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mordial structures were said to do when I studied what little I know of biology and botany. The Law has a dozen branches, Medicine or general Physics has a score or two, and the clerical profession, including teaching in its many forms, though less divided in material, is so separated by the division into sects that its branches are numerous. Yours is one of the medical branches, and perhaps the most special of all, yet into how many of the hidden chambers of Nature does it lead each one of you who pursues it with an open mind! In another point the learned professions were distinguished from the manual and mechanic employments, the mode of payment. Professional toil is paid nowadays often by salaries; but its compensation in general is called not wages but fees, or, in Latin, an honorarium. Now what I have noticed of late years, as considerably unlike the order of things under which we septuagenarians grew up, is this, a prodigious thirst for the rewards of professional service, and a grading of these by what the client or patient can pay, rather than by what the service is intrinsically worth. Perhaps the most awful examples of this over-valuation of professional service are found in the legal profession, although expert medical and surgical skill does sometimes claim exorbitant reward. So the first false idol I shall specify is this unchecked pursuit of riches, which has become the chief moral malady of our age and country, leading to many other moral ailments, such as now attract general attention. The laborer is worthy of his hire, and so is the professional man worthy of a good compensation. But his business in life is not merely to get rich, but so to practise what he has learned that he may leave the world better than he found it. Voluntary poverty was regarded, in the early centuries of Christianity, as one of the higher virtues; to

day it is apt to be stigmatized as folly. But that degree of opulence only which the mass of our fellow-men obtain is the safest, and the most conducive to the best practice of any profession. An old judge in New Hampshire used to say that "no young man could safely practise law unless he had an independent fortune." He was thinking of the temptations to dishonesty and fraud, or the protection of those evils, which beset the path of the young practitioner. Similar temptations lie in wait for the medical man, the clergyman, the civil engineer, the mining engineer, and so on; in fact, for all the professions except yours, which seems to me to be fairly free from these stumbling blocks in the path of youth. If so, you can hear with patience what I have to say by way of criticism of the other profe3sions; for it is usually pleasant to hear others censured for what we ourselves have no opportunity to be blamed for."

Dean E. H. Smith, the next speaker, congratulated the Alumni on the changed attitude of medical men toward the Dental School, and as evidence, he instanced the recent appropriation in its favor of $80,000 from the fund of the Harvard Medical School. During the year, the School has received the sum of about $27,000 toward its new building and a few thousand more are yet to come.

The next speaker was Dr. C. A. Brackett, d '73, of Newport, R. I., who has been a teacher in the School for the past 34 years. He made a munificent beginning by giving his pledge for $10,000, payable within ten days, on condition of a further sum of $20,000 being raised, $10,000 of it to be by the Alumni of the Dental School.

The appreciation of this gift was made manifest when the whole body arose with prolonged cheering. This being the cue, others arose and pledged sums ranging from $2000 down to $50, and when to

taled fell a little short of $15,000, making with Dr. Brackett's nearly $25,000.

The Committee on Nominations made its report, and the following officers were elected for the ensuing year: Pres., Lyman F. Bigelow, d '86, Boston; sec., W. E. Boardman, d '86, Boston; treas., H. D. W. Cross, d'96, Boston; executive committee for two years, C. E. Parkhurst, d '97, Somerville; trustee of Life Membership Fund, for three years, F. T. Taylor, d '90, Boston; Nomination and Election of Officers for 1909, R. T. Moffatt, d '95, G. H. Wright, d '03, A. J. Oldham, d '90, all of Boston.

The Secretary reported the necrology list, viz.: Thomas Fillebrown, d '69; John Thomas Codman, d '70; Frederick Bradley, d '86; Frank Roberts Dickerman, d '93; Roy Revey Belden, d '97. Non-Graduate, David Edward Gettings, Dent. Sch. '94.

