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was first printed in the Catalogue of 1848, and is found in later catalogues and also in Harrington. I have been unable to discover printed dissertations by either of these two doctors.

They were the last under the old regulations, for in the next year, 1811, came the change of practice under which the degree of M.D. was given immediately at graduation. This change was brought about through a memorial addressed to the Corporation by Professors Warren and Dexter. The Corporation Records on the matter (College Records, x, p. 28, meeting of March 11, 1811) are defective, referring for the memorial and the reasons for the change adduced in it to "Files" which have disappeared. Fortunately, the records of the Overseers (v, p. 329 ff.) give both the memorial and the joint action upon it in full. The matter was brought before them on March 21 and a committee appointed to consider it. On March 28 this committee reported, and the memorial and resulting votes are entered in the record of the meeting of that day. The memorial was as follows:

To the Hon1 & Revd Corporation of Harvard College

The Medical professors of the University undersigned beg leave respectfully to represent, That there is in their Medical Institution a provision for a distinction between the Degrees of Bachelor and Doctor of Medicine, which distinction ought, they conceive to be abolished, for the following reasons.

1st. It is unnecessary :- - for those who attain the Degree of Bachelor in Medicine enjoy all the rights and privileges of Doctors, being at once admitted to practice, & consult with their professional brethren.

2ly, It is contrary to the established custom of all the flourishing Medical Institutions within our knowledge, particularly those of Philadelphia & New York in this country; and of Edinburgh and Glasgow in Great Britain; for in these, the Degree of Doctor in Medicine is conferred on persons, who have attended two or three courses of medical Lectures, and have undergone a satisfactory examination as to the professional knowledge they have acquired.

3ly, It is contrary to the interest of the university, because the students of medicine, being unwilling to go through the slow process of being made Doctors, with a very few exceptions, report to other Medical Institutions, where they receive, at once, the highest honours of their profession, in consequence of which, this University, after affording all the advantages of Medical education, loses the tribute of respect and gratitude which those Students strongly feel towards the Institution, by which they are introduced to their profession.

The Medical professors beg leave therefore, respectfully to request, That in future, the Degree of Doctor in Physick, be conferred on the same terms, as those on which the Degree of Bachelor in Physick has hitherto been conferred. That especially, the fees for obtaining the degree of Doctor, be the same as those now paid for the degree of Bachelor in Physick; the expence of a medical education being greater, than that of other professions, that those who have heretofore obtained the degree of Bachelor in Physick be allowed the degree of Doctor in Physick; and lastly, that Examinations be no longer held in publick.1

John Warren
Aaron Dexter.

1 This custom is peculiar to this University, and has the effect of preventing Students from offering themselves here, as they generally are sufficiently apprehensive of

The concurrent vote was: "That the Degree of Doctor in Medicine shall in future be conferred on the same terms, as those on which the Degree of Bachelor in Medicine has heretofore been conferred, both as to the period of study, and the compensation or fee for the Degree; and that the Degree of Doctor in Medicine shall be also conferred upon all such persons as have heretofore been admitted to the Degree of Bachelor of Medicine; and that the examination for the medical degrees shall hereafter be had and conducted in such time and manner, as the president, with the advice of the Medical professors shall think proper."

Thus originated the peculiarity that distinguishes graduates of the medical from those of our other professional schools, such as law and divinity, which send forth only bachelors. It came about, as the memorial shows, partly to meet the competition of other medical schools, and partly because Doctors of Medicine as well as practitioners without a degree were ready to receive the newly graduated Bachelors on equal terms with themselves. But it was no doubt also largely due to the common use, certainly as old as Shakespeare's time, of the word "doctor" as a synonym for “physician," which became so customary in America that people often forgot that the word meant anything else. I well remember an anecdote which the eminent astronomer Dr. B. A. Gould (a Göttingen Ph.D.) was fond of telling, about his introduction as a speaker at some banquet of physicians. The presiding Galen said: "Dr. Gould, gentlemen, — that is, they call him doctor, but he really is n't a doctor." But why confine ourselves to modern times, when everybody knows that the same notion was current in the days of Aristotle? The word larpós, he remarks, “may mean either the practitioner, or the master of the art, or the man who has just finished his education in the art." It was idle for one medical school to struggle against so ancient a conception; and to serve seven years in order to win formally what was in practice at once bestowed upon the youngest fledgling might have seemed too much to Jacob himself. Accordingly at Commencement on August 28, 1811, the doctorate was conferred upon the graduating class, and also upon all the earlier graduates who had not yet received it. At least, that was the intention, but the list of earlier graduates as given in the Corporation Records (College Records, x, p. 48; the Overseers' Records give no lists, v, p. 360) is not without what I may be permitted to call peculiarities. It does not include the name of Cushing Otis (A.B. 1789, M.B. 1792), who, however, appears in the Triennials of 1812-1839 as “M.D.,” and in that of 1842 and fol

examinations, even where not publick, still more where they are exposed to all who choose to attend.

N. B. The requisitions will still be greater, than those of other Medical Institutions, especially the Medical Society.

lowing catalogues as "M.D. 1811." It does include Robert Thaxter, whom we have just seen receiving his M.D. in 1810. These two cases were probably mere slips. But it may be a different matter when we see the names of three dead men in the list: Ebenezer Crosby (* 1788; he was of the Harvard College Class of 1777, but had never received an M.B. from Harvard), John Clark (A.B. 1799, M.B. 1802, *1805), and Elias Mann (A.B. 1800, M.B. 1806, *1807), though not the names of all the dead who had received M.B. The Quinquennial and preceding Trienni als have never bestowed the doctorate upon these three possibly favored ones. I say "possibly " because the conferring of degrees upon the dead by formal vote is not unknown in our annals, and the names of these three men were already among the "stelligeri" of the Triennial of 1809, so that their deaths should have been known to the Corporation of 1811. I mention these peculiarities of the list, but do not undertake to explain them further; perhaps some historian of the Medical School will attempt the solution. My object has been to show that we had six ordinary doctors of medicine in course before the year 1811, — Fleet, Ingalls, Adams, Jack. son, Shurtleff, and Thaxter. This, I think, should be made clear in the Quinquennial of 1910.

