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As a preliminary step, a most ambitious plan of reorganization and extension for the bureau was submitted to the Third Pan-American Conference, held in Rio de Janeiro last summer. This was approved by the conference. Following this, Mr. Root made his famous diplomatic tour of the South American continent, visiting all the principal capitals, and realizing, as no American statesman has heretofore realized, the magnificent opportunities for the extension of American commerce and influence in all Latin-America. Before his return to the United States he had secured an appropriation from our own Con

The most notable diplomatic event of the past year was the visit of the American Secretary of State, Mr. Root, to this and other Latin repub-gress of $200,000 for a site and building for lics. That eminent statesman brought messages the bureau's new home, to which fund the of cordiality and friendship from the American other republics also contributed. Describing people and their illustrious President, Mr. Roose- his hopes to Mr. Carnegie, he persuaded that velt, and made statements on every possible occasion which could only have the effect of assist- philanthropist to give $750,000 for a building in the progress of the republics and bringing ing, making a total of $1,000,000 for about closer relations between them and the location and structure. Mr. Root's next United States. The visit of Mr. Root has already move was, in conference and harmony with begun to bear fruit in the genuine friendship the ministers of the Latin-American repubestablished, in a better understanding, and in the frank relations existing between Argentina and the United States and the firm desire of both republics to promote their mutual commerce.

The Bureau of

lics at Washington, to select a new director for the bureau. The choice fell upon Hon. John Barrett, United States Minister to Colombia, who has also previously been. The International Bureau of the United States Minister to Panama and to American Republics, of which Argentina, and before that delegate of the Republics. Mr. John Barrett has just been United States to the Second Pan-American made director, is an institution founded about Conference, at Mexico. In December last seventeen years ago as a result of the First Mr. Barrett was formally elected director International Pan-American Conference, of the bureau to succeed Hon. William C. held in Washington. The late James G. Fox, who has been appointed United States Blaine was the leader in the movement, and Minister to Ecuador. In discussing the fusaw great possibilities in an establishment of ture of the bureau, Mr. Barrett says that its this kind for developing commerce and great purpose will be not only to build up friendly relations among the republics of the trade and commerce among all the American Western Hemisphere. Since then it has led nations, but to promote more friendly relaa dignified and honest existence in Washing. tions, better understanding of each other, ton, having such distinguished men as its and the general prosperity and well-being of directors as the celebrated newspaper corre- all the countries of the American continents. spondent, William Eleroy Curtis, and Hon. For this purpose he desires the co-operation W. W. Rockhill, now United States Min- of chambers of commerce, boards of trade, ister to China. It has not, however, ever commercial organizations, and other institucarried out to the extent planned the inten- tions interested in the extension of American tions of the founders. It has done a good influence and prestige abroad. The monthly work and has possessed a competent staff, but bulletin of the bureau has already been there had been lack of interest in the State greatly improved, and Mr. Barrett hopes for Department of the United States and in the increased usefulness from this publication. foreign offices of the governments of the other republics, until Secretary Root, with his masterful statesmanship and far-sighted policy, saw the necessity of immediately developing better relations with our sister republics and determined that the bureau should become

The Harvest

Despite the fact that, on May 8, of Mr. Root's the direct American mail service Sowing. to the eastern coast of the southern continent was discontinued, and after that time all our letters will go to those South American countries by way of Europe, our relations with the Latin-Americans, thanks principally to Secretary Root's recent mission,-have greatly improved. In a speech in opening the Argentine Congress, on the same day that we began to send our South American mail via Europe, President Alcorta declared:

of the
New Director.

An illuminating view of the Cuban situation from within, showing the economic and social currents and cross-currents which are helping or retarding the attainment of Cuban in

The Situation in Cuba.


ceived from a keen student of politics and economics, of long residence in Cuba in capacity which has afforded him, during the past ten years, excellent opportunity for observing actualities. There are two main reasons, he declares, for the depression in Cuba. One is the lack of personal rights on the part of the inhabitants of the island, and the other the commercial unrest which is evident in the want of confidence on the part of both labor and capital. The moneyed man has, says the writer of this letter, no adequate security that he will ever get his money back. He therefore charges inordinate interest and demands inordinate security. Usury is, accordingly, one of the curses of present-day Cuba. On the other hand, labor is almost absolutely unprotected. There is no such thing as the mechanic's lien or its equivalent. In Cuba the laborer is considered last. "Not until farmers and laborers are reasonably sure of the fruits of their labor will there be industrial tranquillity in Cuba, and commercial tranquillity will flow at once from industrial tranquillity." The principal difficulty in the way of securing these reforms, we are told, is the apathy of the conservative elements.

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This being recognized, the conservative elements of Cuban society, without much regard to party, smile at the prospect of an end to the Intervention." They declare that no end is possible and that, after all, it is not the form of intervention but the fact of American control of the situation which interests them. Hence these elements have thus far failed to perfect any organization to succeed the now defunct Moderato party, leaving the "Liberales," so badly divided among themselves over the candidacy of various generals, to control the situation so far as per

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tion, therefore, must largely depend for reform on one-sided statements, because of the lack of any representative party to set forth the other side in an organized manner.

