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many things now deemed by us of little account, are really of great importance in making us better or worse members of society.

From psychology we learn the laws of our mental side. These laws directly affect questions of education and moral training. Though, from their very complexity, less cognisable than the laws of matter, some of the greater laws of mind are already known. For the most part, however, our methods are at present empirical ; and we may, therefore, look for a corresponding impetus when psychology shall furnish us with more exact knowledge.

There is yet a kind of common or border-land between physiology and psychology, consisting of both sciences interwoven, anl dealing with the important question of the mens sana in corpore sano. That is to say, of the influence of habits and condition of body on the development and healthful state of the mind; and of the influence, again, which regular or irregular exercise and control of the mind has upon the body.

The results of the investigation of man in himself, as an individual, form a necessary complement to sociology. With a knowledge of the end to be obtained, is necessary also a knowledge of the means best adapted for obtaining that end.

From this slight sketch some idea will, it is to be hoped, be gained of the important contributions which science will make to our ethical apparatus. Ethical science is like a map, on which at first only the more important conformations are shown, but on which more and more detail is gradually but surely added, till at last the picture is complete. And though in ethics perfection is, from the nature of the case, impossible, yet one cannot doubt that here, too, science will accomplish results as great as in the physical sciences.

We are now in a position to face the question proposed at the outset the relation of science to intuition. What are the aims of science? Will she still keep to the old paths, or will she strike out new ones for herself? On the answer to this question depends our attitude towards this new learning.

In all human reasoning there must be some datum, some point of agreement from which argument can start. Such a datum in physics is Matter. Its origin, the reason of its manifestation under certain laws and not under other conceivable ones, are questions unanswerable. Matter exists, and its laws are the highest generali. sation yet known of all the varied phenomena of nature. Matter as at present known is the limit of scientific investigation in that direction; and because it is so, because to our present methods it presents the feature of finality, we accept it without question as the basis of our reasoning. It is possible, of course, to speculate on the origin of matter, or even to conceive of its non-existence. No one, however, would allow such speculations to lead him to act in

contradiction to the ascertained laws of matter. If any one did he would immediately receive punishment at the hands of the laws he transgressed.

Such a fundamental datum in ethics is the idea of society. Of its "antecedents" we know nothing. This only can we say that society is a law of human existence, of which the contrary is unthinkable. The transgression of the law of social existence would destroy the differentia between man and the animals: man unsocial would no longer be man. Different forms of society there are, and will no doubt continue to be; but the principle of organic gregariousness, if one may call it so, still remains.

There is, therefore, no alternative for science but to accept this principle as the basis of all ethical reasoning. This involves, as its corollary, the subordination of the individual to the social organism, without which society could not exist. The welfare of society, is then, the scientific aim of ethics. By society is meant, not that limited collocation of human beings which we term one's country, or neighbours, or family; but the whole race of mankind, of which each such collocation may be considered as a member. This is the society for whose welfare we are to act. Manifestly, our activity will chiefly lie among some smaller collocation; and the apparatus which science will put into our hands for directing ourselves we have already seen.

If now the reader will recall to his memory the results at which we arrived in discussing intuition, he will have little difficulty in apprehending the relation between it and induction. We saw intuition seize one after another the deeper springs of action; wo observed it passing by all minor matters of ethics, and concentrating its whole strength on the enunciation of right motive. We saw the final result of this in the command, "Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself." This we found to imply, under any interpretation of the words, that in the recognition of the claims of society lay the performance of our "duty," that which it is “right” that we should do.

Incidentally we saw that intuition provided a moral code,* and we perceived also the reason why the old code was never revised or replaced by a new one. Another reason, however, had great influence here. This is the slight change in social formations between the time of formulation of the code and the time of the end of intuition; so that the rules which applied to the earlier period applied almost equally well to the latter, and any deficiency in the code was consequently felt lightly, if at all.

In this paper we have traced the course of scientific procedure

* In this case, the "Ten Commandments."

in ethics, and have found it to result in the postulate of the welfare of society as the aim of conduct. The impossibility of any other basis of ethics than this has become clear. So far, therefore, as the basis of conduct, motive, is concerned, there is a complete agreement between intuition and induction. They view conduct from two different standpoints; but their conclusions, though differently expressed, are in substance, identical; and their two-fold view of conduct contains in it the reconciliation of the "good" and the "useful." The welfare of society is "good" from the standpoint of intuition; "useful" from that of induction. But both agree in making that welfare their aim.

At the confluence of these two mighty streams of thought we are now standing; and casting our glance forward into the future we can see them rolling on in unison. As the face of society

changes more and more from the simple pastoral life which gave intuition its birth, the deficiencies of the old moral code will be supplied by science. The old commandments will ever remain as venerable landmarks of ethics, but they will be supplemented by inductive research. On the other hand, induction, when unable, as often it will be, to individualise its general rules sufficiently to make them applicable to individuals, will be supplemented by intuition, whose inner light, fed and strengthened by increased stores of knowledge, will illuminate with ever greater brilliancy the path of duty.

J. FENTON.

CHLORAL.

"Gestorben istder Herrgott oben,
Und Unten ist der Teufel todt."

I WAS reading Heine's sad verse,
For I could not go to sleep;

"Here's your Chloral," said the sick nurse, And I took it like a sheep.

What? eh? oh! hang it bother!
It can't be as you say,
My wife's own dearest mother,
With the butler run away?

A woman almost saintly!

Sung hymns to sweetest tunes! What's that you whisper faintly, The butler's bagged the spoons?

I'll have him hanged and whip her-
Why, both my shoes are gone!
Here's a top-boot and a slipper!
What's that you say he's done?

My partner Jones absconded!
Cash gone, as I'm a sinner,
Why he yesterday responded
At a missionary dinner!

Give me a pen and paper;

I'll stop his game, I thinkNo, not that blotting-paper! Confound it, where's the ink?

You dare to say our Vicar
Was actually seen

Very much the worse for liquor
Upon the village green;

That the bishop took a shilling

To hush the matter up.

They then spent the coin in swilling,
And the dean, too, took a sup;

I've got my clothes together,
I'm off! By Jove I'm not!
Before this day I never

My pantaloons forgot!

What's that you say, you gaby?
Our nurse for twenty year
Is sitting on the baby,

With a grin from ear to ear!

Hullo! just what I dreaded-
With sorrow I shall die!
I'm getting quite light-headed,
By Jingo, I can fly!

I flap my hands discreetly,

And hold my breath quite tight;

And up I go so sweetly,

Like a seraph fair and bright.

I hook on to the ceiling,

And float there while I think;

What's become of the proper feeling?

Has the whole world turned to drink?

The strangest, maddest feeling,

The timid one's go wrong,

And suddenly in crime

Come out so very strong!

What groan was that you uttered?
Tell me again, I said;

A solemn voice now muttered,
"Don't you know the devil's dead?

The news shocks sinners even;

But most on saints must tell,
Who never truly wished for Heaven,
But only dreaded Hell!

And as these words were mumbled,

My powers of flight gave way,

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