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tion had been made out and all but signed. The Constitutional Democrats and their moderate allies in the Duma had managed to so conciliate the administration as to bring about the enactment of some necessary legislation. Several of the Radical groups, however, realizing the impossibility of conducting their deliberations in Russia, left the country to hold a secret congress abroad. They were not permitted to assemble in Finland or Sweden, but finally succeeded in holding their meetings in London. It was realized by the British authorities and by the delegates themselves that upon their conduct largely depended the fate of the Russian Parliament at St. Petersburg. The result of their deliberations has not been made public, but it is reported to have been a declaration for armed resistance. At the same time, good authority has it that the British King and his ministers intimated to the Russian Ambassador at London that the pending AngloRussian treaty, so much desired in Russia for political as well as financial reasons, would not be negotiated if the Russian Government broke its promise to the Russian people by dissolving the Duma. According to an article in the dignified and well-informed Journal de Genève, no British cabinet whose existence depended on the Mother of


Photograph by Underwood & Underwood.

THE RUSSIAN IMPERIAL PAIR ON THEIR YACHT IN Parliaments could afford to sign a treaty


nando Antonio. He is, moreover, Prince of the Asturias, a title given to the first-born son of a King of Spain. This title resembles that of the Prince of Wales in England, since both Wales and the Asturias are principalities, the refuge of aboriginal inhabitants who have long remained unconquered. It is reported that, on his recent visit to the Spanish Kingdom, King Edward succeeded in bringing about an understanding amounting to a friendly alliance between the two countries. This understanding will be made clearer and the tie drawn closer by the advent of the new baby, who is a great-grandson of Queen Victoria of England.

It was a strange turn of the England and the Russian wheel of fortune which virtually Duma. put into the hands of the British Government and the British people, during April and May, the fate of representative government in Russia. During the last days of April a number of violent speeches by Radicals and Socialists in the Duma had so angered the Czar and his Premier that it was confidently asserted that a decree of dissolu

with a government which almost immediately after accepting the principle of parliamentary representation should give the lie to its professions and openly flout a system to which it had not given. a fair trial." Therefore, the Duma was not dissolved.

While the rest of the empire is still convulsed by the revolutionary movement, Finland has recently accomplished a triumph of peace and order. By the provisions of its new constitution (already referred to more than once in these pages) the Finnish women have not only voted but have been elected to serve as legislators on equal terms with men. The exact results of the elections held on March 15 are now known, and it is found that nineteen women have been returned to sit in the Finnish Landdag, the entire membership of which is 200. It is also stated that a larger proportion of the registered women than of the registered men actually went to the ballot boxes. In the capital, Helsingfors, 16,900 women voted, as against 12,600 men. Those actually elected to Parliament included a minister's wife, several professional

The Triumph of the Finnish Women.

suffragists, a peasant's wife, and several seamstresses, teachers, and factory workingwomen. Of the nineteen, nine are Social Democrats. On election day perfect order prevailed, many of the married people going together to the polls to cast their vote. One of the best known of the women elected, the Baroness Alexandra Grippenburg, conducted a campaign with a male candidate of her party. They traveled together, dividing the work between them. The woman spoke on temperance, social purity, and the woman question, and the man discussed the other planks in the party platform.



The visit of several eminent JapaJapanese nese personalities to this country Visitors. during the month of May gave evidence of the earnest desire of the Tokio government to show its friendliness to the United States and the American people. This friendly feeling was not, we are assured, even interrupted by the unfortunate incident of the San Francisco school-board resolution in October last. Secretary Root, in an address. delivered at the meeting of the Society of International law in April (we quote on


Jamestown Exposition last month.

another page from this address as printed in who commanded the Japanese squadron visiting the the American Journal of International Law), assures us that the attitude of both governments was absolutely correct. And now veteran of the war with Russia, and Vicecome General Baron Kuroki, the victorious Admiral Ijuin, with a squadron of warships,

to visit the Jamestown Exposition; while Baron Ozawa, member of the House of Peers, vice-president of the Japanese Red Cross Society, and special representative of the Emperor, visits Washington to express the thanks of his Imperial Majesty for aid given by Americans to the Japanese famine sufferers. Incidentally, the Baron was commissioned to ascertain the existence of any anti-Japanese feeling in this country. General Kuroki, with his staff (excellent portraits of whom we reproduce on another page), visited Washington, the Jamestown. Fair, and our Military Academy at West Point, besides being entertained right royally by the city of New York and the Japanese resident in our metropolis.

