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Mr. Bryce
Asks for
Our Poets.

It is not often that a distinguished foreigner when asked for his opinion of American life and the material conditions surrounding it ventures to break away from the conventional tribute to our immense material prosperity, the vastness of our national domain, and the commercial enterprise of our citizens. The British Ambassador, Mr. James Bryce, however, after paying the usual number of graceful compliments to our good qualities (and paying them in an unusually fascinating way) has ventured to probe a little below the surface and to touch us on one of our weak spots. In speaking, several weeks ago, about the celebration in England of the birthday of the poet Swinburne, Mr. Bryce lamented the dearth of poetry in English literature to-day. Then suddenly he asked: Who are your poets in America?

Nor when it appears is it likely to take the course conditions would seem to have made inevitable for it. It ought to revive the drama, but instead, perhaps, it paints pictures. It ought to compose poetry, but lo, it promises to invent machinery.

on Canada.

Provincial politicians may not Some Significant Articles recognize the fact, but a fact it nevertheless is, that the destiny of the Dominion of Canada is not only the biggest thing in present-day British imperial politics, but likely to become very nearly the largest factor in our own international relations during future years. Our trade, diplomatic intercourse, and social and sentimental connections with our neighbor to the north have already an importance which does not receive its due consideration from American citizens generally. This REVIEW has endeavored to set forth the importance of these actualities and possibilities with our neighbor Who are writing your songs and stirring your nation. Accordingly, we have secured from heart, or isn't your heart being stirred? Nothing is more important than that each generation a number of representative Canadians some and each land should have its own poets. Each highly significant articles which appear in oncoming tide of life, each age, requires and this number and to which we commend our needs men of lofty thought who shall dream and sing for it, who shall gather up its tendencies readers' special attention. There are few and formulate its ideals and voice its spirit, pro- situations in the world to-day more fascinatclaiming its duties and awakening its enthusiasm, ing or swiftly kaleidoscopic in their changes through the high authority of the poet and the than the development of the Canadian West. art of his verse. Any generation is indeed bereft Mr. John W. Dafoe, editor of the Manitoba. among whom poetic inspiration might seem to be dying out. However much we enjoy and prize Free Press, of Winnipeg, who writes our arthe old singers, new ones are needed to express ticle, "Western Canada: Its Resources and the ever-changing attitude of man to nature and Possibilities," knows the situation perfectly. There are immortal themes,-but chang- Whether there is a menace or a promise for ing accents and altering modes of art. the future of our grain-fields and the products of our Middle and Far West in the proposed scheme for a Hudson Bay route to Europe, REVIEW OF REVIEWS readers will find Miss Laut's article on that subject of help and interest. Canadian-American trade intercourse and the mineral resources of the Dominion are other topics treated in contributed articles this month.


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It does not follow, however, Mr. Bryce continued, that because a generation is without great poets, therefore there is no poetical possibilities in the life it leads. It does not follow at all that there is no song because the bird is not there to sing it. There are times of brooding and times of labor." The same criticism or comment applies, in Mr. Bryce's opinion, to the present state of the drama in English-speaking countries. Admitting the material scenic splendor of the stage in England and the United States and the vast wealth lavished upon theatrical representations, Mr. Bryce lamented the fact that the present age has failed to produce a dramatist of the first magnitude. He could not explain the situation. He referred to it as one of the mysterious workings of nature.

You cannot attempt to prophesy the appearance of genius. It will emerge in accordance with no laws which we can detect. Favorable, even in

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Sir Wilfrid Laurier's strong, independent attitude at the colonial conference in London on the matter of Canadian-American trade does not presage any loss to American business. There are many things, said the Canadian Premier, which Canada could exchange, concession for concession, with the United States, but the Dominion, in general, stands with the motherland. Canada is prepared, he continued, to spend hundreds of millions of dollars in order to make trade flow, not north and south, but east and west. Even hundreds of millions of dollars, however, cannot offset natural laws, and, commercially as well as politically, the destinies of the United States and Canada must ever remain closely bound together.

