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ready to cut each other's characters, if not throats, at the smallest notice."

As his obstinacy on this point was not to be overcome we were forced to go without him.

Dolly and I were immensely interested in each other's appearance this evening when the ceremony of dressing took place, -she in pink, I in white.

"Truly you are born to carry all before you-you look splendid!" I exclaimed, with a genuine burst of admiration as I finished assisting her.

“Thank you, dear," she said quietly, taking it as her due. "Now let me help you.'

After a few finishing touches, she said, "Yes, you will do; "I like your dress extremely; there is a decided air of superiority about it that will carry off the palm. Pe prepared to create a sensation, my child."

"Don't talk nonsense! you make me feel miserable; I never could make friends with people at first."

"I didn't talk about your making friends: I simply said you would create a sensation, a pleasing flutter of hope and surprise." "Don't forget your music," said my aunt to me, at that moment entering the room.

"But my wrist!" I exclaimed, glad to escape the ordeal of a public performance.

"Dolly will accompany you."

"Of course, I will; I wouldn't have you leave your music behind for worlds. But before we go I wish to remind you, my beloved friends, that if you have occasion to address me in public this evening, which no doubt you will, that the name I received at my baptism, when I promised to renounce the pomps and vanities of this wicked world-a promise, I am happy to think, no one ever seems, or is expected, to keep, by the way—was Medora, not Dolly, as in tender moments you are wont to call me ;" and she finished off with a low bow. After a hearty laugh at her dramatic action and request we started for Mrs. Baines's At Home.






Ir would, perhaps, have appeared less pe lantic to have headed this chapter-quadrupeds-more especially as such are what we have really in view; but as the monkey and bat tribes-the quadrumana and the cheiroptera-cannot precisely be said to be quadrupeds, yet come among the mammals, or mammiferæ, there was no help for it but to adopt the more comprehensive heading.

To begin, then, with the higher organised mammals, the monkeytribe, one species is twice noticed in the Old Testament (1 Kings x, 22; and 2 Chron. ix. 21) under the name of koph, whence the "kupos" of the Septuagint, and "cephus" of the Romans. But as this animal is associated in both cases with thoukiim, rendered 'peacocks' in our version, but, from the prehensile meaning of the word, more probably parrots-it is also most probable that in both cases animals are alluded to which were brought from Ophir, in Southern Africa, by the fleet of Tarshish.

There are, however, traditions of the existence of a large ape or baboon in the jungle of the lower Euphrates or Tigris; and Mr. Rich notices the satyrs of the desert in his "Memoir on the Ruins of Babylon," p. 30; but such an animal was not met with or heard of during the exploration of those two rivers. Supposing it to have been once a tenant of the Mesopotamian wilderness, which is far from unlikely, the untractable and brutal, yet semi-human character of the whole genus would indeed be sufficient to sanction the Arabic name "saadan," and the Hebrew "sadim," indicating satyr of the desert. Mr. Rich says his informants called them "Said" or "Sayyid Assad;" and he adds, they are found in the woods near Semava, on the lower Euphrates. This is very likely to be the case, for the Arabian ape or baboon (Macacus Arabicus), a species nearly allied to Cynocephalus hamadryas, on the one hand, and to Macacus Silenus on the other-all three, powerful, fierce, and libidinous animals, is said to be met with from the Straits of Bab-el-Mandeb, through Southern Arabia to the Euphrates and Tigris. It is remarkable that this species is all the less solicitous about the vicinity of trees, as it is armed with powerful canines;

holds its enemy firmly grasped, and fights not singly, but assisted by the whole troop. Hence it frequents jungle and even scrubby ground near water, and would find plenty of suitable cover near the last-mentioned rivers. Colonel Hamilton Smith, believes that this animal will ultimately prove to be a baboon, and the same as Simia Cynomolgus of Haselquist. The so-called Macacus Arabicus is described as having a dog-like nose, the skin of the face of a reddish colour with a large tuft of hair on each side, and this would correspond with the description given of the tartarin or dog-faced baboon, Cynocephalus Hamadryas, also met with in Arabia.

Looking at the semi-human form of this animal it must be admitted that it was peculiarly adapted to the purposes of idolatry in its grossest and most debasing aspect, as is still met with in India, in the instance of the Macacus Sinicus, and when Mr. Rich's informants called it Said or Sayyid, they must have looked upon it as an almost sacred animal. The Hebrew people, already familiar with a similiar worship in Egypt, may have copied the native tribes in the wilderness, and have thus drawn upon themselves the remonstrance in Levit. xvii. 7, where the allusion to these animals is very distinct, as also in Isa. xiii. 21; and again xxxiv. 14; where the image is perfect, when we picture to ourselves the sayrim or "hairy ones," lurking in the tamarisk groves of the river Euphrates. The most ancient form of the Arabian Urolalt was that of a baboon, the name having some reference to red and to the Indian monkeyworship. Four different species of quadrumana, all, however, apparently foreign, are represented on the obelisk of Nimrud. One is conjectured to represent an ape; another the hunuman, venerated by the Indians; a third the bruh, the largest of the Indian monkey tribe, and a fourth, the wanderoo, or maned ape of India.

The Rev. Wm. Houghton, in a paper on the mammalia of the Assyrian sculptures, read before the Society of Biblical Archæology, admits, with Layard, that the monkey with a white face like that of a man, and with a fringe of whiskers neatly trimmed round it, is the Presbyter entellus, or hunuman of India, and he also advocates the presence of Macacus Silenus. It is remarkable that the Assyrian word for monkey was "u-du-mu," or a-da-ma," the same as the Hebrew and Arabic word "a-dam," a man. This, at all events, attests to the antiquity of an hypothesis erroneously supposed to belong to our own times.