Recognizing that a prolonged occupation by the American authorities is necessary, the Provisional Government has begun to bestir itself about material reforms. Says this observer:

The conclusion of the sugar harvest has left many laborers idle. A phenomenal dry season has so far made new planting impossible, and advantage is being taken of these conditions to push forward many public works of utility with the greatest economy possible. Among these is a well-considered plan for a great central highway which shall tap all the rich agricultural regions of the island with an artery of communication by which products can reach their markets. This will necessitate the disbursement of some $4,000,000, chiefly for materials and labor, among the very classes now out of employment. It will also relieve the industrial situation temporarily, permanently benefit the farmers of the island, and help to put into circulation the millions of surplus which the bankers refused to The smaller accept at 2 per cent. as a loan. towns are also being assisted to improve their sanitary conditions under the direction of American army officers, with further disbursement of public funds for works of general utility.


The Hague.

The personalities and careers of Delegates at our American delegates to the Hague Peace Conference are so interesting and significant that in this connection we offer no apology for calling the reader's attention to our contributed article on page 673 this month. Before the conference meets the interest is largely in personalities, and the governments of the world have in almost all cases appointed delegates. whose names stand for dignity and progress. By the middle of May these appointments had been announced: The British delegates are Sir Edward Fry, a member of the permanent Court of Appeals at The Hague; Sir Ernest Satow, British Minister to China; Lord Reay, the president of the Royal Asiatic Society; Sir Henry Howard, British Minister to The Hague, besides military, naval, and international law experts. France sends M. Léon Bourgeois, former Premier of the Republic; Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, Senator and well-known advocate of international arbitration; and M. Louis Rénault, France's permanent representative at the Hague Tribunal. Italy will be represented

mitted by the Provisional Government. These by Count Tornielli, Ambassador to France; having no organization and exhibiting considera- Signor Guido Pompili, Under-Secretary of ble apathy about organizing, there remains only the late insurgent element to be heard from in Foreign Affairs, and Signor Fusinato, memany truly representative way. The Administra- ber of the House of Deputies and authority


on international law. The Russian delegates will be: Count Nelidoff, Prof. Theodore Martens, international law expert, and Dr. Charikov, Russian Minister at The Hague. Austria sends Privy Councillor Merey von Kaposmere, Baron von Maccio, of the Department of Foreign Affairs, and Prof. Heinrich Lammasch, expert on international law. Dr. F. Hagerup, Norwegian Minister to Denmark, will represent his country at The Hague. Japan sends an impressive delegation, which includes Mr. K. T. Sutsuki, of the Foreign Office; Dr. Aimana Sato, Japanese Minister at The Hague; Rear-Admiral Shimamura, Major-General Akiyama, and Mr. H. W. Dennison, the American advisor to the Japanese Foreign Office.

'The British Colonial


of the Clémenceau cabinet.

The conspicuous result of the British Colonial Conference, Conference. which met in London in late April and early May, was the refusal of the imperial government to accede to the scheme for colonial trade preference, a policy which was favored by all the assembled premiers, A snap shop of M. Viviani, the out-and-out Socialist with the exception of Sir Wilfrid Laurier: All attempts to commit the federal government to the policy of protection, under the name of preference, were defeated, the Canadian Premier always voting with the government, and General Botha, of the Transvaal, being on most occasions his supporter. The sensational events of the sessions were the speeches by Mr. Alfred Deakin, Premier of Australia, and Sir Robert Bond, of Newfoundland. Mr. Deakin, speaking at a dinner of the Pilgrim Society of London, predicted in the near future a tremendous struggle for the control of the Pacific. The British Colonial Office, declared Mr. Deakin, is farther from the colonies than the colonies are from the Colonial Office. He wished it to be noted, however, as unalterable Australian sentiment, that "England had not allowed a rival European nation [referring to the German occupation of the New Hebrides], to get a foothold close to Australia without a warning from the colony." During the last century the British Government had not been called on for a test of sea supremacy, but in a few years, Mr. Deakin continued, without mentioning nations by name, England would have to fight for the supremacy of the Pacific with Germany, Japan, and perhaps the United States of America. Sir Robert Bond presented the Canadian fisheries argument, claiming that the imperial govern

in order to favor the United States. In a dramatic speech he announced that Newfoundland denies the right of the home government to permit what Newfoundland's laws forbid. It is to be hoped and confidently expected that under the broad, progressive, and conciliatory methods of Ambassador Bryce speedy progress will be made in the settlement of this long-standing difference with Newfoundland.

