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expect that the automobile which succeeds

his nag will combine these qualities. It is little wonder that the man about to The car should not be overpowered,—that buy a machine is perplexed and confused is to say, a 16 or 20 horsepower motor should when one considers the great numbers of meet all the needs of a physician, or, in fact, cars that are offered for sale and the fact of any man who is sensibly willing to conthat each of them is catalogued as “the tent himself with moderate speed and a corbest.” At the last automobile exposition respondingly greater hill-climbing ability. there were 311 different models shown, of From $1200 to $1800 ought to buy it fully which 219 were gasoline cars, 36 electrics, equipped. and 9 steam machines, and all of them pleasure vehicles. The remainder were commer

GASOLINE, STEAM, OR ELECTRIC ? cial vehicles. One hundred and fifty of the The steam machine has these advantages: cars exhibited were American designed and Little jar or noise, ease of control, and simbuilt, and from these models thousands of plicity in operation, inasmuch as a single machines were sold. Many of them were throttle controls all speeds, and thus a more bought by people who had already owned elastic power is secured. Gears are elimincars, but the majority went to new users of ated and so is the possibility of putting the horseless vehicles, men who had been waiting car out of commission by stripping them. until the practicability of the automobile The steam car, with its direct drive, makes. had been established beyond the possibility of possible greater simplicity of construction and a doubt.

a reduction of repair bills in the absence of The country physician and the owner of ignition systems and their troubles, as well. a country home, in fact almost every suburb- as the further absence of “overheating” and anite of any means, has been investigating the troubles due to carbonization of lubrithe automobile question with a view to secur- cating oils in gas engines. Steam is a known ing a machine that can be economically oper- power and is more generally understood and ated and at the same time be reliable enough more easily repaired when out of order. The to be depended upon in as full a sense as a bugaboo of burned-out boilers and other horse could. Hundreds in this class are boiler troubles has been eliminated by the using motor vehicles to their profit and ad- use of the Aash boiler, and all adjustments vantage, and there are thousands of others and regulations are now automatic, dependwho would like to own automobiles but are ing only on varying temperature and preshesitating because they do not know exactly sure. In a steam car wear and tear on the what sort of a car to buy, and have no means machinery is saved by the fact that the enof ascertaining how much the cost of opera- gine never races and does not run when the tion would be after the car had been pur- car is standing still. The engine has greater chased.

elasticity, inasmuch as it is possible to inThe prospective owner must be guided by crease steam pressure and the consequent the sort of country he lives in, the hills to be power enormously when bad hills or roads negotiated and the condition of the roads, as are met with, giving a valuable reserve well as the climate and weather conditions, power. The absence of smoky exhausts, of all of which bear materially on the service- "back firing” of dirty motors, and the noises ability of an automobile.

of worn ones are claimed as advantages for Physicians differ materially in their views the steam car, as is the fact that the cost of of just the sort of a car they want, some fa- .fuel consumption is proportionate to the voring a light runabout carrying but two power developed. As a final clincher the passengers, while others want a convertible cheapness in first cost is added. car for either two or four passengers, which On the other hand, the steam machine recan be used for pleasure as well as business. quires time to be got ready for road work in There is no doubt of the fact, however, that waiting to get up pressure. The need of exif the car is to be used for i'usiness purposes tinguishing the fire when the car is stopped only the light runabout is the only machine, for any length of time and relighting it again for the saving in the tire expense, gasoline is quoted against the steam car, but this to a consumption, and general cost of running great extent has been overcome by improved will be radical. A physician would not buy burners and pilot lights. The limited water a racing horse to pull his runabout (or a and fuel capacity, increased gasoline contruck horse either), and he has no right to sumption, and the trouble from clogging of


valves or failure of pumps are also considered purposes. This is due to the fact that the disadvantages, and it is further maintained long-promised 100 or 150 mile storage batthat the results of neglect are more serious in tery has not as yet put in its appearance. At a steam car, and that the necessity of using present the car has to be taken to a station to soft water at times causes annoyance, as does be recharged every 30 or 40 miles, which is the freezing of pipes in cold weather. Last all right in the city, but generally impracticabut not least, many people are influenced by ble in the country. The advocates of the the greater danger of the destruction of the electric car make these claims: Minimum car by fire in case of accident. This is in care required for maximum service, noisereality the greatest argument against the less running, clean lines, compactness, safety, steam machine, for if the car is involved in a and freedom from vibration. Electrics have smash-up or is ditched the gasoline feed pipe no reciprocating parts, permitting the use of is apt to be broken and then the gasoline ig- antifriction bearings throughout, and thus nites from the burner.

