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York, he became literary editor of the Independent, 1901-4, and of the Evening Post in 1904. In addition to the latter position, he has been associate editor of the Nation since 1906. He has published "Helena, and Occasional Poems"; "The Great Refusal"; "A Century of Indian Epigrams"; "The Judgment of Socrates"; a translation of Prometheus Bound; a life of Franklin; "The Jessica Letters," in collaboration with Mrs. L. H. Harris; and five volumes of "Shelburne Essays'

a series

of literary critiques which are the nearest analogues to Sainte-Beuve's "Causeries" that America has produced.

Robert Lincoln O'Brien was born at Abington, Mass., Sept. 14, 1865. He graduated from Harvard in 1891, and from June, 1892, until November, 1895, he was personal secretary to President Cleveland. Then he became the Washington correspondent of the Boston Evening Transcript, and during more than ten years his dispatches, signed "Lincoln," were among the most trustworthy, varied in their contents, and interesting of any sent from the national capital. In 1906 he was summoned by the proprietors of the Transcript, of whom George S. Mandell, '89, is the head, to assume the management of its editorial pages. He married at Lisbon, N. H., on Feb. 19, 1895, Miss Emily E. Young.

Norman Hapgood was born in Chicago, March 28, 1868, the son of Charles and Fanny (Powers) Hapgood. He graduated at Harvard in 1890, being an editor of the Harvard Monthly, and conspicuous in the undergraduate literary set. He studied at the Harvard Law School, taking his law degree in 1893, but almost immediately was drawn into literary and newspaper work. At one time he joined the staff of the Milwaukee Sentinel; then he moved to New York, and took a position on the Evening Post. From 1897 to 1902 he was dramatic critic on the New York Commercial Advertiser and for the Bookman, resigning in 1902 in order to have more time for authorship. Meanwhile he had published several volumes, viz.: "Literary Statesmen," 1897; "Daniel Webster," 1899; "Abraham Lincoln," 1899; "The Stage in America," 1901; and "George Washington," 1901. Since 1903 he has been editor of Collier's Weekly, and in the opinion of many persons he is now the most trenchant editorial writer in the United States. Not only is his pen trenchant, but his courage is invincible. Ably supported by Mr. Collier, he has waged war on quacks of all kinds and on blackmail in its most insidious forms. He married at Chicago, on June 17, 1896, Miss Emilie Bigelow.

THE UNIVERSITY: THE SUMMER QUARTER.

Reorganization of the Bussey Institution

In addition to the Andover Alliance and the inauguration of the School of Business Administration, the past year has seen one other great step forward taken in the development of the University by the recent reorganization of the Bussey Institution as a graduate school for advanced experimental work and research in those subjects of applied biology which relate to agriculture. The obligation to serve in agricultural science came to Harvard University before it came to any other institution in this country. Benjamin Bussey, who died in 1842, left to Harvard by his will, which was drawn in 1835, the largest bequest which the University had received up to that time. One half of the income-bearing portion of this bequest was devoted to the endowment of professorships and scholarships in the Theological and Law Schools; the other half, together with a large tract of land called Woodland Hill, was bequeathed for the promotion of "agriculture, useful and ornamental gardening, botany, and such other branches of natural science as may tend to promote a knowledge of practical agriculture." Pursuant to this will, the Bussey Institution was founded, when the property became available in 1871, as a school for undergraduate instruction in agriculture thus anticipating by one year the so-called Morrill Act of Congress, looking towards the establishment of agricultural and mechanical colleges as state institutions throughout the country. It had hardly started, however, before the great Boston fire reduced the endowment to one half its original value; and, thus crippled, the school has not been able to keep pace as an undergraduate institution with the great agricultural schools established under the Morrill Act and fostered by the different states. In its new rôle as a graduate school of advanced instruction and research, however, it will have an almost unlimited opportunity, and practically no rivals. The highest success in agricultural pursuits can only be attained through a knowledge of broad principles and research, which are clearly beyond the sphere of the ordinary state agricultural college, but which can be admirably afforded by the Bussey Institution on its new basis. The success attained by and the enthusiastic support recently accorded to the Arnold Arboretum, which has been devoted since 1872 to the development of scientific research and experiments in arboriculture, forestry, and dendrology, afford a happy promise of the services, both local and national, which this new graduate school may reasonably be expected to perform.

The full purpose of this reorganization cannot be realized with the

present financial resources. The new Bussey Institution will require buildings, equipment, and above all, men. But a very auspicious beginning has already been made. Professors W. E. Castle and E. C. Jeffrey, of the Zoological and Botanical Departments, will transfer a large part of their work to the reorganized school. Prof. Theobald Smith of the Medical School, who is one of the foremost living bacteriologists and investigators in the comparative pathology of animals, has already done much work at the Bussey Institution: its reconstitution will doubtless permit of a large increase in his resources. And finally, the recent appointment of Dr. William M. Wheeler, of the American Museum of Natural History, as Professor of Economic Entomology, will bring to the new school a teacher and scientist of wide reputation and experience, and place it in the forefront in one of its most essential departments. Its prospects for ultimate success are thus of the highest. Incidentally it is interesting to emphasize, what President Eliot pointed out on Commencement Day, that the reorganization of the Bussey Institution on a graduate basis reduces the undergraduate departments of the University to one, Harvard College; and that this one undergraduate department has now become a single gate to all the professional schools of the University save one, the Dental School, the sole professional school in the University which is not yet a graduate school. And the indications point to a similar change in the Dental School before long. Those who have followed the development of the University during the past forty years alone will realize how profound and beneficent is this change which is now reaching its culmination and President Eliot's administration has brought about.

