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1540; when John Bull planted his paws upon it at the storming in 1704; or afterwards, when the brave Eliot, in 1782, withstood the terrible siege of the allies for three years. In short, from the remotest ages, this Rock of Gibraltarthis pillar of Hercules-is still the same.

In all the strifes and changes in which Gibraltar has borne so prominent a part, there may have been seen more monkeys clambering about the rocky heights, more ships in the bay, more soldiers on the land, more murderous, fiery missiles flying through the air,

"The bursting shell, the gateway rent asunder, The rattling musketry, the clashing blade, And, ever and anon, in tones of thunder, The diapason of the cannonade," with, perhaps, less to eat and drink than in these peaceful times; but yet, without the aid of any grand convulsion of nature, it does not seem improbable, that this hoary, sturdy monarch of rocks may, again and again, be an indifferent witness to bloodier and more terrible scenes than these.

As the frigate slowly sailed along the base of the rock, thousands of lights sparkled in the town; the nine o'clock gun pealed out its nightly warning, while the drums, flutes, and bugles echoed from point to point. Soon, however,


rounded Europa, and then, as we stood fairly into the Mediterranean, the clusters of lights were shut from our sight, the music was lost in the distance, and at midnight the dim, red gleam of the light-house only marked where Gibraltar lay, in its pride and power.

The following morning we were running, with a free wind, along the Spanish coast. We were too far off to catch more than an unclouded view of the back-ground; but that was in itself magnificent. The topmost peaks of the Sierra Nevada were clearly cut against the far-distant sky, shining cold and white with the winter snows.

Passing out of sight of Malaga, Almeria, and lesser ports, by evening we were abreast Cape de Gott.

VOL. VII.-25

The breeze held fair during the night; and the next day, after passing Cape Palos, from which Columbus sailed on his first voyage to America, we descried the English fleet. It was composed of five ships of the line, and two frigates. Four of the majestic two-deckers stood in shore, by the wind, while the rear most vessel held towards the Cumberland. As she approached, we beat to quarters, cast loose the guns, and cleared for action, merely by way of friendly precaution, and the practice with menof-war upon meeting one another on the high seas.

After a mutual exhibition of pennants and ensigns, the Englishman put his helm down, and slowly went around towards the land, while at the same time he triced up his lower gun-deck ports to show his teeth, and to let us know, that he, too, was ready with the blackmouthed cannon, to belch forth red flame and destruction, should the necessity arise.

Fortunately the necessity did not arise, and we thought, with the Spaniards, it were better to have

"Con todo el mundo guerra
Y paz con Inglaterra,"

and so we both departed on our several missions; he to inform his admiral that he had shown his ensign to an American frigate, and we to keep on our course to the southward of the Balearic Isles.

Passing Tormentera, Majorca, and Minorca, our progress, somewhat hastened by a clear, cool snap of a mistral out of the gulf of Lyons, the lofty, bold mountains of Corsica and Sardinia loomed up before us. Then, heaving about, we worked up towards the Italian coast, and a month from the day we sailed from Boston saw us overshadowed by the grand Apennines, whose high, shining summits of glacier and snow broke out clear and sharp above our heads.

With the early morn we entered the gulf of Spezzia, and dropped anchor near the Lazaretto.



THE HE life of one who explores the mysteries of the sea, is not more perilous than fascinating. The charm of terror hangs around it, and the interminable succession of exciting events renders it dear to its professor. Not to the common diver of the East, who can remain but for a fraction of time beneath the wave, and grope fearfully among rugged ocean-mounds, but to the adept in the civilized mode of diving, who, in his protective armor, may remain submerged for hours, and wander, with impunity, for miles along those unknown regions far below the sea. To him are laid open the horrors of the watery creation, and he may gaze upon such scenes as Arabian story tells us were presented to the fearful eyes of Abdallah. To him the most thrilling occurrences of the upper world seem frivolous; for, in his memory, he retains thoughts that may well chill the soul with dread.

I am a diver-a diver from choiceand I am proud of my profession. Where is such courage required as is needed here? It is nothing to be a soldier: a diver, however-but I forbear. I will tell my story, and leave others to judge concerning it.