one gets greater results from smaller horsepower. There is nothing to freeze, burn, or

explode; one can start at a second's notice; In looking for the advantages of the gas- there is no waste of material when not runoline car one finds first the practically unlim- ning; a single lever controls the power and ited radius of operation. Gasoline cars have another steers. The electric car is the easibeen run over 1000 miles without stopping, est for a lady to drive, and there is increased as against 100 miles for steam cars, and 50 durability resulting from the absence of mamiles or less for electrics. Greater speed and chinery working at high speed. endurance, rareness of total disablement and The disadvantages of the electric lie in the the possibility of patching things up to get fact that its mileage is painfully limited; it home, availability of fuel, economy of fuel is likely to b: put out of business and beyond owing to the fact that but little is used when temporary repair by the touching of two the car is running light and absolutely none wires in a short circuit; it requires too much when the machine is standing still, ease of time to recharge batteries. There is no starting after extended stops, ability to stop doubting the fact, however, that if a battery the motor and start from the seat after short is ever perfected that will give a radius of stops, perfect control by excellent throttling 100 miles or more, the electric will come to system and change speed gears, 20 per cent. be not only one of the most popular types of more efficiency than the steam engine, relia- horseless vehicles, but "the most popular bility in winter as a result of the use of air- one. And even at present, it should be cooled engines or nonfreezing solution in added, if one can afford the considerable exwater cooled ones, simplicity of mechanism, pense of one's own charging plant, the elecand greater ease of operation with less chance tric has delightful possibilities within a modof the operator getting mixed up and causing erate radius from home. an accident, are some of the important ad- Having considered all these matters carevantages of this, the most used, type of car. fully, the problem is to select that car and Nothing to watch but the road, adaptability type of machine that contains most of the to any kind of service. The advocate of features desired in the owner's particular steam naturally has his objections to the gaso- circumstances. He will probably be unable line car and states among them the multi- to find a car that contains all of them, but his plicity of reciprocating parts and bearings, careful study should be rewarded by the posand the consequently greater attention de- session of a car that will give the fewest dismanded; greater cost of operation and for advantages and that will be a great resource repairs, the racking of the car by overspeed- of pleasure, utility, and health. I say health, ing or racing of the motor, ignition and cool- because one of the finest results of the enoring troubles, greater noise, and less constant mous vogue of the automobile is the increase power.

in tonic, open-air recreation that it has brought THE ELECTRIC MACHINE.

for men, women, and children. Especially

as a relief from nervous strain, as a sleep This type of car is in a class by itself in inducer, nothing can excel the swift ride with



AST summer a leading financial journal a general increase of railroad men's wages

described the middle of the year 1906 was declared to be natural, proper, and necesas " a strikeless era." The summer and fall, sary. The only apprehension expressed by in truth, were singularly quiet and peaceful, some was this: that while the existing prosindustrially speaking. New York, Chicago, perity of the carriers abundantly warranted the mining centers east and west, the build- such an increase, difficulty might arise in the ing trades,-all were remarkably free from future, under less favorable trade conditions, disturbances and disputes. The Great Lakes should the managers find it necessary to sugfurnished no strike, and transportation suf- gest reductions. Manifestly, this argument, fered no interruption.

if weighty at one time, would be weighty at This pleasant condition has continued to any other time, indeed, at all times, and the the end of the year, although in the railroad fear of depression or "lean years " would alindustry there was, during October and No- ways prevent wage advances under sound and vember, much talk of possible and probable healthy business conditions. It was too fallatie-ups and suspensions as a means of en- cious to receive any serious attention. At any forcing demands for wage advances. As sev- rate, the higher-wages movement was not eral great railroad systems, employing several checked by misgivings of this character. hundred thousand men, increased wages 10 No doubt several causes contributed to the per cent., the threatened strikes were happily upward tendency, but, at any rate, many conaverted. In November, it may be added, the troversies that seemed to presage considerable operatives in the cotton mills of Fall River trouble and business paralysis in many direcobtained a 5 per cent increase in their wages, tions were satisfactorily adjusted without a --the second in a period of six months,--and single notable addition to the year's strike another great strike was thus prevented. record. And, accounts from every part of

These wage advances, as the public is the country unite in declaring, the record is aware, were but part of a general upward an unusually favorable one. movement in the remuneration of labor. Of course, in a country so vast and so acThe steel combination, among other manu- tive as the United States there is really no facturing concerns, has announced a 10 per strikeless era,” even under the best of concent. advance in wages, to take effect on ditions. We learn from the report submitJanuary 1.