It may be of interest to add a few words about the honorary degree of Doctor of Medicine in early times. This was first conferred in 1783 upon E. A. Holyoke and two years later upon Cotton Tufts. Both were Harvard men and among the incorporators of the Massachusetts Medical Society (founded in 1781); Holyoke was its first president. In 1786 the degree was given to the three professors in the new Harvard Medical Institution, Dexter, Warren, and Waterhouse. Of them, only Waterhouse had an ordinary doctorate (from Leyden in 1780); the other two were incorporators of the Medical Society. The records of the Corporation on these first five honorary doctorates are to be found in College Book, viii, pages 119, 143, 199, 217, 221. Then follow 24 honorary doctorates before the year 1811, making 29 in all before that year. Of the recipients, 19 were graduates of Harvard College, 12 were incorporators of the Medical Society, 15 were fellows of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, 6 of the Massachusetts Historical and 4 of the American Philosophical Societies. Most of the 29 were therefore educated gentlemen and no doubt all were experienced practitioners, but they had been trained in the days before it was possible to obtain an ordinary degree in medicine in this country, and only three of them seem to have received ordinary doctorates in Europe and only one the ordinary M.B. there. Hence it was natural for the University, when more fortunate opportunities were being provided for younger men, to recognize skill in the elder generation by conferring a degree which would hardly be given honoris causa today. This

was in accordance with a vote of Nov. 2, 1784 (College Book, viii, page 180, Overseers, iii, page 300): "Honorary degrees in Physic, which may be conferred on Gentlemen of great eminence in the Profession, as a reward of merit, shall be free from all fees."

M. H. Morgan, '81.


IN February, 1908, the standing rules of the President and Fellows and the Board of Overseers concerning the Committee on the Regulation of Athletic Sports were amended by substituting the words, "Three members of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences appointed by the Corporation with the consent of the Overseers," for the words, "The Dean of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences, the Dean of Harvard College, and the Dean of the Lawrence Scientific School." This was a return to the method of constituting this part of the Committee which existed prior to March, 1907.

The Faculty expressed itself strongly in favor of a considerable reduction in the schedules of intercollegiate contests in the year 1908-09, now current, after receiving a communication on this subject from the Association of Colleges in New England. Thus far in the current academic year (January 1, 1909) no significant reductions in the number of intercollegiate contests have been made by the Committee on the Regulation of Athletic Sports, the body which approves the schedules prepared by the managers or captains in the several athletic sports. The Corporation, the Board of Overseers, and the Faculty have all expressed themselves forcibly on this question; but thus far without appreciable result. Small reductions have, however, been made lately in the schedules for the winter sports, and some reduction in the baseball schedule for next spring is anticipated, but not yet announced.

Some appreciable improvement was made during 1907-08 in Harvard athletics. The appointment of a Graduate Treasurer of the Harvard Athlectic Association was a relief to the Committee, and particularly to its Chairman, and provided a more continuous and comprehensive supervision of all the sports. Mr. Garcelon's general view, that the object of college athletics is to promote the physical welfare of all the students as well as the intense development of a few, exerted a wholesome influence. In the preparation of players for the most strenuous competitive games greater discretion was displayed than ever before, inasmuch as excessive exertions were better guarded against, a larger number of good players 1 From the President's Annual Report, 1907-08.

were developed in the principal sports, the resources of the best players were better husbanded in the sports in which overwork, exhaustion, and injuries are most likely to occur, and individual talent was better utilized. The spoiling of good personal material before the principal events was not so much in evidence, and the notion that athletic sports ought always to yield pleasure and healthful vigor instead of grinding, unenjoyable work and injurious exhaustion, seemed to find more acceptance with the undergraduates actively engaged in the various competitions. It was understood by the undergraduate body that the best crews on the river enjoyed their work throughout the season, and that their effective training was not allowed to be either irksome or in any way harmful. Although the training of the crews was more prolonged than usual, they came to the principal races in prime normal condition.

In baseball and football the amount of time devoted daily to these games by the principal players is altogether too great, and in football the training is so fatiguing that the good players have little vitality left for intellectual labor during the season. Towards diminishing these exaggerations little progress, if any, was made during the year 1907-08. Although the game of football has been made more open and interesting by the new rules, and some of the former foul play has been prevented by the neutral strip and other devices, the game still remains unfit for college uses, affords a demoralizing spectacle for the immense crowds which gather to witness the chief games, and still provides on a great scale the opportunity for that variety of gambling called betting. The betting evil is greatly increased by the practice of exhibiting the game in public halls in many American cities far remote from the scene of action. The popular excitement over football games is spread and maintained for commercial purposes by newspapers, transportation companies, and hotels, which reap a considerable profit from these assemblages, since the public is prepared to spend large sums of money in order to witness these exciting contests. The betting evil might be reduced by preventing the transmission of the events and course of the game to other places by telegraph or telephone, and this measure is quite within the power of the owners of the fields where the games are played. As a rule, the undergraduate players in intercollegiate games have no interest in, or desire for, the flare and glare; and it may, therefore, be hoped that these offensive features of American intercollegiate sports will in a few years have disappeared.

The English schools and universities have never been afflicted with these vulgar evils in connection with their athletic games; and their wholesome habit of universal out-of-door exercise is maintained quietly and firmly without any such adventitious excitements. It is reasonable to

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