Peace in

Dominican Congress on May 3, marks a new departure in the relations of the United States to the smaller republics of the Western Hemisphere, it will be well to recapitulate briefly the history of our treaty relations with Santo Domingo. In the latter part of the year 1904, it will be remembered, while our Government was pressing for a settlement of the claims of American citizens against Santo Domingo, a revolution broke out in that republic. President Morales being hard pressed by the revolutionists and desiring the moral support of the United States, entered into an agreement with Captain Dillingham, of the American Navy, by the terms of which Dominican custom-houses were to be occupied by Americans, and the foreign indebtedness of the country paid by these American officials out of the customs receipts. This convention, or treaty, was rejected by the United States Senate. On March 31, 1905, however, a modus vivendi was agreed upon. An American collector was placed in charge of the custom-houses and 55 per cent. of the custom receipts were deposited with a New York bank, to be turned over to the foreign creditors of Santo Domingo.

What the

Active hostilities in Central America have finally been termiAmerica. nated by the real treaty of peace, signed at Amapala, on April 24, by the envoys of Nicaragua and Salvador, and the situation in Honduras has been improved by the organization of a provisional government. The several treaties ending the present troubles will be reconsidered and embodied at a later date in a new instrument to be discussed at a coming conference at Corinto. A threatened war between Mexico and This did not save Morales, howGuatemala, arising out of a disagreement United States ever. He was defeated by the Engages to Do. over the extradition of some Guatemalans revolutionists. The result, howwho had committed crimes on Mexican soil, ever, was highly beneficial to the finances of was avoided through the dignified moderation the little republic. Up to the present more of the Mexican President. The authenticity than $3,000,000 has been deposited in the of the interview attributed to President Diaz, New York bank to the credit of Santo Dohowever, in which he suggested a joint Mexi- mingo, and this will be used in discharging can-American protectorate over Central the foreign debt. The Dominican Minister America, has been denied. A confederation of Finance (Señor Frederico Velasquez), of the five republics, each one with the status of a state under American protection, is also being discussed. It cannot be said that the time for such a joint movement on the part of the two larger republics of the continent has actually arrived. But, as the wars between these republics increase in frequency, it seems more and more possible that such a protectorate is the only practicable remedy for the intolerable state of affairs which has so long existed in Central America.

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by hard work during the past two years, has succeeded in getting the European creditors of his country to consent to a 50 per cent. reduction in their claims, for cash. A prominent New York banking-house has undertaken to advance the money for this purpose, accepting 5 per cent. fifty-year bonds in return. The new treaty provides for the appointment, by the President of the United States, of a receiver of customs to collect the Dominican revenues as long as the bonds already referred to are outstanding. The treaty also guarantees the protection of the United States to the receiver and his assistants. It further pledges the Dominican Government not to increase its public debt or to modify its import duties without the consent of the United States. Europe, in general, regards the treaty with approval.

The Harvest Despite the fact that, on May 8, of Mr. Root's the direct American mail service Sowing. to the eastern coast of the southern continent was discontinued, and after that time all our letters will go to those South American countries by way of Europe, our relations with the Latin-Americans, thanks principally to Secretary Root's recent mission, have greatly improved. In a speech in opening the Argentine Congress, on the same day that we began to send our South American mail via Europe, President Alcorta declared:

of the
New Director.

As a preliminary step, a most ambitious plan of reorganization and extension for the bureau was submitted to the Third Pan-American Conference, held in Rio de Janeiro last summer. This was approved by the conference. Following this, Mr. Root made his famous diplomatic tour of the South American continent, visiting all the principal capitals, and realizing, as no American statesman has heretofore realized, the magnificent opportunities for the extension of American commerce and influence in all Latin-America. Before his return to the United States he had secured an appropriation from our own Con

The most notable diplomatic event of the past year was the visit of the American Secretary of State, Mr. Root, to this and other Latin repub-gress of $200,000 for a site and building for lics. That eminent statesman brought messages the bureau's new home, to which fund the of cordiality and friendship from the American other republics also contributed. Describing people and their illustrious President, Mr. Roose- his hopes to Mr. Carnegie, he persuaded that velt, and made statements on every possible oc