ted to the Minneapolis convention of the This tendency is ascribed to the prosperity American Federation of Labor that the orof the agricultural and manufacturing indus- ganizers, agents, and correspondents of that tries on the one hand,—it being considered organization reported to headquarters no natural that employers should share their fewer than 887 strikes during the year, ingains with the employees, and to the con- volving directly over 91,000 working men stantly rising prices of the necessaries and and women, and costing the employees nearly comforts of life on the other, the latter ex- $4,000,000. We learn also that 64,000 planation implying that it is impossible for wage-workers were benefited by the strikes the workmen to live on the wages that were referred to. But most of these disputes were sufficient two or three years ago.

purely local and failed to attract national The Pennsylvania Railroad, in announcing attention. By a "strikeless era" is meant its voluntary advance in the wages of all em- simply an era of few serious and general inployees receiving less than $200 a month, ex- dustrial disorders, the effects of which are plicitly stated that the increased cost of liv- widely felt by capital, labor, and the coning, as well as the growth of traffic and the suming public. earnings of the system, had prompted its de

STRIKES OF THE COAL MINERS AND THE cision, which, it may be added, followed a

PRINTERS. formal resolution raising the dividend rate. At the same time other statements, credited

Of the few formidable and important to influential railroad presidents, appeared in strikes that the year witnessed we may menNew York and Chicago newspapers, in which tion the bituminous miners' and the printers'

strikes. The former began on the last day nized that labor had its own vital interests of March and was not brought to a close and needs, and that it was not at all improper until the first days of July. The operators for it to seek direct representation in the were forced to restore the scale of 1903, legislatures and in Congress. The extraorwhich meant an increase of nearly 6 per cent. dinary success of the Labor party in Engin the wages of over 300,000 men, as com- land in the general election of last year had pared with the scale of the years 1904-05. impressed not only the American unionists, The miners, on their part, also made material but many impartial observers. The usefulconcessions, the most significant of which, ness and dignity of the English " Laborites” from the view point of industrial peace, was in the Commons are cheerfully testified to the acceptance of a stipulation that work by all the party leaders, and what was so should not be interrupted on account of desirable and beneficial in England, it was grievances while the agreement was in argued, could not be detrimental and deeffect.

moralizing in the United States. This strike extended over eight or ten The origin of the new policy may be briefly States, but it was marked by no violence and set forth. The unionist leaders complained almost no disorder. In the anthracite field of the hostility and absolute indifference of the agreement of 1902 was renewed after Congress to the labor bills repeatedly inprotracted negotiations and a “suspension” troduced by friendly Representatives. The of work for a short period.

disappointment was particularly keen in the As regards the union printers, the strike case of the Eight-Hour bill, intended to exfor an eight-hour day, begun in September, tend and strengthen the Eight-Hour law al1905, is not entirely over yet. Originally ready on the statute books, and of the bill about 8000 men were involved; at this junc- to limit injunctions in industrial controverture, according to official statements, only sies and secure trial by jury for strikers and 1800 are "out," and the Typographical sympathizers accused of violence or other Union considers the struggle substantially crimes in connection with such difficulties. won. For a year the printers at work as- These bills have been before several Consessed themselves 10 per cent. of their wages gresses, but progress on any of them has been to support the strikers; now the assessment exceedingly slow,—especially in recent years. is down to 5 per cent.

Mr. Gompers, in his latest report to the Fed

eration, puts the case in the following words: LABOR AS AN INDEPENDENT FORCE IN POLITICS.

When we contemplate the alacrity with which

our Congresses respond to the demands of speThe great "feature or development of cial interests by the prompt granting of charters,

, the “labor year,” however, was unquestion- franchises, immunities, special privileges and

" ably the advent of organized labor as an in the interest of the toiling masses progresses independent force in politics. For the first as if with leaden heel; that particularly in recent time in its history the American Federation years slower progress has been made than hereof Labor, under the guidance of President tofore; that the toilers' appeals and petitions are

treated with indifference and contempt, it is not Samuel Gompers and the Executive Com- surprising that the men of labor throughout our mittee of that body, formally and definitely country have become impatient and have manitried “political action ” as a means of ob- fested that impatience. taining recognition from Congress and State Moreover, organized labor has complained legislatures of the claims of union labor in of deliberate double dealing, obstruction, and certain specified directions.

