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but he would add and emphasize the supply of intelligent, competent, and regular instruction. Left to its own devices, the system will break down. The qualifications of the man selected for this purpose will be the determining element in the results obtained. On the executive side, he ought to be a man of rare ability; on the personal side, of

strong character, amiable disposition, and large experience in managing men and boys. By the careful adoption of some such system of tutorage it is hoped that the question of the supply of all-around mechanics may be solved, and that the permanency of our industrial system may not be impaired by the lack of them.


WHILE recognizing the "strong torrent of materialism that is now sweeping over the consciousness of the average man," the Baba Bharati, the Hindu teacher who is now in this country preaching the simple faith of Hinduism, believes that all over the world to-day there is "distinctly perceptible an undercurrent of a genuine spiritual hunger and spiritual appetite." In his little magazine, the Light of India, published at Los Angeles, California, the Baba Bharati surveys the spiritual status of the world during the closing days of 1906. The modern church, this Hindu teacher believes, cannot give light on the subject of our future and aim in life, because it has "none to give, having sold it all for material gain." And yet, says the Hindu teacher, "in spite of the dying embers on its altar, the Christian church has really kept human souls in the West from being killed by the frosts and snows of absolute materialism."

Souls that are near the altar receive some warmth from even the thick ash-covered, smouldering fire of the faith and character of Jesus of Nazareth; and those souls that are far from the flame, because of their want of faith in its existence, have sustained themselves by absorbing the warmth from those near the fire by pressing themselves close to their side. In plainer English, the vibrations of churchworship, though feeble and getting feebler every day, are still sustaining the soul of the Western man and are keeping the Western lands above

the waters.

The really intelligent religious people of to-day, he continues, are between two fires: -between the rank materialism of modern science and the soulless Christianity of the churches encased in the narrow beliefs and bigotry born of spiritual ignorance. They do not know what to do to satisfy their inner craving the craving which they feel has its roots somewhere back of the mind-the craving which is becoming keener and keener every day. They have tried, many of them, almost all the newfangled cults dished up with savory smell to satisfy that appetite, and have left them and are leaving them, after a while, more hungry than

before. They have even tried Christian Science the feeling of that hunger gnawing at their heart, and come out of it with the same feeling, with with the additional experience of chill-the chill of a cold semblance of love for God and a colder philosophy and science.

Continuing in a survey of the spiritual influences of to-day, the Baba (a term which means “father" or teacher ") pays a tribute to many of the leaders of theosophy for their "wonderful earnestness of spirit joined to a keen spiritual hunger and a genius in facility of expression." The Russo-Japanese war, he believes, brought great good to the cause of the world's spirituality in reviving,

or at least in bringing to the notice of the Western world, the Oriental "ideal morale." Baba Bharati explains Shintoism, Confucianism, Mohammedanism, Buddhism, and Hinduism, pointing out the respects in which each makes for real spirituality. Japan, he believes, will never become a Christian nation. Indeed, her war with Russia has confirmed her in her belief in the benefits of Orientalism. China, also, is awakening, and in her national awakening will come the arousing of the spiritual consciousness of her people, but it will be toward Confucianism. Even Mohammedanthan ever before, because the Mohammedan ism is not dead, and its future is brighter religion, "with all its greed and violent ethics, has not been commercialized." As for modern Christianity, "it only needs to really know Jesus Christ, only needs to understand the spirit of its founder's teachings, to drop its conceit, its insincerity, and its subtle aggressiveness."

Of course, this Hindu teacher is most interested in expounding and exalting the Hindu religious spirit and form. “India is the heart of the earth, and the Hindu religion the soul of all religions." Religion, even in these degenerated days of materialism, he continues, is the chief business of life of the Hindus. They are loyal to their age-long



"Not the sophistry of Buddhism, the aggressive imperialism of Mohammedanism, nor the matter-wedded blandishments of muscular Christianity has been able to make the least abiding impression upon the world-old spiritual consciousness of the Hindu people." Many years ago the fate of Christianity in India was sealed, he declares. "The totally un-Christian conduct, character and ways of life of the English rulers, whose political, social and arbitrary aggression of the ruled is the worst outrage the world has ever known, decided the fate of the evangelization of India to a finality."

There has been, recently, a great upheaval of Hinduism, declares this teacher, and the significant sign is the coming of Indian missionaries to Europe and America to preach the truths of Hinduism.