The Bureau of

casion which could only have the effect of assist- philanthropist to give $750,000 for a building in the progress of the republics and bringing ing, making a total of $1,000,000 for about closer relations between them and the location and structure. Mr. Root's next United States. The visit of Mr. Root has already move was, in conference and harmony with begun to bear fruit in the genuine friendship the ministers of the Latin-American repubestablished, in a better understanding, and in the frank relations existing between Argentina and lics at Washington, to select a new director the United States and the firm desire of both for the bureau. The choice fell upon Hon. republics to promote their mutual commerce. John Barrett, United States Minister to Colombia, who has also previously been United States Minister to Panama and to Argentina, and before that delegate of the United States to the Second Pan-American Conference, at Mexico. In December last Mr. Barrett was formally elected director of the bureau to succeed Hon. William C. Fox, who has been appointed United States Minister to Ecuador. In discussing the future of the bureau, Mr. Barrett says that its great purpose will be not only to build up trade and commerce among all the American nations, but to promote more friendly relations, better understanding of each other, and the general prosperity and well-being of all the countries of the American continents. For this purpose he desires the co-operation of chambers of commerce, boards of trade, commercial organizations, and other institutions interested in the extension of American influence and prestige abroad. The monthly bulletin of the bureau has already been greatly improved, and Mr. Barrett hopes for increased usefulness from this publication.

The International Bureau of the American American Republics, of which Republics. Mr. John Barrett has just been made director, is an institution founded about seventeen years ago as a result of the First International Pan-American Conference, held in Washington. The late James G. Blaine was the leader in the movement, and saw great possibilities in an establishment of this kind for developing commerce and friendly relations among the republics of the Western Hemisphere. Since then it has led a dignified and honest existence in Washing ton, having such distinguished men as its directors as the celebrated newspaper correspondent, William Eleroy Curtis, and Hon. W. W. Rockhill, now United States Minister to China. It has not, however, ever carried out to the extent planned the intentions of the founders. It has done a good work and has possessed a competent staff, but there had been lack of interest in the State Department of the United States and in the foreign offices of the governments of the other republics, until Secretary Root, with his masterful statesmanship and far-sighted policy, saw the necessity of immediately developing better relations with our sister republics and determined that the bureau should become

The Situation in Cuba.

An illuminating view of the

Cuban situation from within, showing the economic and social currents and cross-currents which are helping or retarding the attainment of Cuban in

ceived from a keen student of politics and economics, of long residence in Cuba in capacity which has afforded him, during the past ten years, excellent opportunity for observing actualities. There are two main reasons, he declares, for the depression in Cuba. One is the lack of personal rights on the part of the inhabitants of the island, and the other the commercial unrest which is evident in the want of confidence on the part of both labor and capital. The moneyed man has, says the writer of this letter, no adequate security that he will ever get his money back. He therefore charges inordinate interest and demands inordinate security. Usury is, accordingly, one of the curses of present-day Cuba. On the other hand, labor is almost absolutely unprotected. There is no such thing as the mechanic's lien or its equivalent. In Cuba the laborer is considered last. Not until farmers and laborers are reasonably sure of the fruits of their labor will there be industrial tranquillity in Cuba, and commercial tranquillity will flow at once from industrial tranquillity.' The principal difficulty in the way of securing these reforms, we are told, is the apathy of the conservative elements.

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They are relying upon the strong arm of the United States to maintain law and order, and are therefore quietly abstaining from taking any effective part in public affairs. Thus the very elements that must eventually govern Cuba, as every other nation, are contributing to delay the hour when the American troops can evacuate the



The writer of this letter insists Reforms in that it is already recognized by the Island. all intelligent Cubans that the island, being the key to the Panama Canal, can never be permitted by the Government of the United States to pass into hostile hands, er, by incompetent administration, to become a source of international peril."

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The conclusion of the sugar harvest has left many laborers idle. A phenomenal dry season has so far made new planting impossible, and advantage is being taken of these conditions to push forward many public works of utility with the greatest economy possible. Among these is a well-considered plan for a great central highway which shall tap all the rich agricultural regions of the island with an artery of communication by which products can reach their markets. This will necessitate the disbursement of some $4,000,000, chiefly for materials and labor, among the very classes now out of employment. It will also relieve the industrial situation temporarily, permanently benefit the farmers of the island, and help to put into circulation the millions of surplus which the bankers refused to The smaller accept at 2 per cent. as a loan. towns are also being assisted to improve their sanitary conditions under the direction of American army officers, with further disbursement of public funds for works of general utility.


The personalities and careers of Delegates at our American delegates to the

The Hague.