chicane on the part of

many legislators. The decision to “enter politics” was a They would profess anxiety to deal with the great surprise to the press of the country and labor bills, but delay would follow delay, to some of the more conservative unionists, hearings would follow hearings, investigawho still hold that the trade unionists as such tions would be undertaken merely to gain have nothing to expect from politics and time, and in the end absolutely nothing would should vote, not as wage-workers, but as have been accomplished. members of the parties to which they respec- In March the leaders of several national tively belong. Many denounced the move as unions, with Mr. Gompers as the chief an “un-American ” attempt to promote class spokesman, presented a striking petition, or voting and class legislation, but deeper stu- bill of grievances, more accurately, to Presidents of the phenomenon, even in the daily dent Roosevelt, Speaker Cannon, and the



ument directed attention not merely to the It became necessary to “call the roll,” to unbroken series of labor-bill failures, but to separate friends from enemies, to put canalleged violations and evasions by govern- didates for Congress definitely " on record.” ment contractors and department officials of This President Gompers and his associates the national Eight-Hour act. The President, of the executive committee of the Federation in a direct and vigorous reply, promised proceeded to do. They addressed circular to inquire at once into the charges of law letters to Represent: tives and candidates for violation and evasion, that being within his the national House, inviting them to state province and duty, but he declined peremp- their respective views candidly and briefly torily to entertain complaints reflecting on on the questions in which union and federthe sincerity and good faith of co-ordinate ated labor was peculiarly interested,-eight branches of the Government.

hours for all government employees and emTHE PRESIDENT AND THE EIGHT-HOUR LAW. of injunctions in labor disputes, etc. At the

ployees of government contracturs, limitation It may be stated at this point that the same time resolutions were adopted by the President has since ordered the strictest en- executive committee calling on labor to vote forcement of the Eight-Hour act, and sever- for genuine friends and against opponents or al prosecutions of contractors have been in- trimmers and shufflers. Labor was to have itiated. Upon some of its doubtful pro- no nominees of its own, but influence was to visions the Department of Justice has given be used with the existing parties to nominate rulings that have not pleased labor, and men known to be at least friendly to labor hence its strenuous demand for an act ex- and willing to pledge themselves to give the tending expressly the scope of the present labor bills“

a square deal.”

Of course, law and rendering it applicable to all work where the nomination of a unionist leader on done for the Government by contractors. a "regular ticket” could be secured, that But the change in the enforcement of the consummation was to be earnestly sought. law has been considerable, so considerable The circular elicited many replies,—some that some editors have accused the President direct, some evasive; some favorable and some of "stretching " the law in order to make adverse. The roll was thus ready, the repolitical capital among the wage-workers. cord made up. By that time the CongresThe truth is that many have for years treated sional campaign was fairly started, and it the Eight-Hour law as a joke and farce. Mr. became necessary for the leaders of the "inRoosevelt, when shown that the violations dependent political ” movement of organized of it were really serious and general, per- labor to convert warning into action. ceived it to be his clear duty to put an end

CONCENTRATION OF THE FIGHT. to the grotesque spectacle. He is in sympathy with the law, but even if he were not, It was impossible to make a fight against there would plainly be no reason for making every candidate whose attitude was not satisan exception of it in a policy of law enforce- factory. Such a fight requires machinery, ment such as Mr. Roosevelt has championed means, men, and the movement was too throughout his public career. To revert to young and too experimental to supply these. the labor “bill of grievances," however: Accordingly, Mr. Gompers and his associates The effect on Congress of the public decided to limit the fight to three or four airing of these grievances was slight and Congressional districts. The most picscarcely noticeable. The Anti-Injunction turesque and interesting fight was made in bill and other measures in the same category the Second Maine District, represented by made little headway, and the labor leaders Mr. Charles E. Littlefield, an independent felt that the next appeal should be addressed Republican who has not hesitated to vote to the working people and the voters of the against his party or to criticise the Adminiscountry. In a vague way such an appeal tration. Mr. Littlefield had opposed the had been foreshadowed before, but it is Anti-Injunction bill as “special legislation," doubtful whether the average Congress- as an attempt to confer a special privilege on ma.1 had appreciated the significance of the union labor and exempt it from liabilities hint.

and burdens of citizens generally. He had The appeal to the people meant an appeal opposed other labor

on various for independent political action on the part grounds, and an effort to retire him was of all unionists and unionist allies. It meant considered the logical beginning of labor's an appeal for votes. But votes for whom? new departure. Like reasons prompted a


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