These Hindoo missionaries are all selfappointed and backed by no missionary funds from their own country. They have come here, prompted by the purely spiritual instincts of their own world-large ascetic heart, to give of their store of spiritual knowledge, realized by the light of renunciation and true love of God, to hungering souls of liberal America as they did or do give them to the people of their own country. Bereft of all worldy goods through their renunciation, they have to make their living to be able to exist in order to preach. They have to accept money in this land for teaching spiritual wisdom which they have never done in their own land where spiritual wisdom and cooked food are never sold for pecuniary consideration; sustenance for the soul and sustenance for the body are to be given free, is the teaching of the Hindoo Scriptures, the teaching followed and lived up to by even the poorest pariahs. The coming of the Hindoo preachers of Hindooism-the enlightener of all religious beliefs-to Western lands is a Godordained dispensation in the march of the world's spiritual events, a dispensation pregnant

* * *


with all its divine potentialities, a dispensation big with the fate of the spiritual consciousness of the Western world-a dispensation destined to illuminate, with Christ's own illumination, the Christ religion for those within the churches and to feed the God-hungry souls outside of them. Already the Hindoo preachers are fulfilling the first mission, the mission of illuminating Christ and Christianity by the light of the Vedas. People who hear them and learners of their lessons have learned to love Jesus Christ, to whom their attitude of mind had hitherto been one either of indifference or of small regard, with greater love than that experienced by the orthodox church-goers and most of their ministers; for the Hindoo has come to help the cause of spirituality. He is taught by his own religion to construct, not to destroy, genuine spiritual ideals of peoples.



THAT it is not alone the upper classes that antagonize Socialism in Germany is abundantly proved by those labor movements which oppose its principles and tendencies. An elaborate article avowedly treating of the German labor movement in general, but actually almost entirely devoted to an examination of the anti-Socialist organizations, appears in the Deutsche Monatsschrift. The argument is like this:

sumed a development so rapid and having such momentous bearing upon the national interests as the modern labor movement. It is the most burning question of to-day, whose solution is not the last factor in the determination of the future of the country and its people. The bulk of this movement espouses Social-Democratic views, with the existing social and political order. The great question is: Will it be possible to eventually incorporate the modern labor movement in the present state and social organism, or are the pessimists right who consider a social cataclysm

whose ultimate ends are at absolute variance

Seldom has a class movement in Germany as- inevitable.

Although the founders of the theories of Socialism, Marx and Engels, based these mainly upon the English development of capital and industry, Socialism has found least foothold in England. The labor movement in England had only a passing political aspect,-just sufficient to secure certain rights for the strivings of the workingmen. In Germany it avowed itself at once as a political movement. The realization of Socialist aims is not to be the fruit of persistent trade and social reform agitation, but of the political conflict of classes. Hence the constant desire of the German Socialists for political supremacy. Only as the prospect of success grew ever more remote did the idea of self-defense through trades unions gain ground among

Instead of assuming the rôle of prophet, the writings of the Bishop of Mainz, Emanthe writer directs attention to the Christian- uel Ketteler. The Christian-Social moveNational Labor movement, which, branching ment of that time was not a pronounced away from the great stream of Socialism, labor agitation. Its essential objects were honestly attempts to harmonize with actual religious and ethical. The labor unions were conditions, that is, to attain independence to be meeting places for the workmen; to enfor the working classes within the frame- lighten them in regard to Socialist ideas work of the national and economic organism. and their perversity, to inculcate religious and moral principles, to educate them, were the chief ends. The contest for better wages and conditions of labor were not among them. A marked change, particularly in the last 10 years, has, however, taken place, the predominating idea now being to make the workingmen independent, that is, the labor unions are consciously striving not only to do something for the workingmen but they aim to fit them to do something for themselves. With this end in view, courses of instruction have been organized where the most intelligent and able workmen may study the relations of economic phenomena, the legitimate aims of labor movements, etc. The religious instruction, too, is now of a nature which enables them to cope with the foes of religion, in the workship, the factory, in social intercourse. The form of organization has likewise changed. Among the Protestants they have the close, general union of the Protestant labor unions of Germany, which gives the whole movement a homogeneous character. The Catholics have not this homogeneousness; they have three great associations in south, west, and north Germany. These denominational labor unions have, beyond doubt, an extraordinarily important mission in the German labor agitation.

the Social-Democratic laborers themselves.

In spite of its 3,000,000 votes, the Social Democracy has not now, or within any calculable time can it have, the writer insists, the faintest chance of possessing itself of political dominion.

The vigor of German civic society will not, it may be hoped, ever permit the Utopian theories of the Socialists to be realized. The chief interest, therefore, of the German laboring class has in the last 25 years been concentrated upon the trades unions, which have had a remarkable, unexpected development. There is no doubt that their efforts, directed to practical ends, have had a sobering effect upon the Social-Democratic workingmen. The best evidence of this is the numerous conflicts between the leaders of the trades unions and those of the Social-Democratic party.

