraton Washington Hotel, Washington, DC; Southern States Cooperative, Lothian, MD; State Farm Insurance Company, Frederick, MD; St. Martin's Catholic Church, Washington, DC; Suburban Dental Laboratories, Rockville, MD; Theodolphus Brooks Upholstery, Washington, DC; Thrifty Rental Cars; TJ's Auto Body Repair Shop, Washington, DC; Travel Bound, Fairfax, VA; United Airlines, Dulles International Airport Terminal; University of Delaware, Lewes, DE; University of Maryland, Chemical Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Materials Engineering, Mathematics, and Nuclear Engineering Departments; U.S. Air Force, Andrews Air Force Base, MD; U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Fort Belvoir, VA; U.S. Census Bureau, Suitland, MD; U.S. Coast Guard, Annapolis, MD; U.S. Customs Officers, Dulles International Airport; US Elevator; U.S. Office of Personnel Management; U.S. Post Office, Galesburg, IL; Vandy L. Jamison, Jr., Attorney; Violin House of Weaver, Bethesda, MD; Walter Reed Army Hospital, Washington, DC; Washington Area Metropolitan Transit Authority; Washington Gas Company, Washington, DC; Washington Home, Washington, DC; Washington Times; Wendy Bayard, M.S.W., National Rehabilitation Hospital, Washington, DC; WETA, Alexandria, VA; William Maquire, USDA Agricultural Research Station, Beltsville, MD; WMATA, Washington, DC; Woodley House, Washington, DC; Wyatt Company, Washington, DC; Zsuzsi Wolf Jewelry, Alexandria, VA.

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80

83

164

164
341 342 343 345 346

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200 202 203 205 207 209 210 213 214

Health assessment and treating
Dietitians and nutritionists
Occupational therapists
Pharmacists .........
Physical therapists ....
Physician assistants
Recreational therapists
Registered nurses ........
Respiratory therapists.
Speech-language pathologists and audiologists ..........
Health technologists and technicians
Cardiovascular technologists and technicians ....
Clinical laboratory technologists and technicians
Dental hygienists ........
Electroneurodiagnostic technologists
Emergency medical technicians and paramedics
Health information technicians ......
Licensed practical nurses ....
Nuclear medicine technologists
Opticians, dispensing .........
Pharmacy technicians and assistants.
Radiologic technologists
Surgical technologists .....

Adjusters, investigators, and collectors

285 Bank tellers .............

289 Communications equipment operators

291 Computer operators .....

293 Court reporters, medical transcriptionists, and stenographers .... 295 Information clerks ........

297 Hotel, motel, and resort desk clerks.

299 Interviewing and new accounts clerks

300 Receptionists .....

300 Reservation and transportation ticket agents and travel clerks ....

301 Loan clerks and credit authorizers, checkers, and clerks .........

302 Mail clerks and messengers

304 Material recording, scheduling, dispatching, and distributing occupations

306 Dispatchers

307 Shipping, receiving, and traffic clerks

309 Stock clerks

310 Office and administrative support supervisors and managers ....

310 Office clerks, general ..........

312 Postal clerks and mail carriers ..........

313 Records processing occupations

315 Billing clerks and billing machine operators

317 Bookkeeping, accounting, and auditing clerks

318 Brokerage clerks and statement clerks ......

319 File clerks .......

320 Human resources clerks, except payroll and timekeeping 320 Library assistants and bookmobile drivers

321 Order clerks ............

322 Payroll and timekeeping clerks

323 Secretaries

324 Teacher assistants

326 Word processors, typists, and data entry keyers

328

....

217 218 220 222 223 225 227 228 229 231 233 234

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Service

Visual arts and design
Designers ............
Photographers and camera operators
Visual artists .....

Cleaning, buildings, and grounds service
Janitors and cleaners and institutional cleaning supervisors ..... 330
Landscaping, groundskeeping, nursery, greenhouse,
and lawn service occupations .....

331 Pest controllers ....

334

246 249 251

Performing arts
Actors, directors, and producers .....
Dancers and choreographers .........
Musicians, singers, and related workers

Food preparation and beverage service Chefs, cooks, and other kitchen workers .......... Food and beverage service occupations .......

336 338

254 256 258

Marketing and Sales

Health service
Dental assistants ..........
Medical assistants
Nursing and psychiatric aides ....
Occupational therapy assistants and aides .........
Physical therapist assistants and aides

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