G. A. Thayer, of Cincinnati, called the meeting to order was soon increased, until there were nearly 60 persons present. An opening hymn was sung, after which prayer was offered by Rev. G. W. Cutter.

The Committee on Associate Membership presented the names of 24 persons eligible for election as associate members, who were elected: G. A. Barrows, A. W. Birks, T. W. Bishop, B. D. Boivia, C. R. Bowen, C. H. Brewer, L. C. Cornish, B. G. Ewald, J. E. Gregg, C. G. Hagberg, G. W. Hinman, J. M. Horne, R. J. Hutcheon, W. A. Knight, W. A. Lambeth, J. E. LeBosquet, K. C. MacArthur, J. M. Matthias, B. J. Morris, W. C. Morro, R. E. Ramsay, J. A. Serena, E. S. Treworgy, Harry White.

It was voted that a nominating committee for 1909 be appointed by the chair, and accordingly the President appointed

The usual spread was given in Hollis 5, Rev. J. C. Perkins, Rev. G. W. Cutter, on Commencement morning.

Following is a list of new members of the Association: Horatio C. Meriam, d "74, Salem; John A. Furbish, d '05, Boston; Blaine W. Morgan, d '05, Lynn; Judson C. Slack, d '06, North Abington; Julius F. W. Bauer, d '08, Cairo, Egypt; Ernest S. Calder, d'08, Providence, R. I.; James T. Magrath, d '08, So. Boston; Charles S. Parker, d '08, Boston; Joseph A. Ring, d '08, Dorchester; Alfred P. Russell, Jr., d '08, So. Norfolk, Va.; Carle E. Safford, d '08, Keene, N. H.; Roger B. Taft, d '08, Cambridge; Alexander J. Wright, '08, Perth, West Australia.

Waldo E. Boardman, d '86, Sec.

DIVINITY SCHOOL.

The annual meeting of the Alumni Association of the Harvard Divinity School began in the chapel June 23, at 10 A. M. The number of the members in attendance when the president, Rev.

and Rev. S. C. Beach. The necrology for the year was then read by Rev. S. B. Stewart. The names of the former students of the School who have died within the year are as follows: H. F. Bond, born, Boston, May 12, 1820, died, Bethlehem, N. H., Aug. 21, 1907; M. D. Conway, born, Middleton Farm, Stafford County, Va., March 17, 1832, died, Paris, France, Nov. 15, 1907; John Scott, born, Wortley, England, Sept. 13, 1829, died, Detroit, Mich., Jan. 16, 1908; E. B. French, born, Lowell, Nov. 20, 1832, died, Harwich, July 14, 1907; F. M. Holland, born, Boston, May 22, 1836, died, Concord, May 17, 1908; John Williams, born, Willersey, Gloucestershire, England, March 17, 1824, died, Nottingham, England, Aug. 19, 1905; G. A. Denison, born, Springfield, Oct. 27, 1845, died, Huntington, Aug. 18, 1907; G. F. Wright, born, Stoughton, Aug. 26, 1833, died, Bingham, Me., Feb. 28, 1908; T. G. Milsted, born, Davenport, Ia., Aug. 11,

1856, died, New York, N. Y., Dec. 21, 1907; H. L. Luther, born, Brooklyn, Conn., March 12, 1855, died, Faribault, Minn., Feb. 1, 1904; W. R. Vaughan, born, Fries, Va., July 23, 1873, died, Dodge City, Kan., Sept. 14, 1907.

The nominating committee for the year then presented its report, and the following named officers were elected for the coming year: Pres., Rev. G. A. Thayer, of Cincinnati; vice-pres., Rev. P. R. Frothingham, of Boston; sec., Rev. Roderick Stebbins, of Milton; members of the executive committee, Rev. C. R. Eliot, of Boston, and Rev. H. O. Hannum of Holyoke.

After necessary business a recess of a few minutes was taken, and after the singing of a hymn the meeting had the pleasure of listening to a unique and characteristic address by Rev. J. V. Blake, of Chicago, whose subject was "A Disciplined Church."