But the chief point to which the writer draws attention is that a new labor movement has been developed alongside of the Social-Democratic one.

The Christian-National Labor movement deserves the attention of all classes of people. It is only a pity that it has entered the lists so late; but this is less the fault of the Christian workers than of the citizens generally, who are prone to look upon every labor movement from the angle of Social Democracy.

Their essential concern is to further the ideal sides of the social movement, to fortify religious and moral principles, to awaken a feeling for art and science, for patriotic ideals as opposed to the subversive principles of Socialism. One can not but deplore the fact that with objects of such moment so much indifference should be displayed toward labor unions. The strength of these groups is thus estimated: Protestant labor unions, 130,000; Catholic, 300,000; Catholic journeymen's unions, 75,000; Protestant, 405,000.


The second of the more important groups The Christian-National Labor movement of the Christian-National Labor movement manifests itself in various forms, two of are the Christian trades unions. which are pre-eminent: the labor-union have been developed from and alongside of movement and the Christian trades-union movement. There are, besides, other organizations, which, though not affiliated with these, have entirely like tendencies.

We may trace the first of these unions to the close of the '60's and to the influence of

the labor unions. They supplement the activity of the latter by making the bettering of the wages and the conditions of labor their chief concern, without, however, undervaluing the ideal problems. The founding of the Christian trades unions occurred in the be

ginning of the '90's. First a miners' union second, that the political conflict of classes, was formed; this was soon followed by which the Socialist trades-union movement also avowed, was decidedly calculated to bring the unions of many other branches of occupation. workingman more and more into opposition to The first congress convened at Mainz, the political and social order of the state and to where about 90,000 Christian organized the employers of labor, instead of paving the workmen were represented. Its essential way for the amelioration of his condition and

for salutary social reforms.

task was to establish a course of action for the new movement. This was done by form- The radical separation of the Christian. ulating concise tenets wherein the movement trades unions is the ultimate cause of the was avowed as Christian and interdenomin- violent crusade of the Social-Democrats ational, that is, in which Catholics and against them. They see in it a danger to Protestants were to co-operate; and, further- that solidarity of the proletarian movement more, it was to keep entirely aloof from pol- upon which alone they base their future. itics, to be purely a trades union, intent The Christian trade unions, still comparaupon complete harmony between capital and tively young, and with no special political labor, and this to be attained through the party behind them, have a difficult task in principles of Christianity. defending themselves; yet, in spite of all, the movement is making gratifying headway. They particularly do not desire to form a separate party or to be identified with any existing one; their aim being to interest people of any party in their cause, and to be independent of undue party influence. numerical development of the Christian trades unions is briefly given: in 1898 there were 82,290 members; increasing yearly, the latest statistics,—for 1905,-give the number as 265,035. Las

The most noteworthy feature of the Christian trades union movement is the great prominence given to the ideal view of life, although its nearest concerns are of a purely economic nature. This is not accidental; it is the natural developerance from the Social-Democratic trades unions was essentially based,-the writer, who is himself a member of this new movement, continues. upon two moments: first, the circumstance were not respected; nay, more, that the entire tendency was to rob them of their belief; and,

ment of the German labor movement. The sev

that the Christian convictions of the members



T is hard to realize that mere pulveriza- for the latter is simply an intimate mixture tion may convert an innocent lump of of powdered charcoal and sulphur,—both coal, an unoffending piece of cork, or a handful of harmless grains of wheat, into a powder more dangerous under many conditions than a like amount of "villainous saltpeter." Yet this is the simple truth. Coal-dust explosions, flour-dust explosions, mean much to those who have experienced them. This is due to the fact that solids, especially in a state of powder, have the peculiar power of causing gases and vapors to become condensed upon their surfaces,-they "occlude" gases, as the scientist says.

As a powder exposes a vast area of surface to a circumambient gas, as compared with that of the same mass of material in a single lump, the finer the powder the greater the proportion of occluded gas to solid nuclei. If the gas be air and the powder that of a readily combustible material, we have produced an intimate mixture of fuel and the oxygen necessary for its burning, awaiting the spark that is to start the fire. In brief, we have here a veritable gunpowder,

combustible and both yielding gaseous prod-
'ucts when they burn,-with niter, which
furnishes, when heated, the necessary oxygen.
Just as the flame spreads through the ignited
gunpowder, so it may flash through the pas-
sages of a coal mine or the rooms of a flour
mill or elevator, feeding as it goes upon the
fine dust which fills the air and which pro-
vides all the raw material for a conflagration.
A given case of “burning" becomes an “ex-
plosion" when it is very rapid and when the
volume of the (gaseous) product is very
large as compared with that of the material
originally ignited. Confinement of the ex-
plosion within a limited space generally in-
creases the rapidity of its propagation and
always magnifies its expansive force. Hence,
dust explosions in mines and mills may ex-
hibit terrific power, just as the burning of
powder in the gun barrel is a very different
matter from its burning in the open air.

