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Club, of which he was secretary and treasurer, and of the Football Club, he took little part in the social activity of the College. He was, as in after life, fond of music, and played in the Pierian Sodality. His elective studies were chiefly in philosophy, history, and natural history, pursued for the first three years with little enthusiasm. His determination to study medicine was not formed until the end of his Junior year, when he took a course in chemistry at the Summer School, followed by an elective in chemistry during the next year. He also continued the study of natural history and his work for the Senior year was of high grade.

Entering the Medical School in 1878, Harrington carried on his medical studies with the same energy and concentration that characterized all his subsequent work, and was graduated in 1881. During the last six months of the course he served as medical house officer at the Massachusetts General Hospital. He was a member of the Boylston Medical Society, served as its secretary and treasurer, and won in 1881 its first prize for an essay on "Some of the Sources of Accidental Arsenical Poisoning."

During his Medical School course and particularly toward the end, Harrington had assisted the late Professor Edward S. Wood, '67, in medico-legal and toxicological investigation, and was thereby influenced to take up the further study of these subjects. He accordingly went to Germany in August, 1881, and began work at Leipzig. Attracted during this period by the related subjects of hygiene and sanitary chemistry, he went to Strassburg for the summer semester of 1882, where his study under Schmiedeberg determined his future career as a hygienist. After leaving Strassburg, he passed a semester at Munich with von Pettenkofer, returning to Boston in the spring of 1883. The intervals between semesters were taken up by journeys on the Continent and in England.

Dr. Harrington's work in Germany was brilliant. His intense application and his remarkable power of observation enabled him to acquire in the comparatively short time of three semesters not only a fundamental knowledge of his subject, but also a familiarity with necessary analytical methods, in which his early training had been defective. He returned, therefore, with a thorough preparation as an analyst, upon which so much of his success as a hygienist afterward depended.

In June, 1883, he was appointed assistant in chemistry at the Harvard Medical School and in October began also the duties of milk analyst for Eastern Massachusetts under the direction of the State Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity. In addition, he entered upon a practice as consulting chemist, chiefly in sanitation and hygiene. He was married at Boston, February 25, 1884, to Martha Josephine Jones, daughter of the late John Coffin Jones, a merchant of Boston, for some time consul at the Hawaiian

Islands, whose wife was Manuela Maria Antonia Carrillo, the daughter of one of the Spanish governors of California. For two years after his marriage he lived in Longwood, afterwards in Boston, but for 18 years his residence was at 57 Orchard St., Jamaica Plain. His children are : Charles Pratt, born in 1885, who was graduated from Harvard in 1906 and is now in business in Boston; Marguerita Carrillo, born in 1888; Eugene Saudray, born in 1891, who enters Harvard next year.

Dr. Harrington's appointment as assistant in chemistry was renewed yearly until June, 1888, when he became instructor in materia medica and hygiene and a member of the Medical Faculty. From 1885 to 1888 he was also assistant in hygiene. In 1898 he was made assistant professor of hygiene and was advanced to a professorship in March, 1906.

His public work began in May, 1889, on his appointment by Mayor Hart as inspector of milk and vinegar for the City of Boston. His connection with the State Board of Health as analyst ceased in 1892, but as chief of the bureau of milk inspection, which was placed under the health department of Boston in 1895, he continued his duties for the city until 1904. During his 15 years' incumbency of this office, the importance to which he had raised it rendered his successive re-appointments independent of political considerations. In this position he established for himself a wide reputation as a sanitarian and hygienist, an efficient public servant, an accurate and conscientious analyst, and a fearless prosecutor. It was characteristic of his methods that, in dealing with violations of city ordinances, his presentation of a case in court was always based on data established by accurate analysis and incontrovertible evidence. To the judge or jury his attitude was convincing and the defendant rarely appealed from a decision. There was never any persecution; he did not prosecute without good cause, but with it he acted boldly and uncompromisingly. Though threatened sometimes with bodily injury and often vilified by those whom he had brought to justice, he pursued his way unterrified. He found the milk-supply of Boston in a low state, a result on the one hand of the indifference of Americans as consumers, on the other of the ignorance of the producers. During his administration a high standard of purity was maintained, the distribution of the supply was brought under conditions which safeguarded the public, and the people were educated to better understand the enormous importance of clean milk to their health and that of their children. Although his direct influence on public health was of necessity mainly local, there was to come an opportunity by which his influence could be exerted more widely.

The Massachusetts State Board of Health was created in 1869, became ten years later the Board of Health, Lunacy, and Charity, and in

1886 was reorganized under its former title. It has always had a commanding position in the country. Guided by able hands and especially fortunate in having as chairman Dr. Henry P. Walcott, '58, ever since its reorganization, it has proceeded quietly and conservatively to the enactment of public health laws which have given a measure of protection to the citizens of Massachusetts enjoyed by few states in the Union. In October, 1904, the long efficient secretary of the board, Dr. Samuel W. Abbott, m '62, died, and in December Dr. Harrington was selected to fill the vacancy. He accordingly gave up his Boston office, and, while retaining his professorship in the Medical School, entered with his accustomed vigor into the congenial duties of his new position. Though the time of his service has been brief, the results of his work have been farreaching.

Continuing his special subject in a broader field, he brought the influence of the State Board to bear upon the problem of intra-state supply and transportation of clean milk, though hampered by the absence of much needed national regulation of the interstate service. Among his published papers on this subject, which have impressed the danger of infected milk upon the medical profession and the public, are the following: "The Problem of City Milk Supplies"; "The Sanitary Importance of Clean Milk; Sources, Effects, and Prevention of Dirty Milk"; "Infant Mortality and its Principal Cause- Dirty Milk"; "Milk as a Carrier of Infection."

In the laboratory of the Board he had the efficient co-operation of a trained staff of chemists who skilfully carried out the routine examinations of foods and drugs and the various investigations suggested by him of articles injurious to the public health. Among these investigations was an exposure of the high alcohol content of various patent medicines; the warning against the use of preservatives in food; and the unmasking of the cocaine evil hidden in the variety of nostrums parading as headache and other cures. He was instrumental in procuring from the legislature a law restraining the use of this insidious drug, which he conclusively proved was ruining thousands of young people.

In his frequent appearances before legislative committees in the interest of the Board of Health, he was illuminative, forceful, and convincing, and was a strong factor in obtaining legislative assistance. One of the most important investigations sanctioned by the legislature was concerning the effect of manufacturing conditions upon the health of employees in factories and workshops. The Board of Health has always had the confidence of the legislature; an important outcome of this factory investigation was the law which has recently gone into effect by which the state is divided into 15 districts, each under an inspector whose duty is

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