The meeting then adjourned for luncheon at the Harvard Union. 50 persons including guests were seated at the tables. Pres. Thayer presided. President Eliot of the University entered just as luncheon was finished and was greeted by the company rising. Mr. Thayer was of the Class of '69, and, in introducing President Eliot, he referred to the fact that it was in the year 1869 that Mr. Eliot became president of the University. President Eliot spoke at some length of the recent affiliation of Andover Seminary with Harvard University. Indeed this was the prevailing subject of the afterdinner speaking. President Eliot said that this affiliation was to provide a comprehensive, economical, and harmonious scheme of theological instruction. It would place upon a securer basis the maintenance of theological education in Harvard University. Other universities gave little or no consideration to theological education, but by this affiliation

with Andover such education was more firmly established in Cambridge than ever before. Speaking of the Harvard Divinity School, Dr. Lyman Abbott once. said to President Eliot, "I did not believe that an undenominational divinity school was a possibility, but you have shown me that I was wrong." This affiliation is a very great security for an undenominational institution. Both the schools run risks, but it is possible in dealing with risks to show wisdom or folly, and it is confidently believed that both Andover and Harvard will deal with such risks as may come with wisdom only.

Archaeological studies and investigations are being pursued in Syria under the direction of the University. Excavations have already been made through Greek and Roman remains, and it is hoped soon to reach the Jewish. President Eliot spoke of the Chinese students in the University who are of remarkable intellectual capacity, surpassing many of our American students in earnestness of purpose and in impregnable morality. What a lesson they teach in comparative religion! The ministry is widening in its scope, softening and becoming more imbued with human sympathy, ancient theological conceptions, are being humanized, and in consequence we see able young men entering this sacred calling. We hope that one of the fruits of the affiliation with Andover will be a larger number of original, able, and hopeful young men.

President Thayer then introduced Prof. W. W. Fenn, Dean of the Divinity School. He said that the Class of 1908 was the largest class since 1872, though by no means very great in numbers. It contains 10 students distributed among the several denominations in the following manner: five Unitarians, three Methodists, two Baptists, one Trinitarian Congregationalist, and one Disciple.

vard Divinity School. It has been thought to be a Unitarian school, whereas it is strictly undenominational. In the letters that have been received concerning the affiliation, fine tributes have been paid to Andover and yet no finer than Harvard men are ready to pay to the Harvard Divinity School.

The next speaker was Rev. F. L. Hosmer, D.D., who expressed his pleasure in being in New England at this time of the year, and the enjoyment he had in giving his recently completed course on Hymnody before the students of the School. Dr. Hosmer repeated Prof. Fenn's wish that tablets to the memory of Dr. Noyes, and Dr. Stearns might soon be placed in the chapel.

This is a very appropriate showing for misunderstanding concerning the Haran unsectarian school. 35 men are now connected with the School as students. There is a tendency for students to join the School at the mid-year. This is a new feature, and the professors are inclined to make the half-year rather than the year the unit of work. Dean Fenn spoke of five events which had occurred during the year. The first was the saddest since the resignation of Prof. Edward Hale from the Faculty: it was the resignation of Rev. R. S. Morison as librarian of the School. He spoke of the great service Mr. Morison had rendered to the students and the Faculty, and of the esteem and affection in which he is held. The second comprised the course on Philosophy of Religion by Prof. Pfleiderer and that on "Hymnody" by Dr. F. L. Hosmer. The third event was the dedication of the tablets to the memory of Theodore Parker and Henry Ware, Jr., in the chapel on All Saints' Day. These tablets gave emphasis to the wish that there might be others to the memory of Norton, Noyes, Stearns, and their associates. The fourth event was the establishment of the Harvard Theological Review. This has a partial endowment from a gift of Miss Mildred Everett, the daughter of the late Dean Everett, whose thought and spirit are to be preserved in the Review. Soon to appear in its pages is Dean Everett's longer course of lectures on Systematic Theology edited by Rev. Edward Hale. The fifth event is the coming of Andover to Cambridge. The affiliation has been accomplished. Each institution will retain its complete independence. Andover is not under the authority of Harvard, nor Harvard under that of Andover. They are to work together, with interchange of instruction, but none of government. The opposition to the removal of Andover to Cambridge has come largely from a