In the year 1844 a terrible explosion, costing many lives, occurred in the Haswell Col

lieries in northern England. Faraday and Lyell, who were called upon to examine into the causes of the disaster and to recommend precautions to be taken to prevent its recurrence, published in the following year the results of the first careful investigation of the question of dust explosions. They pointed out the fact that fire-damp explosions which might in themselves not be especially dangerous might, nevertheless, become terrible on account of the coal dust raised, car

ried along, and, finally ignited by the incipi

ent fire-damp explosion. In the same year Faraday elsewhere stated the case in these words: "The ignition and explosion of the mixture (fire damp) would raise and then kindle the coal dust which is always pervading the passages, and these effects must in a moment have made the part of the mine which was the scene of the calamity glow

like a furnace."

According to Mr. Watson Smith, from whose paper in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry the above quotation is taken, the words of Faraday and Lyell fell upon deaf ears. Owners of mills failed to see their application to the dangers by which they were surrounded. To quote:

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There are many kinds of carbonaceous dust besides coal dust; for example, flour dust, rice dust, soot, and lampblack, also the dust of sugar, and rosin, and finely divided cotton, etc. Cork, pulverized and sifted for linoleum manufacture, forms with air a mixture so inflammable and explosive that Mr. W. F. Reid declares he would rather handle dynamite in bulk than ground cork in a loose state. Cotton mills have become rapidly fired by the ignition of mixtures of cotton dust and air. It only needs the use or occurrence on a sufficiently large scale of any of these or similar substances, dry or in a fine state of division, to give rise, under suitable conditions, to dangerous explosions. The truth of this remark is borne out in the case of flour dust, which, in the flour mills of this and other countries, has caused very many disas trous explosions. There were two reasons why stood. The first was that their cause was obscure. The bare idea that flour might explode, on the face of it, appeared absurd. The second

these flour-mill disasters were not earlier under

carried a lamp"; so it is clear that open lights
might at that time be used without any idea of
from firing a mixture of flour and air.
danger, showing the ignorance then of any risk

Experience finally showed that the stoppage of feed on its way to the millstones was a source of danger, for the stones then come ioned mills, where the system of ventilation in contact and strike sparks. In old-fashdrew the dust-laden air from all the chambers to one outlet, the most nearly perfect means was provided for the spread of ex

plosions through the ventilation shafts to every part of the building. Wherever, therefore, the original ignition took place, it was certain to spread practically instantaneously through the tubes filled with air and flour dust, carrying destruction from cellar to roof.

At first there seemed to be no practicable had to be withdrawn, it was difficult to conmeans for meeting these difficulties: the dust

ceive of any but a suction process for accom

plishing this, and equally difficult to devise
an efficient ventilating system which should
be economical to maintain in operation and
at the same time free from the danger clearly
Not long
attaching to that already in use.
ago, however, the late Henry Simon, C.E.,
brought about the introduction into England
of steel rollers in the place of stones in flour
mills, and of the so-called "Cyclone" dust
separators. According to Mr. Watson, the
use of the latter apparatus has practically
solved the dust problem. The separator con-
sists of a funnel-shaped hopper, or bin, into
which, through an opening in the side, the
dust-laden air is sent with considerable force.
The direction of the jet is toward the side
and downward, and as a result the dust and
air are whirled around the hopper at great
speed, the dust collecting on the walls and
sifting down to the bottom, while the air
rises and escapes at the top. The air which
leaves the separator is practically free from
dust; the solid matter which is withdrawn
from the bottom of the hopper is used for
cattle food.

"Cyclone" dust collectors are now in use reason was that, until the larger flour mills of in many other kinds of mills than those for more modern times were erected, the explosions and fatalities were not sufficiently great, the ruin flour, serving to prevent danger from exof life and property not on a sufficiently large plosions, and, by freeing the air from dust, scale, to attract special public attention. making the work rooms much less injurious On July 9, 1872, a violent explosion took place to employees. The recent movement to comat the Tradeston Flour Mills, near Glasgow, followed by a destructive fire. Eighteen persons pel employers to protect as far as possible were killed and 16 injured. The property dam- the eyes and breathing apparatus of workage amounted to £70,000. The explosion men from flying particles of metal, etc., and was characterized by the fire following being of from dust, is receiving much assistance excessive ferocity, the flames shooting up 100 feet high at times. Adjoining property was much through the invention and general introducinjured. A surviving workman said he "had tion of the " Cyclone" separator.

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