General Kuroki Very naturally, the General, who on Japan's is the ranking officer of the JapPurposes. anese army, declined to discuss the San Francisco school-board incident. Indeed, he did not visit California at all. In answer to a direct question, however, he is




Why should a small, entirely local affair like

[graphic][merged small][subsumed]

(Reading from left to right, in the lower row, are: Col. M. Ota; Colonel Chamberlin; Lieut. Gen. Y. Kigoshi, General Baron Kuroki,
General MacArthur, General Wood, and Captain Tanaka. In the second row, also reading from left to right, are: Capt. G. Kobayashi.
Surgeon T. Tanura, Capt. Marquis J. Saigo, Major T. Yoshida, Lieut. Col. M. Nagayama, and Maj. Gen. M. Umezwa.

that be deemed of any importance whatever, Tokio government, he declared, is quite conespecially as being an element of the least weight tented that the United States should own in the relations of two great and wholly friendly these islands. "We hope you will keep . nations? I say to you simply that in Japan we have paid no attention to it. It is altogether too them. If, however, they were to come into trivial. It counts for nothing. It is nothing. the possession of other powers, then Japan would consider their acquisition."

The General added that undoubtedly in the future many more Japanese children would come to the United States for instruction, probably by way of Seattle. In an interview with the representative of the New York Times General Kuroki declared that the Japanese people now want peace, only peace, peace with the whole world, and peace for years to come. His message to the American people was:

The Japanese people love peace. They fought for peace. My nation wants peace in which to develop the opportunities that are hers. We have no other desire. The profession which I have the misfortune to follow is noble only because war is sometimes necessary to establish conditions in which peace may be maintained and in which the arts of peace may flourish.

As to the Japanese purpose at The Hague, he declared that the instructions given to the delegates "look in the direction of disarmament." Regarding the condition of affairs in China and the relations between that country and Japan, the Ģeneral said, with emphasis:

Two events in her foreign politics have been of great significance and importance to the Japanese people during the past few weeks. These were the understanding with France and the negotiations with Turkey, as yet only partially successful, for the establishment of a Japanese embassy at Constantinople. The Franco-Japanese understanding consists of a treaty according to which France recognizes the rights of Japan in Korea and her special interests in Manchuria, and Japan, on her side, promises not to interfere with French possessions in Siam and Indo-China. This agreement assures tranquillity to the French Asiatic possessions, and, taken in conjunction with the Anglo-Japanese alliance, the RussoJapanese peace of Portsmouth, and the pending Anglo-Russian treaty (complemented by the Anglo-French entente cordiale), will be an irresistible combination for the maintenance of peace in the Far East. While these alliances and agreements do not actively involve either Germany or the United States, it is certain that there can be nothing but sympathy in both these countries for such combinations which make for world peace.

A Franco-

A Japanese

In negotiating for the establishAmbassador ment of a Japanese embassy at the Turkish capital the island empire not only desires to establish itself on an equal

in Turkey ?

The most important fact about China at this moment is that it is internally in a strife of civil chaos. Manchuria and Korea are overrun by brigands, and it is the case generally throughout China. Now, it is of first importance that the Chinese Government should be able to maintain order in the territory over which it holds authority. For that purpose it is organizing an army. Japanese officers are taking a prominent part in that organization. We hope an efficient Chinese army may be created, but the purpose of it is wholly pacific. It is for internal police ity with other European nations represented at service. Japan believes that the internal police the Sublime Porte, but also to have a proper of China will make for the peace of the world. representation at a court whose relations with In this interest in the training of Chinese sol- Russia are always particularly important and diers Japan has only the welfare of the world at delicate. The Sultan, however, has so far opposed the Japanese idea, ostensibly because of the opposition of Russia and Germany, but in reality because the countries represented at the Turkish capital by ambassadors have a right to the provisions of the historic "Capitulations," by which Turkey gives foreign powers certain supervision over her internal affairs, including schools, missions, consular courts, etc. Within recent years the efforts of the Turkish Government have been

heart. She wants to see order established, and

then to see China enter into a high plane in the sisterhood of nations. When she masters the evil and disorderly forces within her, you will see China learn the lessons of modern civiliza. tion. Japan learned them first. Is it not now her duty to help China learn them, too?

Baron Ozawa, for his part, declared that the Japanese people are looking earnestly for an alliance with the United States, because, despite any and all reports to the contrary, the Japanese people really regard the Ameri- to restrict and ultimately abolish these privcan people as their friends. As to the Phil- ileges, as contrary to the dignity of its indeippines, the Baron was very frank. The pendent sovereignty.


Copyright. 1907, by Raymond E. Donaldson, Washington.

General Kuroki GENERAL BARON KUROKI, WITH HIS (Reading from left to right, in the lower row, STAFF AND THEIR HOSTS, IN WASHINGTON. General MacArthur, General Wood, and Captain Tanaka. are: Col. M. Ota; Colonel Chamberlin; Lieut.- Gen. Y. In the second row, Kigoshi, General Baron Kuroki, Surgeon T. Tanura, Capt. Marquis J. Saigo, Major T. Yoshida, Lieut.-Col. M. Nagayama, and also reading from left to right, are: Capt. G. Kobayashi, Maj. Gen. M. Umezwa.

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