An appalling shipwreck occurred, not long ago, upon the wildest part of the coast of Newfoundland. The tidings of this calamity reached the ears of thousands; but, amid the crowd of accidents which followed in quick succession, it was soon forgotten. Not by us, however. We found that the vessel had sunk upon a spot where the water's depth was by no means great, and that a daring man might easily reach her.

She was a steamer called the Marmion, and had been seen going suddenly down, without an instant's warning, by some fishermen near by. She had, undoubtedly, struck a hidden rock, and had thus been, in one moment, destroyed.

I spoke to my associates of the plan, and they approved it. No time was dost in making the necessary preparations, and a short time beheld us embarked in our small schooner for the sunken ship. There were six of us, and we anticipated extraordinary suc


I was the leader, and generally ventured upon any exploit in which there was uncommon danger. Not that the others were cowards; on the contrary, they were all brave men, but I was gifted with a coolness and a presence of mind of which the others were destitute. two persons were needed, in order to explore the Marmion, I had selected as my companion a young fellow, whose steadiness and dauntless courage had several times before been fearfully tested.

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It was a calm and pleasant day, but the southern and eastern horizon looked deceitful. Small, suspicious clouds were gathered there, ill of aspect, and sneaking fellows, regular hang-dog fellows," as my comrade, Rimmer, remarked to me. Nevertheless, we were not to be put off by a little cloudiness in the sky, but boldly prepared to venture.

So deep was the water, that no vestige of a ship's mast remained above the surface, to point out the resting place of the Marinion. We were compelled, therefore, to select the scene of operations according to the best of our ability. Down went the sails of our schooner, and Rimmer and I put on our diving armor. We fixed on our helmets tightly, and screwed on the hose. One by one each clumsy article was adjusted. The weights were hung, and we were ready.

"It looks terrible blackish, Berton," said Rimmer to me.

"Oh," I replied, gaily, "it's only a little mist-all right!"

"Ah!" He uttered a low exclamation, which sounded hollow from his cavernous helmet.


'All ready," I cried, in a loud voice, which they, however, could not easily distinguish. Then, making a proper sign, I was swung over the side.

Down we went, I first, and Rimmer close behind me. It did not take a long time for us to reach the bottom. We found ourselves upon what seemed a broad plain, sloping downward, toward the south, and rising slightly, toward the north. Looking forward then, & dim, black object arose, which our experienced eyes knew to be a lofty rock.

I motioned to Rimmer that we should proceed there.

I cannot tell the strangeness of the sensation felt by one who first walks the bottom of the sea.

There are a thousand objects, fitted to excite astonishment, even in the mind of him who has dared the deed a hundred times. All around us lay the plain, covered by water; but here the eye could not pierce far away, as in the upper air, for the water, in the distance, grew opaque, and seemed to fade away into misty darkness. There was no sound, except the incessant gurgle which was produced by the escape of air from the breast valve, and the plash caused by our passage through the waters. We

walked on at a good pace; for this armor, which seems so clumsy up above, is excellent below, and offers little inconvenience to the practiced wearer.

Fishes in crowds were around us. Fishes of every shape and size met our eyes, no matter where they turned. They swam swiftly by us; they sported in the water above us; they raced and chased one another, in every direction. Here a shoal of porpoises tumbled along in clumsy gambols, there a grampus might be seen rising slowly to the surface; here an immense number of smaller fish flashed past us, there some huge ones, with ponderous forms, floated in the water lazily. Sometimes three or four placed themselves directly before us, staring at us, and solemnly working their gills. There they would remain, till we came close up to them, and then, with a start, they would dart away.

All this time we were walking onward, along the bottom of the sea, while above us, like a black cloud in the sky, we could see our boat slowly moving onward upon the surface of the water. And now, not more than a hundred yards before us, we could see the towering form of that ebony rock which had at first greeted our eyes from afar. As yet, we could not be certain that this was the place where the Marmion had struck. But soon a round, black object became discernible, as we glanced at the rocky base.

Rimmer struck my arm, and pointed. I signed assent, and we moved onward more quickly.

A few moments elapsed: we had come nearer to the rock. The black object now looked like the stern of a vessel whose hull lay there.