The Summer

1908.

Full statistics for the Summer School of 1908 are not, at the present date of writing, available. It is very gratifying, however, to be able to announce that the total registration at the present time (exclusive of Prof. W. M. Davis's class in Europe and of School of Prof. J. B. Woodworth's in South America, which have not yet been heard from) is by far the largest in the history of the School, save in the year 1903 when the meeting of the N. E. A. in Boston made the conditions abnormal. It numbers 952, which is a gain of 143 over last year, and of 110 over 1905, the largest previous registration excepting that of 1903. Moreover, this gain had been made in the face of financial depression, of unusually hot weather, of the lack of a College dining-hall open to Summer School students, and of keen competition with other universities which make their Summer Schools regular academic sessions. It is also noteworthy that this year, for the first time since 1895, the number of men registered in the School exceeds

the number of women. Nor is this change due to any large increase in the number of college students, which a recent computation shows to be but slightly greater than before. Altogether, it may be confidently maintained that this department of the University was never in a more thriving and prosperous condition. Its success affords another striking proof of the extent of the services to the community at large which the University renders outside its regular courses.

In this same connection it is interesting to note that at a recent meeting of the Faculty of Arts and Sciences a committee of seven was appointed by the President to take into consideration the Committee on whole question of supplementary teaching by professors and Supplementary instructors in the University. To the older and established Teaching. opportunities for teaching outside the regular Harvard curriculum, such as Radcliffe and the Summer School, there have of late years been added the Friday afternoon and Saturday courses for teachers and the courses repeated in Boston in the evenings under the auspices of the Lowell Institute; and several requests have lately been received from neighboring towns for Harvard instructors to come and conduct courses in the evenings for teachers and others qualified to take them. There are also the splendidly successful popular lectures on medical topics established last year at the Medical School. Obviously the demand for outside instruction is increasing so fast and manifesting itself in so many different ways as to make it essential that the general question be considered as a whole and not piecemeal as heretofore. In theory, at least, it would seem that the more of this outside instruction that can be given by Harvard teachers the better. Besides the great and obvious services which it enables the University to render to the community, it affords an opportunity to many instructors to make a welcome addition to their regular salary. In practice, however, there is the very grave danger that the teacher may be tempted to give so much strength to outside work as seriously to impair the effectiveness of his instruction in the University. The precise adjustment of this delicate matter will of course vary enormously in individual cases; but the committee should be able to formulate some generally applicable policy. The fact that an increasing amount of the instruction in Radcliffe is being given by young men who are only assistants in Harvard and have not full charge of any course there may have some weight in its deliberations. More difficult still is the question of the candidacy for degrees of those who benefit by this outside instruction. There can be no doubt that even a remote prospect of attaining a Harvard degree is a very strong incentive to taking work under Harvard instructors, the absolute removal of which would very seriously diminish the number

of those who have asked for and availed themselves of this privilege. To some it seems perfectly proper that qualified persons who pursue and pass each year one or more Harvard courses given by University teachers, in addition to their regular work, until the number requisite for graduation be completed, should have a Harvard degree; others feel that the Harvard A.B. at any rate means something more than mere courses passed, and would require a minimum of two years' collegiate residence in addition. Here again the committee faces an exceedingly interesting and important problem, the solution of which will vitally affect the future of every department of Harvard. The lack of precedent may prove a serious difficulty in its deliberations, but it may also be regarded as an advantage; and there is always the assurance that any policy or experiment which it may induce the University to adopt will be watched with the keenest interest all over the country.

The Harvard Union has completed another highly successful year of its existence. Its active membership at the close of the present academic - an increase of 95 over that of the corre- The Harvard year was 2268. sponding time in 1907. That the practice of having the Union. Union dues charged on the term-bills is both popular and successful is proved by the fact that 2072 of the 2268 members have availed themselves of it. There are 1078 graduate life members, 78 student life members, 572 associate and 431 non-resident members, making a total of 4427. The principal innovation introduced this year, namely, the giving of the Junior Dinner in the Union instead of in Boston, has proved a decided success. The restaurant has been well patronized, and the state of the Club's finances on the whole satisfactory. In general it may be said that the Union is now on a substantial working basis, and more than ever an essential factor in the life of the University.

The Athletic

It cannot be said that the end of the academic year finds the University any nearer the solution of its complicated athletic problem than before: indeed, the difficulties rather increased than diminished during the last two months of the spring term. The under- Situation and graduate petition, expressing disbelief both in the general its Results. reduction of schedules and in the abolition of winter sports as a cure for existing evils, and suggesting that the students be allowed to take into their own hands the regulation of athletics, finally received 1606 signatures, and was presented to the Faculty May 5. After a long discussion that body voted to refer the petition to the Athletic Committee. At a meeting held May 11, the Committee voted to ask the presidents of the four undergraduate classes to appoint delegates to confer with the Com

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