Rev. C. L. Noyes of Somerville was the last speaker. He was the agent of the trustees of Andover, through whose efforts the removal of the seminary to Cambridge was largely accomplished. He said that the great body of alumni of the seminary did not look upon the removal with fear. Those who have been heard in opposition are a small minority. The future of the seminary can be assured only by some bold endeavor like this, and only by such boldness can power and prestige be given to a theological institution. The gain and the risk are not all on one side. In coming to Cambridge, Andover desires the gain of Harvard as much as she does her own, and she is sure that Harvard wishes Andover well. Whichever institution in the future may have the larger number of students is a very unimportant matter. The main consideration is that great good be accomplished by this affiliation, and it is inevitable that each institution will be made the stronger by the vitality and growth of the other. Each will retain its individuality in those things for which each has stood.

Mr. Archibald of the graduating class was prevented by illness from being present. After the singing of a hymn by Edward R. Sill the meeting adjourned. Roderick Stebbins, '81, Sec.

LAW SCHOOL.

The annual meeting of the Harvard Law School Association was held at the rooms of the Boston Bar Association in the Federal Building, on June 23. In the absence of the President and Vice-Presidents the meeting was called to order by the Secretary and C. S. Rackemann was duly elected Chairman of the meeting and thereupon took the chair. The Secretary read the report of the last annual meeting and the same was duly approved. The Treasurer presented the certificate of the auditors of his report for the previous year stating the same to be correct in all respects. The Treasurer then read his report for the current year and the same was duly approved and ordered to be submitted to two auditors to be appointed by the Chairman.

Upon motion duly made and seconded it was Voted that the auditors appointed by the Chairman be authorized and requested to audit the Treasurer's report for the next year as well as his report for the current year just presented, so that there may be an auditor's report on each at the next annual meeting.

On behalf of the Council, the Chairman of the meeting, Mr. Rackemann, then made a report as to certain amendments to the constitution proposed by C. S. Ensign. The proposed amendments were taken up seriatim, discussed and voted upon. The proposed amendments, the recommendations of the Council as to the same, and the vote of the Association follow:

1. The Association shall have a reunion every three years as the Council may determine. The Council recom

mended that this be rejected and the meeting so voted.

2. The President shall be elected annually and may be reëlected until he has served three years. The Council recommended that this be rejected and the meeting so voted.

3. The Vice-Presidents shall be elected annually for terms not exceeding three years. The Council recommended that this be rejected and the meeting so voted.

4. The Treasurer shall furnish a bond from a Surety Company approved by the Council at the expense of the Association. The Council recommended that this be accepted and the meeting voted to adopt the same.

5. A historian shall be elected for a term of years. His duties shall be the collection and preservation of the records of deceased members, and his disbursements on approval of the Council shall be paid by the Treasurer. The Council recommended that this be rejected. A motion was made and seconded that the matter of records of deceased members be referred back to the Council with the request that the subject be considered further and reported upon at the next annual meeting. This motion was adopted.

6. Members of the Council having served four years shall be ineligible for reëlection for one year afterwards. The Council recommended that this be accepted and the meeting voted to adopt the same.

7. A nominating committee of three shall be chosen annually to recommend nominees for election to office at the next annual meeting. The Council recommended that this be accepted, and the meeting voted to adopt the same.

8. The name shall be changed to "The Alumni of the Harvard Law School," and no one shall be eligible for membership unless a graduate of the Harvard Law School. The Council re

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