Suddenly, Rimmer struck me again, and pointed upward. Following the direction of his hand, I looked up, and saw the upper surface of the water all foamy and in motion. There was a momentary thrill through my heart, but it passed over. We were in a dangerous condition. A storm was coming on!

But should we turn back now, when we were so near the object of our search? Already it lay before us. We were close beside it. No, I would not. I signalized to Rimmer to go forward, and we still kept our course.

Now the rock rose up before us, black, rugged, dismal. Its rough sides were worn by the action of the water, and, in some places, were covered by marine plants, and nameless ocean vegetation. We passed onward, we clambered over a spur, which jutted from the cliff, and there lay the steam


The Marmion-there she lay upright, with everything still standing. She had gone right down, and had settled in such a position, among the rocks, that she stood upright here, just as though she lay at her wharf. We rushed eagerly along and clambered up her side. There was a low moan in the water, which sounded warningly in our ears, and told us of a swiftapproaching danger. What was to be done, must be done speedily. We hurried forward. Rimmer rushed to the cabin. I went forward, to descend into the hold. I descended the ladder. I walked into the engineer's room. All was empty here, all was water. The waves of the ocean had entered, and were sporting with works of man. went into the freight-room. ly, I was startled by an appalling noise upon the deck. The heavy footsteps of some one, running, as though in mortal fear, or most dreadful haste, sounded in my ears. Then my heart throbbed wildly; for it was a fearful thing to hear, far down in the silent depths of the ocean.

Pshaw! it's only Rimmer.



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He stepped forward and clutched my arm. He pressed it with a convulsive grasp, and pointed to the cabin.

I attempted to go there.

He stamped his foot, and tried to hold me back. He pointed to the boat, and implored me, with frantic gestures, to go up.

It is appalling to witness the horrorstruck soul trying to express itself by signs. It is awful to see these signs when no face is plainly visible, and no voice is heard. I could not see his face plainly, but his eyes, through his heavy mask, glowed like coals of fire.

"I will go!" I exclaimed. I sprang from him. He clasped his hands together, but dared not follow.

Good heavens! I thought, what fearful thing is here? What scene can be so dreadful as to paralyze the soul of a practiced diver. I will see for myself.

I walked forward. I came to the cabin door. I entered the forward-saloon, but saw nothing. A feeling of contempt came to me. Rimmer shall not come with me again, I thought. Yet I was awe-struck. Down in the depths of the sea there is only silenceoh, how solemn! I paced the long saloon, which had echoed with the shrieks of the drowning passengers. Ah! there are thoughts which sometimes fill the soul, which are only felt by those to whom scenes of sublimity are familiar. Thus thinking, I walked to the aftercabin and entered

Oh, God of heaven!

Had not my hand clenched the door with a grasp which mortal terror had made convulsive, I should have fallen to the floor. I stood nailed to the spot. For there before me stood a crowd of people-men and women-caught in the last death struggle by the overwhelming waters, and fastened to the spot, each in the position in which death had found him. Each one had sprung from his chair at the shock of the sinking ship, and, with one common @motion, all had started for the door. But the waters of the sea had been too swift for them. Lo! then-some wildly grasping the table, others the beams, others the sides of the cabin-there they all stood. Near the door was a crowd of people, heaped upon one another-some on the floor, others rushing over them- all seeking, madly, to gain the outlet. There was one who sought to clamber over the

table, and still was there, holding on to an iron post. So strong was each convulsive grasp, so fierce the struggle of each with death, that their hold had not yet been relaxed; but each one stood and looked frantically to the door.


To the door-good God! To me,

me they were looking! They were glancing at me, all those dreadful, those terrible eyes! Eyes in which the fire of life had been displaced by the chilling gleam of death. Eyes which still glared, like the eyes of the maniac, with no expression. They froze me with their cold and icy stare. They had no meaning; for the soul had gone. And this made it still more horrible than it could have been in life; for the appalling contortion of their faces, expressing fear, horror, despair, and whatever else the human soul may feel, contrasting with the cold and glassy eyes, made their vacancy yet more fearful.

He upon the table seemed more fiendish than the others; for his long, black hair was disheveled, and floated horribly down-and his beard and mustache, all loosened by the water, gave him the grimness of a demon. Oh, what woe and torture! what unutterable agonies appeared in the despairing glance of those faces-faces twisted into spasmodic contortions, while the souls that lighted them were writhing and struggling for life.