Hague Peace Conference are so interesting and significant that in this connection we offer no apology for calling the reader's attention to our contributed article on page 673 this month. Before the conference meets the interest is largely in personalities, and the governments of the world have in almost all cases appointed delegates. whose names stand for dignity and progress. By the middle of May these appointments had been announced: The British delegates are Sir Edward Fry, a member of the permanent Court of Appeals at The Hague; Sir Ernest Satow, British Minister to China; This being recognized, the conservative ele- Lord Reay, the president of the Royal Asiatic ments of Cuban society, without much regard to Society; Sir Henry Howard, British Minparty, smile at the prospect of an end to the ister to The Hague, besides military, naval, Intervention." They declare that no end is pos- and international law experts. France sends sible and that, after all, it is not the form of intervention but the fact of American control of the M. Léon Bourgeois, former Premier of the situation which interests them. Hence these ele- Republic; Baron d'Estournelles de Constant, ments have thus far failed to perfect any organi- Senator and well-known advocate of internazation to succeed the now defunct Moderato tional arbitration; and M. Louis Rénault, party, leaving the "Liberales," so badly divided among themselves over the candidacy of various France's permanent representative at the generals, to control the situation so far as per- Hague Tribunal. Italy will be represented mitted by the Provisional Government. These by Count Tornielli, Ambassador to France; having no organization and exhibiting considera- Signor Guido Pompili, Under-Secretary of ble apathy about organizing, there remains only the late insurgent element to be heard from in Foreign Affairs, and Signor Fusinato, memany truly representative way. The Administra- ber of the House of Deputies and authority

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on international law. The Russian delegates will be: Count Nelidoff, Prof. Theodore Martens, international law expert, and Dr. Charikov, Russian Minister at The Hague. Austria sends Privy Councillor Merey von Kaposmere, Baron von Maccio, of the Department of Foreign Affairs, and Prof. Heinrich Lammasch, expert on international law. Dr. F. Hagerup, Norwegian Minister to Denmark, will represent his country at The Hague. Japan sends an impressive delegation, which includes Mr. K. T. Sutsuki, of the Foreign Office; Dr. Aimana Sato, Japanese Minister at The Hague; Rear-Admiral Shimamura, Major-General Akiyama, and Mr. H. W. Dennison, the American advisor to the Japanese Foreign Office.

'The British Colonial

The conspicuous result of the British Colonial Conference, Conference. which met in London in late April and early May, was the refusal of the imperial government to accede to the scheme. for colonial trade preference, a policy which was favored by all the assembled premiers, with the exception of Sir Wilfrid Laurier. All attempts to commit the federal government to the policy of protection, under the name of preference, were defeated, the Canadian Premier always voting with the government, and General, Botha, of the Transvaal, being on most occasions his supporter. The sensational events of the sessions were the speeches by Mr. Alfred Deakin, Premier of Australia, and Sir Robert Bond, of Newfoundland. Mr. Deakin, speaking at a dinner of the Pilgrim Society of London, predicted in the near future a tremendous struggle for the control of the Pacific. The British Colonial Office, declared Mr. Deakin, is farther from the colonies than the colonies are from the Colonial Office. He wished it to be noted, however, as unalterable Australian sentiment, that "England had not allowed a rival European nation [referring to the German occupation of the New Hebrides], to get a foothold close to Australia without a warning from the colony." During the last century the British Government had not been called on for a test of sea supremacy, but in a few years, Mr. Deakin continued, without mentioning nations by name, England would have to fight for the supremacy of the Pacific with Germany, Japan, and perhaps the United States of America. Sir Robert Bond presented the Canadian fisheries argument, claiming that the imperial govern


THE FRENCH MINISTER OF LABOR. A snap shop of M. Viviani, the out-and-out Socialist of the Clémenceau cabinet.

in order to favor the United States. In a dramatic speech he announced that Newfoundland denies the right of the home government to permit what Newfoundland's laws forbid. It is to be hoped and confidently expected that under the broad, progressive, and conciliatory methods of Ambassador Bryce speedy progress will be made in the settlement of this long-standing difference with Newfoundland.

Premier Clémenceau's Victory.

As a direct result of the May Day labor demonstrations in France, the position of the Clémenceau ministry is stronger than ever in the republic. On the first day of last month some minor demonstrations occurred, ending with the arrest of several of the labor leaders in Paris for disorder. The crux of the situation, however, was reached when M. Jaurés, the Socialist deputy in Parliament, followed by MM. Deschanel and Ribot, almost bluntly asked the government to disclose its labor policy. The attack of the extreme Socialists, led by Jaurés, turned upon the refusal of Minister Briand to authorize the formation of labor unions by the school teachers and other state officials. The Premier denied being antagonistic to the principles of laborunionism, but strongly opposed what he

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