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proved so successful years ago, as against Yale, even after Mr. Cook had returned from abroad in 1873 and introduced the English stroke in New Haven.

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1 English stroke adopted at Yale. Year of double finish line.

OUR SYMMETRICAL ORGANIZATION.

IN the Magazine for June, 1897, I published an article entitled "Our Unsymmetrical Organization" in which it was pointed out that the Medical School resources and endowments were disproportionately small. The 12 years since 1897 have brought the Medical School its new laboratories, costing nearly $3,000,000, with an endowment (Aug. 1, 1907) of GIFTS TO HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 1868-1908.

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$3,102,769.13 out of the total endowment of the University, which was then $19,892,649.92. It is therefore no longer true that "the Medical Departments have furnished one fourth of the graduates and have received one eighteenth of the endowment."

The article of 1897 contained a tabulation of the gifts to the University during President Eliot's administration, which is here reproduced and brought down to the close of the last academic year.

In round numbers, Harvard University received during the first 29 years of President Eliot's administration $330,000 annually, and during the last 10 years (1898-99 to 1907-08) an average of $1,480,000 annually. A consideration of the endowments as recorded in the last report of the Treasurer shows a well-balanced development of the University, and this fact is one of the most remarkable evidences of the broad-minded sympathy with which President Eliot has advanced all interests of the University.

Charles S. Minot, p '78.

COMPARISONS: 1869-1909.

IN the history of Harvard College three critical periods may be discerned: First, that covered by the administration of Leverett, 1707–24, when the attempts of the Mather faction were frustrated, the relations between the Corporation and the Overseers were fixed, the old Charter was revived, and the munificence of Hollis and other benefactors strengthened the resources of the College. The second period falls in Kirkland's term, 1810-28, when the College, through the creation of departments of Medicine, Law, and Divinity, was expanded into a university, — embryonic and tentative, but still having the university ideal; when methods of instruction were reformed, and when more liberal views of religion began to be held, however timidly. Finally, the administration of President Eliot, during which, besides the marvelous growth in the College and Schools, and besides the erection of many buildings and the creation of new departments, there have come the recognition of what a university should be, and the endeavor to raise every department to a level of that recognition. In the present article we will set down briefly some facts and figures which illustrate the growth of the University plant during the past 40 years. A systematic presentation of statistics would require more space than can be devoted to it here; but it will be interesting to observe some of the more important changes arranged in groups.

At the beginning of the Academic year 1868-69, Harvard had 1043 students. The Catalogue for 1908-09 gives 3918. The details are:

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By this it appears that the undergraduates increased from 529 to 2234, or more than fourfold; and it will be seen that the students in the Schools and the Graduate Department increased in almost the same ratio. In 1909, enrolled under the Faculty of Arts and Sciences there are 2808 students. The Hooper School of Mines has disappeared; so have the nondescript students in University Courses. The Veterinary School was closed in 1905, its research work and the work of the Bussey Institution being merged in other departments. But we now have Special Students, the three Graduate Schools, the Dental School, and the Summer Schools which did not then exist. The Summer Schools of 1908 had an attendance of 1332. In 1894 Radcliffe College, for women, established ancillary relations with Harvard. In 1909 Radcliffe has 449 students. The decrease in enrolment the past few years has been due to the requirement of the A.B. degree from candidates for the Medical School, and to the conversion of the Scientific School into a graduate department. Students naturally have turned to other universities where the standard is lower. But it may be confidently predicted that the Harvard Medical and other Schools will have an experience similar to that of the Harvard Law School, which, after a period of falling off owing to a stiffening of requirements, has now a larger enrolment than ever before. The number of men who are seeking the best instruction is increasing.

Changes in personnel have been very remarkable. President Eliot is the only surviving member of the Corporation in 1869, which included John A. Lowell, '15, George Putnam, '26, George T. Bigelow, '29, F. B. Crowninshield, '29, Nathaniel Thayer, A.M. '66, and the treasurer, Nathaniel Silsbee, '24. Of the Board of Overseers which elected Mr. Eliot only Dr. E. E. Hale, '39, S. A. Green, '51, and G. W. C. Noble, '58, are living. The College Faculty in 1869 had 23 members, of whom only President Eliot and Professor C. L. Jackson are still in service. Professors W. W. Goodwin, D. W. Cheever, and J. C. White have retired and

1 In 1902-03 the total registration was 4261.

are emeriti. W. H. Appleton, Prentiss Cummings, E. P. Seaver, G. A. Hill, and T. S. Perry long since quitted the service of the College.

Looking over the Catalogue of 1869, we find that Prof. J. D. Whitney was already Professor of Geology; the English Department had Prof. F. J. Child at its head; the Latin had Prof. G. M. Lane; the Greek, Prof. Goodwin ; Prof. J. K. Paine was then instructor in music; Prof. C. L. Jackson was an assistant in chemistry; Prof. B. H. Nash an instructor in Italian and Spanish; Prof. J. B. Greenough a tutor in Latin. Prof. C. J. White did not come till 1870; Prof. C. F. Dunbar, till 1871; and Prof. C. E. Norton, till 1874. No members of the '69 Law and Medical Schools Faculties remain.

The Law School had three professors, - Theophilus Parsons, '15, Gov. Emory Washburn, and Judge Nathaniel Holmes, '37; it now has 16 professors and instructors. The entire teaching force at the Medical School numbered 19; its Faculty alone now numbers 56. It is impossible to compare the Scientific School at the two periods, because at present no distinction is made between the teachers in the Academic and those in the Scientific departments. The Divinity School has 12 teachers besides several others who are in the College. In 1869 Louis Agassiz, Jeffries Wyman, and J. D. Whitney were the chief lights at the Museum of Comparative Zoology, and N. S. Shaler was an assistant; the Peabody Museum had not been opened; Joseph Winlock was Director of the Observatory, Asa Gray of the Botanic Garden, while Dr. F. H. Hedge and James Freeman Clarke were teaching at the Divinity School. The Annual Appointments for 1869-70 included as 66 University Lecturers " Ralph Waldo Emerson, J. Elliot Cabot, George P. Fisher, Chas. S. Peirce, John Fiske, W. D. Whitney, F. Bôcher, and W. D. Howells.

The Catalogue of 1869 sets down an undergraduate's expenses as ranging from $349 to $572; at present the lowest estimate is $372, the "liberal" estimate is $622. Anthracite coal then cost $10, cannel $20, and Sydney $14 per ton; hard wood $14, soft wood $10 per cord, exclusive of sawing and splitting. Fuel and books were still charged on the term bills. Commons, or the Thayer Dining Club, founded in 1864, still used the old railroad station near the site of the present Law School. Prayers were compulsory, and remained so till 1886.

A list of the buildings erected in these four decades would show that architects, masons, and carpenters have been unceasingly busy. The College Yard has seen three new dormitories, Thayer, Weld, and Matthews, and in the second quadrangle Sever Hall for recitation rooms, Emerson Hall for the Philosophical Department, and Robinson Hall for the Architectural Department have risen. Near the last is the Fogg Museum. Phillips Brooks House was squeezed into the northwestern

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