I heeded not the dangerous sea which, even when we touched the steamer, had slightly rolled. Down in these awful depths the swell would not be very strong, unless it should increase with ten-fold fury above. But it had been increasing, though I had not noticed it, and the motion of the water began to be felt in these abysses. Suddenly the steamer was shaken and rocked by the swell.

At this the hideous forms were shaken and fell. The heaps of people rolled asunder. That demon on the table seemed to make a spring directly towards me. I fled, shrieking-all were after me, I thought. I rushed out, with no purpose but to escape. I sought to throw off my weights and rise.

My weights could not be loosenedI pulled at them with frantic exertions, but could not loosen them. The iron fastenings had grown stiff. One of them I wrested off in my convulsive efforts, but the other still kept me down. The tube, also, was lying down still in my

passage-way through the machine rooms. I did not know this until I had exhausted my strength, and almost my hope, in vain efforts to loosen the weight, and still the horror of that scene in the cabin rested upon me.

Where was Rimmer? The thought flashed across me. He was not here. He had returned. Two weights lay

near, which seemed thrown off in terrible haste. Yes, Rimmer had gone. I looked up; there lay the boat, tossing and rolling among the waves.

I rushed down into the machine-room, to go back, so as to loosen my tube. I had gone through passages carelessly, and this lay there, for it was unrolled from above as I went on. I went back in haste to extricate myself; I could stay here no longer; for if all the gold of Golconda was in the vessel, I would not stay in company with the dreadful dead!

Back-fear lent wings to my feet. I hurried down the stairs, into the lowerhold once more, and retraced my steps through the passages below. I walked back to the place into which I had first descended. It was dark; a new feeling of horror shot through me; I looked up. The aperture was closed!

Heavens! was it closed by mortal hand? Had Rimmer, in his panic flight, blindly thrown down the trapdoor, which I now remembered to have seen open when I descended? or had some fearful being from the cabin-that demon who sprung towards me — ?

I started back in terror.

But I could not wait here; I must go; I must escape from this den of horrors. I sprang up the ladder, and tried to raise the door. It resisted my efforts; I put my helmeted head against it, and tried to raise it; the rung of the ladder broke beneath me, but the door was not raised; my tube came down through it and kept it partly open, for it was a strong tube, and kept strongly expanded by close-wound wire.

I seized a bar of iron, and tried to pry it up; I raised it slightly, but there was no way to get it up further. I looked around, and found some blocks; with these I raised the heavy door, little by little, placing a block in, to keep what I

had gained. But the work was slow, and laborious, and I had worked a long while before I had it raised four inches.


The sea rolled more and more. submerged vessel felt its power, and rocked. Suddenly it wheeled over, and lay upon its side."

I ran around to get on the deck above, to try and lift up the door. But when I came to the other outlet, I knew it was impossible; for the tube would not permit me to go so far, and then I would rather have died a thousand deaths than have ventured again so near the cabin.

I returned to the fallen door; I sat down in despair and waited for death. I saw no hope of escape. This, then, was to be my end.

But the steamer gave a sudden lurch, again acted upon by the power of the waves. She had been balanced upon a rock, in such a way that a slight action of the water was sufficient to tip her


She creaked, and groaned, and labored, and then turned upon her side.

I rose; I clung to the ladder; I pressed the trap-door open, while the steamer lay with her deck perpendicular to the ground. I sprang out, and touched the bottom of the sea. It was in good time; for a moment after, the mass went over back again.

Then, with a last effort, I twisted the iron fastening of the weight which kept me down; I jerked it. It was loosed, it broke, it fell. In a moment I began to ascend, and in a few minutes I was floating on the water-for the air which is pressed down for the diver's consumption constitutes a buoyant mass, which raises him up from the sea.

Thanks to heaven! There was the strong boat, with my bold, brave men! They felt me rising; they saw me, and came and saved me.

Rimmer had fled from the horrid scene when I entered the cabin, but remained in the boat to lend his aid. He never went down again, but became a sea captain. As for me, I still go down, but only to vessels whose crews have been saved.

It is needless to say that the Marmion was never again visited.

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