Species of the bat tribe, most plentifully represented in the East, are alluded to in the Old Testament under the name of Atalleph, as unclean animals. They are the "wedji kushi" of the Turks, "slepi mish" of the Slaves, "litigak" of the Dacians, and "nykteriza" or nykterida" of the Greeks. The common bat is so abundant that in some towns they issue forth at twilight

in nyrials, and where there are Lo winlows penetrate into the rooms, where they are of rent use in destroying musquitoes. They congrete in estatal nurulars in caves and ruins. Long-eared bats of a la bur, ar: also seen, but more rarely. An attempt was Lale to explore a staircase in the desert d castle of Al Mamure, on the river Espårves, ell from thet Khalif's devotion, to astro Lony, Kalah en Nesjia or the "castle of stars," in the serfa tunnel tra. Hitionally sail to have existel at that place more probably, Lowever, at Zen bia); but as, after driving away the bits, a work of Lo small labour, the excavation had to be carried on trou.h the'r dung-the a cumulation of years-it bal after a time to leper re given up, fom the suocating olour, the finer particles penetrating everywhere.

Mr. Layard describes a visit made to a cave on the side of Kukab, the "Star" mountain of central Mesopotamia, when an avalanche of loose stones being set in motion, disturbed swarms of bats that hung to the sides and ceiling of the cavern. Flying towards the liht, these noisome beasts almost compelled the party to retreat. They clung to their clothes, and their lands could scarcely prevent their settling on their faces. The nestling of their wings he describes, as being like the noise of a great wind, and an abominable stench arose from the recesses of the cave.

The first tribe of these animals, distinguished as being without tails, is not at present known either in Egypt or Arabia; but of the second, having tails, a large species was discovered by Geoffrey St. Hilaire, in the Pyramids, and a very large one is figured on the oldest monuments. Mr. Tristram has since discovered large foxheaded bats (Xontharpyra Egyptiaca), in the rocks at Kalat-alKurn, above the plain of Acre, in Syria.

Among the insect-eating quadrupeds, most of which are valuable fur-bearing animals, we have the common hedge-hog ("kipri" or "kirpi" of the Turks, "skantzoc-hoiros" of the Greeks, and "kunfred" of the Arabs). The flesh of this animal is esteemed by the Arabs as strengthening. A long-eared species is met with in the south, which seems either to be Erinaceus auritus of Pallas, or E. Egyptus of St. Hilaire; but Mr. Tristram says a hedge-hog was brought to him which was identical with the European species.

Two species of shrew-mice ("keustebek" of the Turks, "chamoragus" of the Greeks) are met with in the fields, one of which appears to correspond to Sorex pusillus of Gmelin. Mr. Tristram met with some peculiar field mice in Palestine. One was a curious little sand mouse of a pale, tawny colour, and its back covered with spines instead of hair (Acomys dimidiatus), and another little porcupine-mouse, Acanthomys Cahirinus. Both were found in the neighbourhood of the Dead Sea.

The common mole is met with, but is very rare in Greece, and, as may be easily imagined, in the stony regions of Syria. The Syrian mole, which has shallower subterranean passages and yet raises higher mounds than the European species, is not a mole, properly so-called, but a mole-rat. The Arabic name is "khuld," the "synonym" of the Hebrew, "choled," translated "weasel" in our version. It is twice the size of our mole, and without any vestige of external eyes. (Res. in Assyria, p. 39.) The "spalax,' or “aspalax” of Aristotle (" typhlopontikos" of the Greeks), has been long known as the mole of the ancients. It is the Georychus typhlus or Aspalax typhlus of systematists. There is a variety with irregular white spots, which is social in its habits. Pallas and Gmelin who called the aspalax, "mus typhlus," also described a small species called "sukerkan," greyish brown above and whitish below (mus talpinus). This is the Georychus talpinus, or Lemnus talpinus of others.

Bears ("aye" of the Turks, "medved" of the Slaves, "ari " of the Albanians, "ourss " of the Wallachians, "arkouda" of the Greeks, "dub" of the Arabs, "deeb or dob" of the Persians, and "dob" of the Hebrews), is, as is shown by its names, known throughout the mountainous regions of Turkey in Europe and Turkey in Asia. This appears to be the brown bear, whose skins we have seen suspended in the huts or chalets of Kurdistan. There appear, however, to be three varieties known to the Kurds, one that is black, called "manga mar," and another called "gamesh," besides the common brown bear.

The Syrian bear (Ursus Syriacus) is very nearly allied to the brown bear (Ursus Arctos), differing only in such points as may have their origin in the different conditions in which it is placed, as in the stature, being proportionably lower and longer, the head and tail more prolonged, and the colour a buff or light bay, often clouded like the Pyrenean bear, with darker brown. On the back there is a ridge of long semi-erect hairs, running from the neck to the tail. The Syrian bear is a very active animal, and during the siege of Antioch, Godefroy de Bouillon, according to Matthew Paris, slew one in defence of a poor woodcutter, and was dangerously wounded in the encounter. David defended his flock from the attack of a Syrian bear (1 Sam. xvii, 34), and the bears destroyed the children who mocked the prophet (2 Kings xi. 24).*

It was for a long time supposed that the badger was not an inhabitant, at all events, of Turkey in Asia; and Colonel Hamilton Smith argued upon that ground that the accepted version of tachash,

Mr. Tristram saw a brown Syrian bear clumsily, but rapidly, clamber down the rocks of the Wady Laimun, near the Sea of Galilee, and cross the ravine.-The Land of Israel, p. 447.

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