Premier Clé


As a direct result of the May menceau's Day labor demonstrations in France, the position of the Clémenceau ministry is stronger than ever in the republic. On the first day of last month some minor demonstrations occurred, ending with the arrest of several of the labor leaders in Paris for disorder. The crux of the situation, however, was reached when M. Jaurés, the Socialist deputy in Parliament, followed by MM. Deschanel and Ribot, almost bluntly asked the government to disclose its labor policy. The attack of the extreme Socialists, led by Jaurés, turned upon the refusal of Minister Briand to authorize the formation of labor unions by the school teachers and other state officials. The Premier denied being antagonistic to the principles of laborunionism, but strongly opposed what he

of the Confederation Générale du Travail objections advanced by German exporters.
(General Confederation of Labor). After Certain reductions, also, are made upon
heated debate the chamber expressed confi- goods imported from Germany as permitted
dence in the government by a vote of 343 to under the provisions of the Dingley tariff act.
210. M. Clémenceau's vigorous and fair- In German home politics the passage of the
minded attitude has received the support of Colonial Ministry bill, early in May, was
moderate people throughout the republic. one of the chief happenings of interest. The
While the sympathies of his ministry are with attitude of the empire on the advisability of
the labor movement in general,-as testified discussing at the Hague Conference the ques-
by the presence in his cabinet of Ministers tion of disarmament continues to provide a
Briand and Viviani, the latter an out-and-out subject for discussion in the European press.
Socialist, the moderate ground invariably The formal utterances of the Kaiser's repre-
taken by him in the suppression of disorder sentatives at the Dutch capital will be looked
has won him the confidence, not only of his forward to with interest and concern by the
own countrymen, but of Europe in general. entire world. It is a rather significant fact
that, during the past few months, according
By the approval in the Reichstag, to a statement made by Count von Posadow-
early last month, of the tariff sky-Wehner, Secretary of the Interior, emi-
modus vivendi between Germany gration from Germany has practically ceased.
and the United States, the trade interests of The Minister is reported to have said:
both countries have their relations fixed for

Economic and

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porter of men. She has become an importer and Germany has definitely ceased to be an exon an increasingly large scale. Not only our manufacturers, but also our farmers, are now wrestling with the problem of where to find sufforeign labor is obtainable, Russian, Polish, Hunficient hands. They are compelled to hire what garian, and Italian, while we have lately witnessed the strange spectacle of even England being drawn upon to ameliorate the abnormal conditions in our dock, arms, and ammunition ⚫ trades.


Important elections under new franchise laws occurred in May throughout the Austrian Empire which will result in a Reichsrath of many widely different groups. Especially noteworthy has been the gains of the Socialists. In the last Parliament they had eleven seats; in the next one they will control more than seventy. The new Swedish Franchise Reform bill, which is now before the King for his signature, will largely extend the suffrage. It will also make a reduction of the property qualification for eligibility to election to the upper house. In Belgium the disagreement continues between the Parliament and the King over labor questions and the future of the Congo. The Smet de Naeyer ministry, after being in power for eight years, was forced out of office early in April because of the Premier's inability to reconcile the interests of the King and Parliament. It would appear that a crisis in the affairs of the Congo were near, and the world will await with interest the decision of the Belgian people as represented in their Parliament regarding the future administration of this great Central African domain.

Political Movements in Central Europe.

A general election in Spain is of no importance whatsoever compared with the birth of an heir to the Spanish throne. The youthful Spanish monarchs have, by their independence and the human interest attaching to their real romance, won a place for themselves in the affections of the entire world. King Alfonso defied century-old etiquette in his search for a bride, and interested the whole world last year in his courtship. On May 31, 1906, it will be remembered, he married the lady of his choice, Princess Ena of Battenberg, niece of King Edward of England. As far as the outside world can know, it has been an unusually happy royal marriage and has received its culminating joy in the birth of an heir, on the 10th of last month. All the ceremony required by Spanish royal etiquette was rigorously adhered to upon this great occasion. To the company of royalists, grandees, ambassadors, and high officials assembled in an adjoining room of the palace, the young King presented the royal infant on a golden tray, exclaiming in the traditional formula: "Gentlemen, I present to you my beloved son, Prince of the Asturias, successor to the throne of Spain, to whom my dear wife, her Majesty the Queen, has just given birth." All the solemn dignitaries assembled then forgot their etiquette and cheered heartily. To celebrate the occasion King Alfonso distributed a large sum of money among the poor of his capital, proclaimed a three-days holiday throughout the kingdom, and decreed the pardon of thousands of prisoners. The child is reported to be a healthy, robust lad. He will have an English governess, as well


Birth of the Spanish Heir.


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An AngloSpanish Understanding.

The elections, which were held on April 21, resulted in a substantial government majority and a Socialist loss, the new Cortes beginning itssessions on May 13. No governmental event, however, could serve to unite political Spain so much as the birth of an heir. Even the Carlists and the Republicans appear to have succumbed to the grace, beauty, and democratic character of the popular young Queen. Spain is a country particularly exposed to anti-dynastic movements, but these will all receive a setback by the birth of a prince royal. The little boy was christened on the 18th, with Pope Pius, King Edward, and Emperor William as sponsors, receiving the names Alfonso Pio Christino Eduardo Fran

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